Safety Kit for Small Bus.indd - Malaga Western Australia The fastest by yaohongm

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									   Safety & Health Kit
   for Small Business




                    VERSION 1 – July 2006




City of Swan
grants program




All persons involved with work have responsibilities for safety and health at work
                   for matters over which they have CONTROL
Safety & Health Kit for Small Business




GETTING STARTED


This Safety Kit has been developed to provide assistance for small businesses in the Malaga Business area.
This kit provides guidance but also refers you to get copies of other documentation to have all the necessary
items you require.

What you should have on your shelf are the following:

      Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
      Available from the Department of Consumer and Employment Protection (DOCEP), Worksafe WA, or
      on line at www.worksafe.wa.gov.au (go to Laws – Acts and click on the links to see the listing of the
      Act) or from the State Publisher on 9321 7688 at 10 William Street, Perth.

      Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1986
      Available from Department of Consumer and Employment Protection (DOCEP), Worksafe WA, or on
      line at www.worksafe.wa.gov.au (go to Laws – Acts and click on the links to see the listing of the Act)
      or from the State Publisher on 9321 7688 at 10 William Street, Perth.

      Copies of the Worksafe WA Codes of Practice and Guidance Notes
      listed in this Code
      Available from Worksafe WA on 9327 8777 at 5th Floor 1260 Hay Street West Perth.
      Copies of the NOHSC documents listed in this Code available from the Commonwealth Government
      Bookshop at Albert Facey House, 469 Wellington Street Perth on 9322 4737 or by the www.worksafe.
      wa.gov.au website.

      Copies of the Australian Standards referred to in this Code
      Available from Standards Australia on 1300 65464 or www.standards.com.au or 165 Adelaide Terrace
      East Perth or 9221 6800.


This Code does not cover Workers Compensation Legislation or Injury management. For further information
on these areas contact:

•     Workcover Western Australia Information Centre on (08) 9388 5555; or www.workcover.wa.gov.au
•     Your workers compensation insurer.

Development and procedures by Taylored Health and Safety Pty. Ltd
PO Box 2331 Malaga WA 6944
Ph: (08) 9248 1405 Mobile: 0417961973

Designed by Cave Design
Suite 23, 4 Ventnor Avenue, West Perth WA 6005
Ph: (08) 9321 5577




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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

•       City of Swan for making this grant possible.
•       Malaga and Districts Business Association for supporting this production.
•       Worksafe WA web site
•       Safe work SA web site
•       Worksafe NT web site
•       Workcover NSW web site
•       Victorian Workcover authority
•       Division of Workplace Health and Safety Queensland web site
•       Workplace standards Tasmania web site
•       Businesses in the Malaga District.

COPYRIGHT

    © City of Swan

Copyright subsists in this publication and such copyright is the property of the City of Swan. A reproduction
of this publication or any part therof without the written consent of the Chief Executive Officer of the City
of Swan is not permitted and will be regarded as an infringement of that copyright. All enquiries concerning
copyright should be referred to the copyright owner - the City of Swan.

DISCLAIMER

Whilst every effort has been taken to ensure all information contained in this document was correct at the
time of publication, the City of Swan cannot accept responsibility for any incorrect or out of date information
or from any consequences arising therefrom.

This “Safety and Health Kit for Small Business” is intended to identify some of the more obvious risks in a
variety of work places. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or comprehensive risk management assessment
tool and by following the suggested procedures may not necessarily guarantee the compliance of your business
with all relevant laws or the elimination of risk. Where appropriate, you should seek appropriate professional
advice in relation to such matters. A free service exists through the Western Australian Department of
Consumer and Employment Protection for all small businesses employing 20 persons or less.

The City of Swan denies liability for any loss, damage or injury resulting from any person relying on
information obtained from this document.




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CHANGES TO THE SAFETY KIT

Any changes to this Safety Kit shall be done through the appropriate process under the Malaga and Districts
Business Association or City of Swan’s guidance and approval.

OBJECTIVES OF THE SAFETY KIT

To assist small business operators in Malaga to:

•      promote and secure the safety and health of people at work

•      minimise the risk of hazards for people at work

•      reduce, eliminate and control hazards

•      foster co-operation and consultation on health and safety matters between employers, employees and
       contractors

•      enable the small business operator to self-regulate occupational safety and health in conjunction with
       legislation.


HOW TO USE THIS SAFETY KIT

There are three parts to this Code.

•      Part 1 outlines duty of care responsibilities in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health
       Act for any employer, employee, contractor or safety and health representatives, and those in control
       of workplaces.

•      Part 2 gives you examples of occupational safety and health policy’s that any small business can use
       as examples dependant on the hazards they have in their business.

•      Part 3 provides guidance on where to go from here and includes sample employee inductions and
       visitor inductions.

WHAT THIS SAFETY KIT ADDRESSES

                                      Agencies involved in OSH & Workers Compensation
                                                                         Work Cover/Risk Cover –
                                                Worksafe WA              Government Insurer




                                                    Before       Accident             After




                          Informing you of the                OSH Act and Regs reporting      NOT THIS
                          OSH Act and Reg requirements        of incident requirements to
                                                              Worksafe WA
                          Suggesting ways to address
                          OSH Act and Reg requirements

                          PREVENT ACCIDENTS BEFORE           OSH Act and Regs reporting
                          THEY HAPPEN                        of incident requirements to
                                                             Worksafe WA
                          Being pro-active in OSH

                          Managing your OSH and
                          reducing your workers
                          compensation premiums




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CONTENTS


ITEM                                                                              PAGE NUMBER

Part 1- Understanding the Occupational safety and health legislation

Understanding the Occupational safety and health legislation                                       7
Terminology                                                                                        9
As an employer what must I do?                                                                    11
As an employee what must I do?                                                                    15
As a contractor what must I do?                                                                   17
As an employer or self-employed person what must I do?                                            17
Body corporate                                                                                    18
Persons who have control                                                                          18
Designers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers                                                    19
Hazard management                                                                                 21
Incident reporting                                                                                25

Part 2 – Sample occupational safety and health procedures and information

First aid /medical                                                                               31
Emergency procedures                                                                             33
Chemicals                                                                                        35
Noise                                                                                            41
Manual handling                                                                                  45
Smoking                                                                                          49
Electrical safety                                                                                51
Personal hygiene and infection control                                                           55
Infectious diseases prevention                                                                   57
Personal protective clothing and equipment                                                       61
Ultra Violet protection                                                                          67
Forklifts                                                                                        69
Fatigue management                                                                               79
Welding                                                                                          83
Working alone                                                                                    91
Prevention of falls                                                                              99
Violence                                                                                        105
Stress                                                                                          113
Mobile phones                                                                                   115
Confined spaces                                                                                  117
Alcohol and drugs                                                                               121
Bullying                                                                                        135
Office environment                                                                                139
Plant                                                                                           157

Part 3 – Putting it all together

Training and records                                                                            169
Employee induction                                                                              169
Contractor induction                                                                            170
Visitor induction                                                                               171
Sample training register                                                                        172
Resources                                                                                       175


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PART 1
UNDERSTANDING THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH LEGISLATION
ACHIEVING THE OBJECTS OF THE OSH ACT


The term duty of care is one that has its roots in common law and has been transported into many statutes,
including the Western Australian Occupational Safety and Health Act. It is based on the premise that where
one has control, there is a responsibility to assess foreseeable risks and to do what is reasonable to prevent
exposure to them.

Central to the legislation governing the concept of duty of care is the notion of control. Duty of care is the
responsibility of the person(s) who are in control of the workplace or job being done at the time. This could
be the manager, contractor and/or the person doing the job.

Control is determined by the expertise, knowledge and authority of the designated person at the time.
A supervisor may have control of the workplace, including plant, people and the way a job is done. Particular
skills may give employees considerable control with regard to a specific hazard.

The Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act 1984 sets objectives to promote and improve OSH standards.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act imposes a general duty of care to protect all persons at work from
hazards and maintain safe and health workplaces.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act also emphasises workplace consultation between employers and
employees through various means.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act also requires employees to cooperate with the employer in safety and
health matters.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act sets a framework for employers, employees, contractors and others
to meet their responsibilities.


LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA: How can I meet my obligations?

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT 1984
Sets a framework for OSH to be managed in each workplace.

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS 1996
If there is not a Regulation about a work hazard you must follow the general duty of care requirements in
the Act.

If there is a regulation about a work hazard you must comply with the Regulation.


CODES OF PRACTICE AND AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS GUIDANCE MATERIAL

If there is a Code of Practice about the risk you must either do what the Code says or adopt another way that
gives the same level of protection.

•     An Australian Standard quoted in the Regulations means you must follow that Standard.
•     An Australian Standard not referred to in the Regulations can still be used as guidance.




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PRACTICABLE AS USED IN THE ACT

“Practicability” applies to the general duties of employers, self-employed people, people with control
of workplaces, designers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers, erectors and installers, and to certain
requirements in the Regulations.

If something is practicable, it is capable of being done. Whether it is also reasonable takes into account:
•     the severity of any injury or harm to health that may occur;
•     the degree of risk (or likelihood) of that injury or harm occurring;
•     how much is known about the hazard and the ways of reducing, eliminating or controlling it; and
•     the availability, suitability and cost of the safeguards.

The risk and severity of injury must be weighed up against the overall cost and feasibility of the safeguards
needed to remove the risk.

Common practice and knowledge throughout the relevant industry are taken into account when judging
whether a safeguard is “reasonably practicable”. Individual employers could not claim that they did not
know what to do about certain hazards if those hazards are widely known by others within the industry and
safeguards were available.

The cost of putting safeguards in place is measured against the consequences of failing to do so. It is not a
measure of whether the employer can afford to put the necessary safeguards in place.

While cost is a factor, it is not an excuse for failing to provide appropriate safeguards, particularly where
there is risk of serious, or frequent but less severe, injury.

Where a regulation exists and is not qualified by the words “as far as is practicable”, the regulation must be
complied with as a minimum requirement.




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TERMINOLOGY

General

The terminology in this document has not been standardised rigidly, however the various phrases used where
instructions or recommendations are given should be interpreted as terms from the Occupational Safety and
Health Act.

The following definitions are from the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984.

‘Employee’ means:
(a) a person by whom work is done under a contract of employment; or
(b) an apprentice or trainee.

‘Employer’ means:
(a) a person that employs an employee under a contract of employment; and
(b) in relation to an apprentice or industrial trainee, the person that employs the apprentice or trainee
     under an apprenticeship or traineeship scheme under the Industrial Training Act 1975.

‘Hazard’ means, in relation to a person, anything that may result in:
(a) injury to the person; or
(b) harm to the health of the person.

‘Practicable’ means reasonably practicable having regard, where the context permits, to:
(a) the severity of any potential injury or harm to health that may be involved, and the degree of risk of it
      occurring;
(b)    the state of knowledge about:
      (i) the injury or harm to health referred to in paragraph (a);
      (ii) the risk of that injury or harm to health occurring; and
      (iii) means of removing or mitigating the potential injury or harm to health; and
(c) the availability, suitability, and cost of the means referred to in paragraph (b) (iii);

‘Self –employed person’ means an individual who works for gain or reward otherwise than under a contract
of employment or as an apprentice or trainee, whether or not the individual is an employer.

‘Workplace’ means a place, whether or not in an aircraft, ship, vehicle, building or other structure, where
employees or self-employed persons work or are likely to be in the course of their work.




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                                                                           Safety & Health Kit for Small Business




AS AN EMPLOYER WHAT MUST I DO?


      Question: First of all, am I considered an employer?

      Answer: For the Occupational Safety and Health Act and Regulations to apply – an employer is
      a person who engages workers under a contract of employment, apprenticeship or trainee ship
      scheme.

The employer’s duty also applies to people who engage labour in ways other than by a contract of employment,
such as contractors, sub-contractors, labour hire and other working arrangements.

The employer has a duty to visitors and people working in a voluntary capacity, however this is covered in
further section.

      Question: What is considered a workplace or a working environment?

      Answer: A workplace is defined by the Act as meaning a place, whether or not in an aircraft, ship,
      vehicle, building or other structure, where employees or self-employed persons work or are likely to
      be in the course of their work.

A working environment includes:
•    The workplace itself the building, the structure, the ship, the aircraft, the vehicle.
•    All plant at the workplace.
•    The work process, including what is done and how.
•    Work arrangements, including the effects of shiftwork and overtime arrangements.
•    The physical environment, including lighting, ventilation , dust, heat , noise.
•    The psychological environment including the number of people in one work area, speed of the process,
     type of customers, nature of business that creates risks with dealing with people.

The employers duty under Section 19 of the OSH Act is to provide and maintain, so far as is practicable, a
working environment where employees are not exposed to hazards.


GENERAL DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS INCLUDE:

1.    To provide safe systems of work for all foreseeable hazards.

      a. Have a look at how you plan the work and what safety and health hazards are created directly to
         employees or indirectly to others.
      b. Is the plant and equipment appropriate to the job , is it tool small , too big, has it been modified.
      c. Have the people doing he jobs been provided with information, training instruction and are they
         going to be supervised until they are skilled.
      d. Have you got plans if anything goes wrong?
      e. Have you got a hazard identification assessment and control procedure in place?

      Question: What does foreseeable mean?

      Answer: Some hazards and risks cannot be predicted and may only be noticed with the benefit
      of hindsight after an injury has occurred. The employers duty extends to hazards and risk that a
      reasonable person should have foreseen at the time.


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Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


Unintended consequence or mistakes do occur, however the aim of the basic duty of the employer is to try
and anticipate what might happen. The employer cannot rely on “common sense” when someone has never
done a particular job or tasks before or when someone may have experience ion the job but may have been
practicing bad techniques and never been corrected.

      Question: What is this “reasonable person”?

      Answer: In common law, each case is decided on its merits and the courts determine whether
      the action taken by the employer is reasonable in any particular case. They consider the way a
      hypothetical “reasonable person” might behave in each situation, to determine the standard of
      care which should apply in any particular case. It is based on the values of the society of the day
      and, in the end, will involve a value judgement.

      There is no legal definition of how a reasonable person would behave, and the final decision would
      depend upon the facts of each situation. For employers, there is emphasis on the increased level
      of care that would be considered reasonable by today’s standards.

      An example of the employer’s position is ‘…where there is a recognised and general practice
      which has been followed for a substantial period in similar circumstances without mishap, he is
      entitled to follow it unless in the light of common sense or newer knowledge it is clearly bad’.



2.    To provide information, instruction, training and supervision for employees and
      contractors on safe work procedures

a.       Information
Information must be provide to employees so that they can perform their work in such a way as to minimise
risk. This information could be warning signs, booklets, brochures, DVDs Video, personal briefings, hand
overs, pre start, tool box meetings.

b.      Instruction and training
Every employee must be provided with the necessary training as relevant to their job and the position they
hold and the tasks they are required to do. No matter what position employees hold, every person must have
been provided with instruction and training comprising:
•     induction training including safety procedures, location of first aid kits, hazard reporting;
•     accredited or certificate courses as applicable to their job – eg. forklift certificate;
•     on the job training eg. manual handling – lifting techniques, isolations;
•     industry or in-house training eg. evacuation drills, storage of tools;
•     employers should continue to provide information , instruction and training to experienced employees.
      Further training may be needed if new equipment or work methods are introduced.

c.      Supervision
•     Make sure that anyone in a supervisory position has the skills, knowledge and authority to manage
      safety and health issues as well as al other tasks.
•     Ensure that new employees are supervised until they are skilled at the job.
•     Make sure employees use personal protective equipment and follow safe work procedures. This doesn’t
      mean you have to watch someone 24-7 it means make sure you have done the things above so that the
      employee can do their job as expected but safely.
•     Where you have workers who work on their own or are isolated make sure they are experienced and
      have good communication methods for emergency purposes.

3.    Consultation and cooperation with employees on all safety and health hazards,
      procedures and issues

The primary responsibility is that the employer must have system in place to discuss and consult with employees
and safety and health representatives if they are elected. Not all workplaces have safety representatives and
that’s OK.

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In workplaces where there is no safety and health representatives or safety and health committee the main
duty for employers is to consult and cooperate with employees on OSH matters. The legal responsibility for
OSH decisions at a workplace rests with the employer. The consultation process should assist employers to
reach decisions, which take into account information and recommendations by employees or the safety and
health committee.

If you as a an employer are requested formally under the OSH Act to elect safety and health representatives
and/or a formal safety and health committee you will need to be familiar with the election requirements in
the ACT.

4.    Provision of personal protective clothing and equipment

In some work situations, it may not be possible to totally avoid certain hazards. This might include periods
while work is being redesigned or where engineering type solutions cannot protect the employee. In such
cases employers may need to combine other means of risk reduction with the provisions of personal protective
clothing and equipment (PPCE)

The employer must provide, and where necessary replace or repair, to the manufacturers specifications, all
personal protective clothing and equipment, free of charge to the employee. Ownership of the PPCE rest
with the employer.

PPCE may include such items as safety glasses, safety goggles, steel capped safety boots, helmets, respirators,
gloves, breathing apparatus, sun hats, and sunscreen.

      Question: Where I have a hazard, can I just give my employees personal protective equipment?

      Answer: You must first identify the hazard, assess the risk of that hazard in the job that’s being done
      and look at other means of minimising the risk before issuing PPCE.



5.    Safe plant and substances for chemicals, machinery, plant

      Question: What does plant mean?

      Answer: Plant is defined as “any machinery, equipment, appliance, implement or tool and any
      component or fitting thereof or accessory thereto”. Plant might include such things as cranes,
      forklifts, heavy industrial equipment, gas bottles, computers, conveyors and the moving parts of
      the conveyor, dough machines in bakeries, microwave ovens.

      Question: What is a substance?

      Answer: Substance means any natural or artificial entity, composite material, mixture or formulation.

The employer must ensure that employees are not exposed to hazards arising from the:

•     Use, cleaning, maintenance, transportation and disposal of plant and;
•     The use, handling, processing, storage, transportation and disposal of substances.

Substances also includes any hazardous substance as recognised in the National Occupational Health and
Safety Commissions list of designated hazardous substances.

The hazardous substances list includes: Acrylonitrile, Inorganic arsenic, Asbestos, Benzene, Cadmium,
Inorganic Chromium, Creosote, Isocyanates, Inorganic mercury, 4,4’-methylene bis 2 –chloroaniline (MOCA),
Organophosphate pesticides, Pentachlorophenol (PCP), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), Crystalline
silica, Thallium, Vinyl Chloride.



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      Question: Do I have to do anything special if I’m using any of the substances listed on the previous
      page?

      Answer: Use of production of these substances designates special OSH requirements, which are
      dealt with in the chemical and hazard substances section.

Where employees are exposed to hazards from any of the substances above or others as defined in the
Regulations, the employer may be required to monitor levels of exposure and also do health surveillance of
those employees. This is covered in more detail later on.


6.0          Reporting of fatalities, injuries and diseases.

Employers must report specific types of incident to Worksafe. Many employers think that the insurers do
this or they can get employees to report. This is not the case. The employer must report certain incidents.
This is covered in page 25 of the document.




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AS AN EMPLOYEE WHAT MUST I DO?

      Question: What is an employee?

      Answer: An employee is a person who works under a contract of employment, apprenticeship or
      traineeship scheme under the Industrial Training Act 1975.

Voluntary workers and workers who do not receive any payment are not covered by the employee definition
but they are covered in other sections of the OSH Act.

The employees duty also applies to those workers in other working relationships, where the Act specifically
says so. Examples of these are contractors, paid working similar terms as a contract of employment and
labour hire arrangements.

The employees duty under section 20 of the Act is to take reasonable care for their own safety and health at
work and to avoid harming the safety and health of other people through any act or omission at work.

This refers to any action by an employee and other things that an employee may forget to do or choose not
to do (i.e. an omission).

The employee’s basic duty to take reasonable care extends to all employees who fit the definition in the Act
including those in a supervisory or managerial position. This duty applies from the shop floor level to senior
management.


GENERAL DUTIES OF EMPLOYEES INCLUDE:


1.      Follow the employers instructions provided for safety and health reasons

Where hazards have been identified and safe work procedures developed, the employee must follow
the procedure, providing they are safe procedures and have been developed by consultation with the
employees.

2.      Use personal protective clothing and equipment

Where the employer has provided personal protective clothing and equipment, the employee must use it.
The employer must have also provided instructions of the use, maintenance and storage of that equipment
and employees must follow those procedures.

3.      Taking good care of equipment

This refers to any equipment provided to do the job required. The employee must not misuse or damage the
equipment. An example of this is to make the fire fighting equipment useless by damaging the appliance or
to remove a guard that has been placed on plant or equipment.

      Question: What happens if the employee damages the equipment as part of doing their job?

      Answer: If the employee actions to damage or misuse the equipment were not deliberate, they
      may not be breaching this duty.



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4.      Report hazards

The employee must report to the employer hazards they cannot themselves correct. There also might be a
system in place where employees report hazards to their immediate supervisor.

The employee should follow an established hazard report procedure that sets up chain of command or
delegates the task of receiving the hazard report, should ensure there is prompt action to fix the problem or
refer it onto someone who can fix it.

5.      Reporting work-related injuries or harm to health

This means any injury or harm to health that occurs while connected with the work activity must be reported
by the employee to the employer. This could be a lacerated hand or a muscle strain while lifting .

6.      Cooperating with employers so that employers are able to carry out their duties
        as above.

Employees should actively work with the employer and assist the employer in carrying out their duties under
the Act. This means attending briefing sessions, actively participating in the induction process, letting the
employer know when there are hazards and assisting with feedback on proposed safety and health policies.




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AS A CONTRACTOR, SUB -CONTRACTOR, LABOUR HIRE PERSON WHAT
DO I NEED TO DO?

Under the OSH Act where a person uses a contractor to carry out some or all of the work associated with
a trade or business, that person (called the principal) then becomes the employer of the contractor the
contractor’s employees and any sub-contractors. The Principal has the same duty of care to these people as
they do to their own employees for matters over which the Principal has the capacity to exercise control.

Principals cannot use a contract for the purpose of handing over their responsibilities under the Act to
contractors, agents or other persons.

In some workplaces there may be several levels of contractors therefore it is important for all parties to
determine at the outset what the OSH responsibilities are for the job.

For further guidance on this point refer to www.worksafe.wa.gov.au for a Worksafe brochure.


DO I HAVE DUTIES AS AN EMPLOYER OR A SELF-EMPLOYED PERSON TO
MYSELF OR OTHER PEOPLE AT THE WORK PLACE INCLUDING VISITORS?

Duties of Employers and Self-Employed Persons (towards themselves and others):

      Question: What is the definition of a self-employed person for this Act?

      Answer: Means a person who works for gain or reward other than as an employee, regardless of
      whether he or she employs any other person.

      Question: Who are others?

      Answer: Family members, visitors, government officials, non-employees, work experience students,
      volunteers, customers, clients.

Under Section 21 of the Act an employer or a self-employed person must take reasonable care to ensure
his own safety and health at work and, so far as is practicable, avoid harming the safety or health of other
people.




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WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF BODY CORPORATE?

Section 21B applies to a body corporate that in the course of trade or business, engages labour under through
a principal – contractor arrangement or labour arrangements that mirror a contract of employment or labour
hire arrangements.

This section requires the body corporate to as far as is practicable ensure that the safety and health of a
person is not affected by the work of the body corporate or a person carrying out work under the direction
of the body corporate, eg. customers, visitors, passers by.

      Question: When a body corporate is found to be guilty of an offence under the Act can individuals
      be held accountable?

      Answer: Where the offence on the body corporate was committed with the consent or was
      attributable to the neglect on the part of the director, manager or other officer of the body
      corporate the individuals may also be held accountable for the offence. However Directors,
      managers or other officers of the body corporate are not held responsible for offences simply
      because of their position. They must have done something (consented or connived) towards the
      breach or otherwise contributed to the offence by way of neglect.


WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF PERSONS WHO HAVE CONTROL OF
WORKPLACES UNDER SECTION 22 OF THE ACT?

      Question: What does “who have control of” mean?

      Answer: Means in control of a workplace in connection with trade, business or undertaking where
      persons who are not employees of that person are likely to be in the course of their work. This
      section also applies to the means of access to and egress from a workplace.

      Question: Who are these people in control?

      Answer: Owners, lessors, of premises who may have no involvement with the work activity carried
      on by employers on the premises but who have retained some control over the premises. These
      areas of control may include the lifts, stairways, corridors, entrances, car parks, gardens etc shared
      by tenants.

Duties under Section 22 of the Act require people who have any extent of control of a workplace to ensure, so
far as is practicable, that the workplace and all access ways used to enter and exit are kept clear and in good
condition so that people who use the workplace are not exposed to hazards.

      Question: If I am the owner of an office building where tenants rent space from me should I have
      OSH clauses in my contracts?

      Answer: Yes you should, as this section is limited to matters over which you have got control. These
      areas of control should be clearly defined in contracts between yourself and the tenants. For
      example, you may have a requirement that all exits are kept clear and free of obstructions. It is up
      to the tenants to ensure this occurs as clearly it is not in your control to ensure that the exits are kept
      clear 24 hours a day.

      Question: Do I have to ensure that any chemicals being used when the foyer flooring is being
      repaired don’t affect any of the tenants or their employees?

      Answer: Yes. Where an obligation of any extent in relation to the maintenance or repair of a
      workplace the person in control of the workplace must ensure that people are not affected by the
      work being carried on.



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WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF DESIGNERS, MANUFACTURERS, IMPORTERS
AND SUPPLIERS?

Section 23 of the OSH Act places duties on the following groups of people:

•     Plant for use at a workplace – designers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers, erectors, installers
      (see duties of employer for a definition of plant)

•     Substances for use at a workplace – manufacturers, importers, suppliers of any chemical or
      hazardous substance (see duties of the employer for a definition of a substance).


DUTIES OF DESIGNERS, MANUFACTURERS, IMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS OF PLANT

1.    Ensure that the plant is designed and constructed safely so that persons who properly install, maintain
      or use the plant are not exposed to hazards.

      This means that all plant must be designed and constructed with safety and health in mind, so that
      the operator will be exposed to minimal risk when being used in the workplace. Examples may include
      avoiding physical trauma from entrapment or being struck by moving parts, making the object difficult
      to handle and the possible generation of excessive fumes, dust or noise.

2.    Test and examine or arrange for testing and examination of the plant to make sure that its properly
      designed and constructed.

      A contractor or agent may undertake the testing and examination required however the responsibility
      to test and examine under the OSH Act cannot be delegated or transferred to another person.

      Question: Why do testing and examination from a safety and health perspective?

      Answer: Testing and examination ensures that the original design concept is sound and the materials
      and work methods used to construct the plant will be able to withstand the pressures that could be
      applied when it is used at the workplace. Testing should also consider the possible emissions from
      the plant that must be within acceptable limits.

3.      Provide adequate information when the plant is supplied to the workplace

Information to be supplied with the plant must cover the following:
•     any dangers associated with the plant;
•     specifications of the plant;
•     data obtained on testing of the plant;
•     safe operating conditions that should be followed to ensure people who use the plant are not exposed
      to hazards;
•     proper maintenance of the plant.

      Question: Who provides the information?

      Answer: While the plant may pass through many hands before reaching the workplace the primary
      responsibility for providing the information rests with the first person who manufactured or imported
      the plant.

      Question: What about wholesalers who supply plant?

      Answer: Yes, wholesalers must ensure that plant supplied has the necessary information.




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Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


DUTIES OF ERECTORS AND INSTALLERS

Erectors and installers of plant must follow manufactures specifications for installation and ensure as far as
is practicable that the plant will be safe when used by a person.


DUTIES OF MANUFACTURERS, IMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS OF SUBSTANCES

1.           Provide adequate toxicological data

Provide data in respect of the substance itself and the safe use, handling, processing, transport, storage and
disposal whenever the substance is supplied or at any time the customer / purchaser requests it.

      Question: How do I supply this information?

      Answer: In the form of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) which is an international form of
      information provision for safe use and handling of substances. There is a standard format which
      must be followed by manufacturers, suppliers and importers.

      Question: Who provides the information?

      Answer: While the substance may pass through many hands before reaching the workplace the
      primary responsibility for providing the information rests with the first person who manufactured the
      substance. However importers and suppliers have a duty to obtain the MSDS from the manufacturer
      and supply it with the substance.

      Question: What about wholesalers who supply plant?

      Answer: Yes, wholesalers must ensure that substance supplied has the necessary information.




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                                                                          Safety & Health Kit for Small Business




HAZARD MANAGEMENT


Under section 19(a) of the OSH Act employers have a duty to ensure as far as is practicable, that employees
are not exposed to hazards. The basic steps to comply wit hat clause is to:

•     identify the OSH hazards that exists in the workplace;
•     assess the risk of those hazards to a person in the workplace;
•     work out ways to control or minimise the risk.


Hazard Identification

a.    The identification of hazards in the workplace can be done by one or more of the following:

•     a visual inspection of the workplace
•     developing a hazard checklist
•     reviewing information from designers or manufacturers
•     analysing unsafe incident information or accident and injury data
•     analysing work processes
•     consulting with employees
•     examining Material Safety Data Sheets
•     seeking advice from specialists.

Risk Assessment

Risk, in relation to any injury and harm, means the probability of that injury or harm occurring.

a.    Factors to be taken into account when evaluating risk include:

•     whether risk control is in compliance with existing legislation
•     whether accepted industry standards are being followed
•     whether the hazard can be eliminated altogether
•     if elimination is not possible, how the hazard will be effectively controlled.

b.    As Risk assessment can be a subjective process with individuals placing different levels of risk on
      hazards, an evaluation system is required. Table 1, 2 and 3 gives an example of a how to do a risk
      assessment. This process should be followed for all identified hazards.




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Table 1

RISK = SEVERITY RATING X FREQUENCY RATING


                                                                LIKELIHOOD

                                                                                   Highly Unlikely
 CONSEQUENCE                         Very Likely       Likely      Unlikely


 Fatality                            High              High        High            Medium


 Serious injuries                    High              High        Medium          Medium


 Minor injuries                      High              Medium      Medium          Low


 No injuries / negligible injuries   Medium            Medium      Low             Low


Table 2


 CONSEQUENCE                             DESCRIPTION


 Fatality                                Death


 Serious injury                          Medical treatment requiring several days off work


 Minor injuries                          First aid / medical treatment


 No Injuries / Negligible injuries       No injuries


Table 3


 LIKELIHOOD                   DESCRIPTION


 Highly unlikely              Could happen but probably never will (Rare situation)


 Unlikely                     Could happen but only rare


 Likely                       Could happen occasionally


 Very likely                  Could happen frequently




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RISK CONTROL

a.   There may be short term and longer-term control measures implemented dependant on the hazard.

b.   The hierarchy of control should always be followed. This means to address control by addressing each
     step:
•    Can the hazard be eliminated from the job?
•    Can the hazard be substituted i.e. substitute a chemical with less risk?
•    Is it possible to isolate the hazard from the workers i.e. acoustic shields?
•    What engineering controls need to be put in place?
•    What administrative controls need to be established i.e. training?
•    What personal protective equipment is required?




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HAZARD RISKS AND CONTROLS REPORT SHEET

Work area _____________________________________________________________________________

Name of Person completing this form ___________________________________________________

Date of form completion __________________________________________


                                PLEASE FORWARD THIS FORM TO THE OFFICE

                                                                        Assess the                           Action
                What is the hazard              Action taken             risk (use                          by whom
     No.                                                                               Controls proposed
                   identified                    immediately             the table                             and
                                                                         below)                              when




                                                                         LIKELIHOOD



           CONSEQUENCE            Very Likely                  Likely                 Unlikely      Highly Unlikely


              Fatality
                                         High                  High                    High            Medium


           Serious injuries
                                         High                  High                  Medium            Medium


           Minor injuries
                                         High              Medium                    Medium                Low


      No injuries /Negligible
              Injuries               Medium                Medium                      Low                 Low




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                                                                           Safety & Health Kit for Small Business




INCIDENT REPORTING


Legislative requirements

The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 requires employers to notify Worksafe of any accident involving
employees. However not al accident are required to be notified. The Worksafe brochure below indicates what
types of injuries are reportable. Incidents can be reported by telephone or by using the form as shown.

How Quickly Do Injuries and Diseases Need to Be Reported?

The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 requires notifiable injuries and diseases to be reported “forthwith”
which means the report is to be made immediately and without undue delay.

What Kind of Injuries are Reportable?

The kinds of injury to an employee which must be notified are:
(a) a fracture of the skull, spine or pelvis;
(b) a fracture of any bone:
      (i) in the arm, other than in the wrists or hand;
      (ii) in the leg, other than a bone in the ankle or foot;
(c) an amputation of an arm, a hand, finger, joint, leg, foot, toe or toe joint;
(d) the loss of sight of an eye;
(e) any injury other than those referred to in paragraphs (a) to (d) which, in the opinion of a medical
      practitioner, is likely to prevent the employee from being able to work within 10 days of the day on
      which the injury occurred.

What Kind of Information do Employers have to Provide?

When reporting work injuries or diseases employers are required to provide the following:
1.  employer’s name and address;
2.  employee’s name, gender and occupation;
3.  in the case of an injury:
    • address of the place at which the injury occurred;
    • date and time of the injury;
    • brief description of how the injury was incurred and any equipment involved;
    • nature of the injury;
    • place to which the employee was taken.
4.  in the case of a disease:
    • name and address of employee’s workplace;
    • name of the disease;
    • date of diagnosis of the disease.

What Kind of Diseases are Reportable?

The kinds of diseases to an employee which must be notified are:
1.    Infectious Diseases: tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, legionnaire’s disease and HIV where these diseases
      are contracted during work involving exposure to human blood products, body secretions, excretions
      or other material which may be a source of infection.
2.    Occupational Zoonoses: Q fever, anthrax, leptospiroses and brucellosis where these diseases are

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Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


      contracted during work involving the handling of, or contact with, animals, animal hides, skins, wool,
      hair, carcases or animal waste products.

How Do I Report a Work Injury or Disease?

Work injuries and diseases may be reported to WorkSafe:

•     in writing – The forms 1 and 2 specified in the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996 are
      shown on the next few pages or can be obtained by calling WorkSafe on (08) 9327 8777, and should be
      posted to WorkSafe, PO Box 294 West Perth.
•     by facsimile - Written advice can be faxed to WorkSafe on (08) 9481 8427.
•     by telephone – Accidents can be reported by calling (08) 9327 8800.
•     on the Internet – Accidents can be reported online using the Occupational Injury and Disease
      Reporting system at: www.safetyline.wa.gov.au/accidents.

Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 employers must notify work-related deaths and
specified work injuries and diseases to the WorkSafe Western Australia Commissioner. Regulations 2.4 and
2.5 of the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996 specify the types of injuries and diseases
required to be notified.

Reported work injuries and diseases are an important part of the information used by WorkSafe in its
prevention activities.

INFORMATION ON LEGAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE REPORTING OF ACCIDENTS

Who Should Notify Injuries and Diseases?

The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 requires employers to notify the WorkSafe Western Australia
Commissioner of any accidents involving their employees. Failure to report a notifiable accident could lead
to prosecution of the employer. Where someone other than the employer contacts WorkSafe to report an
accident, these are not recorded as “official” notifications under the Act, but are referred to an inspector for
further action.




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                                                                           Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


EMPLOYER /EMPLOYEES/CONTRACTORS ACCIDENT/INCIDENT/
NEAR MISS REPORT FORM

This form should be completed within 24 hours after the event or as soon as possible.

Persons name: ___________________________________________________________________________

Date and time of incident or near miss: _______________________________________________________

Witness to incident or near miss: ____________________________________________________________

What is the person’s current role / job ?

❑ Owner ❑ Manager ❑ Employee ❑ Contractor ❑ Visitor ❑ Other ___________________________

What is the age of the injured person or the person involved in the near miss? ____________ years old

Years experience in the current job:________________ (6 months or 1 year; etc)

Injury severity: ❑ Minor (first aid)         ❑ serious (medical treatment) ❑ fatality

Injury location:
❑ Back         ❑ Face            ❑ Feet or toes         ❑ Hand or fingers
❑ Head         ❑ Hip             ❑ Internal organs      ❑ Left arm
❑ Left ear     ❑ Left eye        ❑ Left leg             ❑ Neck
❑ Right arm ❑ Right ear          ❑ Right eye            ❑ Right leg
❑ Shoulder     ❑ Stomach         ❑ Torso other than back

Injury / illness category to the person:
❑ Amputation           ❑ Broken bone               ❑ Bruising     ❑ Burns           ❑ Concussion
❑ Crushing             ❑ Decapitation              ❑ Dislocation ❑ Electrocution    ❑ Foreign body lodged
❑ Fracture             ❑ Head injury               ❑ Major laceration or cut        ❑ Minor laceration or cut
❑ Poisoning            ❑ Skin infection            ❑ Minor Sprain/strain            ❑ Major sprain or strain
❑ Unconscious

Provide a description of what happened:




What were the contributing factors to the incident?




What was the person doing at the time of the incident?




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Where did the incident occur?




First aid action taken:




Was an induction for the person involved in the incident held? ❑ Yes ❑ No

Did the injured person keep working?                               ❑ Yes ❑ No

If no what action was taken?




Is there procedure for the work that was being done when the incident occurred? ❑ Yes ❑ No

Corrective actions:




Immediate action taken:




What controls can be put in place to prevent this happening again?




Who is going to implement these controls and by when?




_____________________________            _____________________________   ______________________
Name of persons involved                 Name of supervisor              Name of witness


_____________________________            _____________________________   ______________________
Signature of person involved             Signature of supervisor         Signature of witness


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                                                                         Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


PART 2

FIRST AID / MEDICAL

(laminated and on the wall)


Policy
We are committed to providing an effective first aid service to protect the safety and health of all employees
and others who may be affected by incidents, accidents or injuries arising from the work carried out.

Plan

1.First aid boxes for main work base:
• Located in / at / near…………………………………………………………………………….
• Contents checked on a …………………. monthly basis
• Contents restocked by …………………………………………………………………………
• Inside the box lid
• Name of nearest medical facility…………………………………………………..
  - phone number of nearest medical facility…………………………………………
  - address of nearest medical facility…………………………………………………
• Inside the box lid has CPR instructions………………………………………………………

2.First aid boxes for mobile workplaces:
• Located in / at / near…………………………………………………………………………….
• Contents checked on a …………………. monthly basis
• Contents restocked by …………………………………………………………………………
• Inside the box lid
• Name of nearest medical facility…………………………………………………..
  - phone number of nearest medical facility…………………………………………
  - address of nearest medical facility…………………………………………………
• Inside the box lid has CPR instructions………………………………………………………

3. Trained and certified first aiders are:

 NAME                            CERTIFICATE OBTAINED           WHEN IT EXPIRES
 eg. Joe Bloggs                  Basic Ear / CPR                01/01/07




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Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


First aid/medical procedures

Severe bleeding

1.    Check for any threatening situation and control if it is safe to do so

2.    Wash hands using soap and water (when soap and water is not available use an alcoholic chlorhexidine
      hand wash or equivalent)

3.    Put on disposable gloves

4.    Apply pressure to the wound and raise and support injured area

5.    Bandage wound and check circulation below wound

6.    Get medical assistance/ambulance.

Eye injury

1.    Support casualty’s head, keeping as still as possible

2.    Flush eye with cool, flowing water

3.    Place dressing over eye, bandage in place. Do not apply pressure to the eye

4.    Seek medical assistance

5.    Do not touch or rub eye or try to remove the object.

CPR

Given when a person is not breathing and has no signs of circulation
•     Get another person to call the ambulance
•     Position hands for CPR
      - Commence chest compressions by
      - Arms straight, press down on breastbone to depress it about 4-5 cms
      - Release pressure
      - Complete 15 compressions
      - Give 2 effective breaths
•     Check for signs of circulation every minute
•     Once casualty is breathing call Ambulance if on own

Unconscious / recovery position

1.    Position patients legs - Straighten limbs and lift nearer leg at knee so it is fully bent upwards

2.    Position arms
      - Place patients nearer arm across chest and place farther arm at right angles to body

3.    Roll patient into position
      - Roll away from you onto side
      - Keep leg at right angles, with knee touching the ground to prevent patient rolling onto face

4.    Make patient steady – so as not to roll over.

5.    Ensure airway is open

6.    Call Ambulance

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                                                                             Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


EMERGENCY PROCEDURES


Policy

While we will take all reasonable practicable steps to minimise the risks of accident( in particular fire and other
significant situation) it is acknowledged that despite these measures we recognise we need an emergency
plan. Our primary objective is to provide a practices , swift and effective response to any situation.

Plan

Draw site plan inside box




Legend




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Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


EMERGENCY ASSEMBLY POINT/ MUSTER STATION (laminated and on the wall)

Fire

1.     Raise the alarm by phoning………………………………. or notifying …………………………

       on ………………………………………. of the location of the fire.

2.     Assist anyone in danger if safe to do so.

3.     Under instruction from …………………………ask whether the fire can be extinguished safely without
       danger to yourself. If so, use the appropriate fire extinguisher.

4.     If the fire cannot be extinguished then remove yourself from the building.

5.     Do not go back for valuables.

6.     If escaping through a smoke filled area, keep close to the floor.

7.     Assemble at the assembly point and await further instructions from fire & rescue officers.

8.     No person shall re-enter the building until authorised by the emergency services.

Bomb Threat

1.      Place the phone on the bench (don’t end the call).

2.      Alert ……………………………………………………………

3.      Evacuate the building.

4.      Do not go back for valuables.

Person in charge

1.     Notify emergency services - 000.

2.     Direct occupants towards the outside of the building.

3.     Ensure that all occupants have vacated the building.

4.     At the emergency assembly point ensure all persons are accounted for and await further instructions
       from fire & rescue officers.

How to use a fire extinguisher

               1. Pull out safety pin        2. Use upright         3. Squeeze lever        4. Direct stream at
                                                                                               base of fire for CO2
                                                                                               and dry chemical.
                                                                                               For foam, cover the
                                                                                               fire like a blanket.




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                                                                             Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


CHEMICALS


Policy
We will identify all chemicals and hazardous substances and consider a safer alternative. Where this is not
possible we will ensure a risk assessment is carried out and measures are put in place to minimize the risk
to employees and others

Plan and procedure

MSDS = Material safety data Sheets – supplied by supplier of chemical

1.0     Chemical Register

1.1     A register of all chemicals stored and used is maintained with all relevant MSDS’s for each
        substance.

1.2     MSDS will be kept current (less than 5 years old).

1.3     The register is accessible to all persons with potential exposure to the substance.

Table 1

                                      Material
                                                                                  Further         Hazard
                                       Safety                    Size of
      Chemical                                                                 Information     Assessment
                  Supplier    Use       data      Location      storage
       name                                                                      Contact      conducted or
                                       sheet                  Container(s)
                                                                                  details     not applicable
                                       (Y /N)




2.0     Material Safety data Sheets (MSDS)

2.1     The MSDS must be obtained on any chemical prior to use of the chemical or exposure to the
        substance by any person.

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2.2         The MSDS shall be used as part of the risk assessment on the chemical hazard.

2.3         The MSDS shall be readily available to any person using the substance.

2.4         The MSDS obtained from a supplier shall not be altered.

2.5         Employees are trained in how to interpret the MSDS

3.0         Risk assessment

3.1         All products used by employees will have the risk assessment as below completed before use

Table 2


                                 Chemical        Action to   Chemical   Action to   Chemical   Action to
                                 Name            be taken    Name       betaken     Name       be taken

 Example                         Roundup
 Location                        Workshop
 Stored where                    Cupboard

 Original container
                                 Original
 or decanted

 Decanted container with
 label matching original

 MSDS available                  yes


 Does the MSDS say it is
 classified as in the List of
 Designated Hazardous            no
 Substances [NOHSC(1999)]
 Follow number 6


 Legible label                   yes


                                 List chemical
 Substance components
                                 components


 All PPE as listed on the MSDS   yes
 available


 Is it to be used in an area
                                 no
 with little or no ventilation


 Is it to be used as part of a
                                 no
 heat generating process


 Employees had training on       yes
 the substance


 Is the person who is using it
                                 no
 new to the job task


 First aid requirements
                                 yes
 accessible


 Is the chemical on the list
 requiring health surveillance   no
 required( see 4.0)



3.2     Once the risk assessment has been conducted identify areas where you need to do something prior to
        the use of the substance and attend to those areas




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4.0   Health surveillance

Chemicals used that are listed in Schedule 5.3 of the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996
require health surveillance of some type. See below for the list:

Acrylonitrile            Inorganic arsenic        Asbestos        Benzene        Cadmium
Inorganic Chromium Creosote                       Isocyanates     Inorganic mercury
4,4’- methylene bis 2 – chloroaniline ( MOCA)     Organophosphate pesticides
Pentachlorophenol (PCP)                           Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAH)
Crystalline silica       Thallium                 Vinyl Chloride.

5.0   Labeling and storage

5.1   All containers of shall be labeled to allow the substance to be used safely

5.2   Where a chemical/ hazardous substance is decanted and not all used immediately, the container must
      be labelled as per the original, (as relevant in accordance with National Code of Practice for the Labelling
      of Workplace Substances [NOHSC: 2012(1994)].)

5.3   Where a decanted substance is completely used immediately, no labelling is required provided that the
      container is cleaned so that it no longer contains the substance

5.4   Where the hazardous substance is contained in an enclosed system such as a pipe or piping system or
      a process or a reactor vessel, all persons who might be exposed to the substance must be advised.

5.5   Labels or colour codes of the container of the hazardous substance or an enclosed system shall not be
      removed, defaced, modified or altered, unless the container has been cleaned and no longer contains
      the hazardous substance.

5.6   Volatile substances (e.g. petrol) should be handled appropriately by keeping substance away from
      naked flames and ensuring good ventilation in storage areas.

5.7   Ensure flammable goods are stored separately from oxidizing agents

6.0   Procedures to follow when the substance has been identified as in the List of
      Designated Hazardous Substances [NOHSC ( 1999)] as per the MSDS:

6.1   Complete the Chemical Inventory and Hazardous Substances Register

6.2   Where there is a significant risk of injury or harm to health through exposure to the chemical is
      identified, prepare a written report and ensure that controls are put in place to reduce the exposure
      and to protect the employee from injury or harm to health

6.3   The initial hazard assessment will need to be reviewed:
      • Every five years.
      • There are significant changes in the volume used, plant, material, process and control measures.
      • There are significant changes in the physical layout of the workplace.
      • The periodic inspection of engineering controls indicates deterioration.
      • Accidents or near misses have occurred which may indicate inadequate controls are in place.
      • Health checks indicate a loss of control over the hazardous substance.
      • New or improved control technology becomes available.
      • The assessment report must be kept on file and be made available at any time to any person who
        might be exposed to the hazardous substance.

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7.0    Powdered chemicals

                     SUMMARY OF RISK CONTROL OPTIONS - HANDLING POWDERED CHEMICALS


      Hierarchy of
                                    Control Options                 How to Check Adequacy of Controls
        Control


 Substitution            Use a less hazardous chemical         Compare MSDS or labels for each chemical
                                                               to identify the least hazardous option
                         Purchase chemical in pellet form
                         rather than fine powders               Visual observations of dust produced by
                                                               pellets
 Isolation              Use of a single chemical handling      Visual presence of dust outside of room or
                        room that contains ventilation         large build up of dust on surfaces outside
                                                               room
                        Enclose process vessels
                                                               Eye or respiratory irritation for workers working
                                                               outside of room

                                                               Observe if dust is present outside of process
                                                               vessel during mixing


 Engineering            Use of ventilation to remove           Visual observation of dust entering ventilation
                        airborne dust                          system

                        Lower the fall height of product to    Place a piece of paper over the duct to see if
                        less than 1 metre                      paper stays on grill

                        Mix powdered material into liquid in   Measure distance between bag and bucket
                        small quantities                       or vessel

                                                               Visual observations of dust produced from
                                                               powder added to liquids


 Administrative         Conduct powder mixing outside          Review time when mixing of powders is
                        normal work hours                      required and how many workers are in plant
                                                               at this time
                        Use of different workers to do task
                                                               Share the mixing task between workers
                        Good housekeeping (vacuum or           Is dust produced during cleaning of surfaces?
                        wet mop)
                                                               Signs located in workplace
                        Prohibit eating, drinking and
                        smoking in process areas               Ask workers if they know these requirements


 Personal Protective    Use of a disposable dust mask or       Check that mask is not filled with dust and
 Equipment              particulate filter (P1)                 that
                                                               valves are in place Check that workers know
                        Use of goggles                         how to use and where to store these

                        Use of gloves                          Check cleanliness of goggles and if workers
                                                               know how to use them

                                                               Check gloves do not have holes and are
                                                               clean




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8.0   Training

8.1   Induction training for employees on the chemical substances should include:
      a. Potential health risks and any toxic effects associated with the substances to be used.
      b. Hazard identification, assessment and control methods.
      c. Where to find an MSDS and the reading of a MSDS.
      d. Labeling of containers, the information that each part provides and why the information is
         provided.
      e. Safe work procedures for the use, handling , storage , transportation , cleaning up and disposal.
      f. Emergency/first aid procedures.
      g. Selection, use, fit and maintenance of personal protective equipment and clothing.

8.2   On the job training should include:
      a. Information regarding the specific chemical and hazardous substances that will be used.
      b. Use of correct ventilation / extraction systems.
      c. Safe work practices.
      d. Personal protective clothing and equipment.
      e. Handling and Storage.

8.3   Training records must be kept and they are to include:
      a. Names of persons who received the training and dates trained.
      b. What training was provided and for how long.
      c. Who provided the training.


Procedure
1.   Prior to any chemical being purchased or considered for use ask the supplier or read the label and
     determine what possible harmful components .
2.   Where there is a high risk, if possible substitute it for another less toxic chemical
3.   As part of the purchase obtain the MSDS
4.   After purchase conduct a risk assessment on where , how and who is going to use it by using Table 2.
5.   Address what you are going to do about risk reduction. Ask yourself:
     • Can you isolate the worker or provide some form of effective local extraction ventilation as per the
       MSDS.
     • Can you change the way people do the work or the time they spend handling the chemical.
     • Provide the people with personal protective equipment, i.e. gloves, respirators, as per the MSDS
     • Provide training for the employees on all aspects of the chemical including the information in the
       MSDS)
6.     Final checklist (see table on page 40).




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        CHECK                                                                    YES   NO   N/A
        Is the product clearly labelled
        Original containers have the manufacturer’s labels.

        Decanted containers are labelled with name, risk and safety
        instructions


        Have you determined if there is a chemical with less risk to do the
        task


        Is an Material Safety Data Sheet available for the product
        (supplier)


        Do employees know about the Material Safety Data sheets and
        have access to them


        There is a list / register of all chemicals used, which is easy to find
        and read


        The hazard assessment for all chemicals has been conducted and
        is included in the chemical list / register


        All employees have been provided with information and training
        on:
        -       the product itself
        -       harmful effects
        -       safe working procedures
        -       personal protective equipment
        -       storage, used, disposal and emergency procedures


        Are employees aware of the existence of appropriate first aid and
        emergency facilities?


        Clean up and disposal procedures are established




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                                                                              Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


NOISE


Policy

We will identify any noise sources that are likely to be over the exposure standard and takes steps to minimise
the noise levels to below the exposure standard. We will also identify any areas that require further analysis
and conduct noise assessments in accordance with OSH Regulations 3.45 – 3.47.

Plan

The exposure standard for noise set in the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations is:
•     a daily noise exposure level, L Aeq,8h of 85 dB(A); or
•     a peak noise level, LC,peak of 140 dB(C) measured at the position of the person’s ear without taking
      into account any protection which may be provided to the person by the use of personal hearing
      protectors.

An L Aeq,8h of 85 dB(A) means that the actual energy of varying noise levels experienced by a person over the
working day is equivalent to the energy from 8 hours of exposure to a constant noise level of 85 decibels.

The table below shows a range of noise levels and exposure times that are equal to an L Aeq,8h of 85 dB(A).


                                Noise level dB (A)              Exposure time


                                        85                         8 hours


                                        88                         4 hours


                                        91                         2 hours


                                        94                          1 hour


                                        97                         30 mins


                                       100                         15 mins


                                       103                         7.5 mins


Procedure

1.0    Hazard identification and assessment

1.1    Make an initial assessment of the noise levels under normal operating conditions by using the NOISE
       HAZARD IDENTIFICATION CHECKLIST as shown here:

Yes to any of the following indicates the need for a detailed noise assessment.
•      Is a raised voice needed to communicate with someone about 1 metre away?                        Yes/ No
•      Do people working in the area notice a reduction in hearing over the course of the day?         Yes / No
•      Do employees experience any of the following:
         - ringing in the ears?                                                                        Yes / No
         - the same sound having a different tone in each ear?                                          Yes / No
         - blurred hearing?                                                                            Yes / No
•      Are any long term employees hard of hearing?                                                    Yes / No

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•      Are personal hearing protectors supplied?                                                 Yes / No
•      Are signs, indicating that personal hearing protectors should be worn, posted at the hazard area
                                                                                                 Yes / No
•      Does any equipment have manufacturer’s noise information (including labels) that indicates noise
       levels equal or greater than any of the following:
         - 90dB (A) L Aeq,                                                                       Yes / No
         - 140 dB peak noise level,                                                              Yes / No

1.2    Where there is a YES answer to any of the above organize a formal noise assessment conducted
       by a competent person (one who uses the calibrated equipment) in accordance with the OHSW
       Regulations. You will need to seek advice on who can conduct the assessment from Worksafe WA.

2.0    Noise assessment

2.1    A formal noise assessment will provide information on:
       a. identify all the employees who are likely to be exposed to noise above the exposure level
       b. obtain information on the noise source and work practices that contribute to the noise hazards
       c. Look at engineering ways to reduce the noise
       d. check on the effectiveness of noise reduction measures already in use
       e. help in selecting personal hearing protection
       f. identify hearing protection areas and areas where signs need to be installed

3.0    Hazard control – what you can do

When addressing control measures follow this order:

3.1.   Can you install engineering noise controls including:
•      When purchasing and installing new plant ensure the anticipated noise levels are considered prior to
       purchase.
•      With existing plant some suggestions are listed:
        - replace parts of the plant that are a source of the noise levels
        - resilient mounting of vibrating machinery
        - Maintain a high standard of plant maintenance
        - Isolate or enclose vibrating parts
        - Install noise absorbing material
        - Flexible mountings for exhaust , ventilation and other service lines
        - Seals around doors and openings between spaces
        - Seals where wires or pipes penetrate spaces.

3.2    Once you have done all you can in engineering controls and then noise levels are still equal to or above
       the exposure level , then implement administrative controls such as:
•      Limit the time employees are exposed to the hazard area
•      Ensure employees are not in noise hazard area where they are not require for work purposes

3.3.   Once you have done all you can in the engineering and administrative controls then provide personal
       hearing protection to all those employees in the noise hazard area or whom have to enter an area
       where there is a noise hazard. Personal hearing protection involves:
•      Employees shall be provided with personal hearing protection that meets the requirements of AS
       1270 Acoustics – hearting protectors and AS 1269 - Occupational Noise Management Part 3: Hearing
       Protector Program
•      This information will generally provided from the competent person conducting the noise
       assessment.




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4.0   Selection of personal hearing protection

4.1   When choosing the personal hearing protection in accordance with the formal noise assessment the
      following items must be considered:
•     The level of noise reduction required
•     The suitability of the hearing protection for use on the vessel and the conditions of work
•     The comfort, weight and clamping force of the hearing protector
•     The fit to the user
•     The noise assessment form the competent person will explain the options in the selection of the
      PHP

5.0   Additional requirements

5.1   All employees will be provided with information and training on:
•     Inspection for wear and tear or defects , maintenance, and storage of the personal hearing protection
•     Any workplace requirements, ie. personal hearing protectors shall be worn at all times when in the
      engine room (while it is in operation).
•     Basic training elements of the requirements in the NOHSC Core Training Elements.

5.2   The noise assessment should be repeated every 5 years or wherever you have changed the plant or
      equipment or the work area layout.

5.3   All areas where the noise levels require hearing protection , signs must be installed on the outside to
      indicate that hearing protection must be worn. The signs must be in accordance with AS 1319.

6.0   Hearing assessments

6.1   Where there are noise levels that the employees are regularly exposed to that cannot be minimize by
      any of the control measures, you may have to provide testing of the employees hearing.

6.2   The testing( audiometric ) must be conducted by an appropriately trained and experienced person in
      accordance with the specifications in Part 4 of the AS/NZS 1269.




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                                                                       Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


MANUAL HANDLING


Policy
We will identify all manual handling hazards in the jobs we do and assess the risk to the employees. Where
the risk is medium – high we will look at ways to reduce the risk.

Plan

1.0    Hazard identification will be done by using form 1

2.0    Risk assessments will be done by using the check sheet form 2

3.0    For controls refer to the www.worksafe.wa.gov.au web site - code of practice manual
       handling




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Form 1


        CODE OF PRACTICE - MANUAL HANDING                                 ACTION PLAN FORM

     Area of Workplace ___________________________________________________________________

     Manual Handling Task or Activity ______________________________________________________

     ______________________________________________________________________________________

     ______________________________________________________________________________________

     Description of Task or Activity _________________________________________________________

     ______________________________________________________________________________________

     ______________________________________________________________________________________

     ______________________________________________________________________________________

     ______________________________________________________________________________________

     ______________________________________________________________________________________

     ______________________________________________________________________________________


     Assessed by:

     Name

     _____________________________________      ___________________________________

     _____________________________________      ___________________________________

     _____________________________________      ___________________________________

     _____________________________________      ___________________________________


                                  Start date           Anitcipated date      Completion date
                                                       for completion

     Risk Assessment              ________________     ________________      ________________

     Risk Control Short Term      ________________     ________________      ________________

                 Medium Term ________________          ________________      ________________

                 Long Term        ________________     ________________      ________________

     Follow-up                    ________________     ________________      ________________

                                  ________________     ________________      ________________

                                  ________________     ________________      ________________

                                  ________________     ________________      ________________



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Form 2


CODE OF PRACTICE - MANUAL HANDING                           RISK ASSESSMENT FORM


 Risk Factors to consider           Level of Risk                  Comment
 (use the information in            (Tick as appropriate)          (Make notes on reasons for
 Appendix H to fill in this form)                                   your judgement on level of
                                                                   risk)

 Do the actions and posture
 involve:
 • holding loads away from
     trunk;
 • reaching upwards or load
     handling above shoulder
     height;
 • bending forward or handling
     below mid-thigh height;
 • twisting;
 • sideways bending or load
     handling by one hand;
 • long carrying distances;
 • strenuous pushing or pulling;
     or
 • sudden jerky movements?

 Are the loads:
 • heavy;
 • bulky, large or awkward;
 • difficult to grasp;
 • unstable or unpredictable;
 • intrinsically harmful; or
 • a person or animal?

 Are there in the work
 environment:
 • constraints on posture;
 • rough or slippery floors;
 • variations in levels;
 • adverse climatic conditions
     eg. wind, cold or heat; or
 • poor lighting?

 Does the job:
 • involve young persons;
 • involve staff who are
     pregnant;
 • involve staff with special
     needs;
 • require special skills,
     capabilities or knowledge;
     or
 • require protective clothing or
     equipment to be worn?



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                                                                       Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


SMOKING


Policy

The OSH regulations prohibit employers, employees and self-employed persons from smoking in enclosed
workplaces. Smokers are permitted to smoke in designated smoking areas.

An enclosed workplace is defined as ‘a workplace that has whether permanently or temporarily - a ceiling
or roof and walls, sides or other vertical openings’. Examples of enclosed workplaces where smoking is not
permitted include offices, factories, cars and vehicle cabs.




                               NO SMOKING
                               AT ANY TIME
                                 • No smoking in any office area.

                         • No smoking within 5 metres of any doorway.

                   • No smoking in any company vehicle or any personal vehicle
                                  when other employees are present.


                        • Smokers may smoke in their designated breaks only.

                         • Smoking is allowed in designated areas only.

                           EFFECTIVE DATE: __________________________




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                                                                          Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


ELECTRICAL SAFETY


1.0    ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

1.1   Electrical installations shall be installed by a competent persons and protected and tested to minimise
      the risk of electric shock.

1.2   Each connection on a flexible cord that has been installed or renewed as of October 1 1996, shall be of
      the moulded one part non- rewireable or transparent type.

1.3   Residual Current devices when portable equipment is in use shall be installed as per Regulation 3.60

1.4   A maintenance program shall be established for electrical installations.

1.5   All items of portable equipment or portable residual current devices intended for use at the workplace
      must be tested in accordance with AS / NZS 3012 and the details recorded as per Regulation 3.62
      (Appendix 1).


2.0   PROTECTION AGAINST EARTH LEAKAGE CURRENT WHEN PORTABLE EQUIPMENT
      IS IN USE

Portable electrical equipment includes but is not limited to hand held power tools, power equipment, cleaning
equipment (eg. vacuum cleaners) hand-held appliances ( hair dryers), cord extension leads connected to any
of the above items.

2.1   Where electricity is supplied to portable equipment through a fixed socket at the workplace, protection
      against earth leakage current by either:
      a. non-portable residual current device( RCD) installed at the switchboard; or
      b. non-portable RCD built into a fixed socket which is likely to be used by a person operating portable
      equipment.

2.2   Where a non-portable RCD has been installed at a switchboard , that a notice is displayed in a prominent
      place at or near the switchboard indicating the presence of a non portable RCD.

2.3   Where a non-portable RCD has been built into a fixed socket, the socket can be clearly identified as
      providing protection against earth leakage current.

2.4   Each portable RCD used at the workplace must be kept in a safe working condition and tested on a
      regular basis.

2.5   Where it is not clear that protection against earth leakage current has been provided by means of a
      non-portable RCD:
      b. then the workplace must have a portable RCD for use with each item of portable equipment and
      c. the portable RCD is directly connected to the output side of a fixed socket when an item of portable
      equipment is being used.

2.6   Any person provided with a portable RCD for use with an item of portable equipment must not use the
      equipment unless the portable RCD is directly connected to the output side of the fixed socket.




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3.0    IN-SERVICE TESTING OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

3.1   The following procedures will be followed for the in-service inspection and testing of:
      • equipment, other than fixed equipment, which is designed for connection by a supply flexible cord
      and plug, to low voltage supply.
      • testing of cord extension sets
      • electric portable outlet devices( power boards)
      • cord connected portable residual current devices
      • portable isolation devices

3.2   The in-service inspection and testing will conform to the requirements of AS/NZS 3760 : 1996 In-
      service safety inspection and testing of electrical equipment.

Definitions

Class 1 equipment (basic insulated, protectively earthed equipment)- equipment in which protection
against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only, but which includes an additional safety precaution,
in that conductive accessible parts are connected to the protective earthing conductor in the fixed wiring of
the installation in such a way that those accessible parts cannot become live in the event of a failure of the
basic insulation.

Class 11 equipment ( double insulated equipment)- equipment in which protection against electric shock
does not rely on basic insulation only, but in which additional safety precautions such as double insulation
or reinforced insulation are provided , there being no provision for protective earthing or reliance upon
installation conditions. This equipment is generally marked with a non-conductive ( insulated) enclosure, and
is marked either with the words ` DOUBLE INSULATED’ or with the symbol, to allow easy identification.

3.3     Frequency of inspection and tests

Equipment shall be inspected and tested-
a.   prior to initial introduction to service;
b.   before return to service after a repair which could have affected the electrical safety; and
c.   at intervals not exceeding those specified as below:

Engineering workshop and places of work of manufacturing, repair, assembly, maintenance or
fabrication
•     Class 1 protectively earthed                 every six months
•     Class 11 double insulated                    every 12 months
•     Push button test for portable RCDs (by user) daily, or before every use, which ever is longer
•     Fixed RCD’s                                  every 12 months
•     Cord extension sets and EPODs                every six months

Office environment; where equipment or supply flexible cord is subject to flexing in normal use
OR is open to abuse OR is in a hostile environment
•      Class 1 protectively earthed                  every 12 months
•      Class 11        double insulated              every 12 months
•      Push- button test for portable RCDs (by user) every 3 months
•      Fixed RCD’s                                   every 6 months
•      Cord extension sets and power boards          every 12 months

Office environment; where the equipment or supply cord is NOT subject to flexing in normal use
AND is not open to abuse AND is not in a hostile environment

•     Class 1 protectively earthed                         every 5 years
•     Class 11 double insulated                            every 5 years
•     Push- button test for portable RCDs( by user)        every 3 months
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•          Fixed RCD’s                                       every 2 years
•          Cord extension sets and power boards              every 5 years

Hire equipment
•     Class 1 protectively earthed                           Inspect before each hire. Test monthly
•     Class 11 double insulated                              Inspect before each hire. Test monthly
•     Push- button test for portable RCDs (by user)          Inspect before each hire. Test monthly
•     Fixed RCD’s                                            N/A
•     Cord extension sets and power boards                   Inspect before each hire. Test monthly

Repaired / serviced / second-hand Equipment
After repair or service which could affect electrical safety, or on re-introduction to service

4.0        IN SERVICE TESTING

4.1        Regular examination and testing is required on the following where the supply of electricity to the
           electrical plant is through a socket outlet:
•          Hand held electrical plant
•          Portable electrical plant moved while in operation
•          Electrical plant that is moved between operations in such a manner that damage to the flexible supply
           cord could occur
•          Electrical plant where the plant or the supply of the electricity could be damaged by the type of
           environment being operated in i.e. wet or dusty conditions

4.2        Frequency of testing
•          Examination and testing shall be conducted prior to introduction to service, before return to service
           after repair for all equipment


    ITEM                             TYPE                             TESTING


    Electrical equipment/ plant      Class 1 (protectively earthed)   6 monthly


                                     Class 11 (double insulated)      12 monthly


                                                                      By the built in push button test prior to use
    RCD’s                            Portable
                                                                      and each day while in use


                                     Portable                         Test for operation – 12 monthly


                                                                      By built in push button test not exceeding
                                     Non – portable
                                                                      12 months.


                                     Non - portable                   Test for operation at least 3 yearly

    Extension cords and power
                                                                      6 monthly
    boards




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5.0      TAGGING AND RECORD KEEPING

•        Tags should be attached to electrical plant or flexible supply cords to make for easy identification for
         examined and tested electrical plant.
•        Tags should be durable and have information such as the date of the last examination and test, the due
         date for the next examination and test and who performed the examination and tests.
•        Where an RCD fails the test it must be repaired or replaced.
•        Test records other than daily tests must be kept for 5 years from the date of the tests.


ELECTRICAL SAFETY CHECKLIST


    CHECK                                                          YES     NO        COMMENTS

    Switch boards are protected from damage

    Switchboards have a protective cover to minimise inadvertent
    contact by crew / employees

    Electrical equipment has been tested
    RCD’s are installed
    RCD’s are labeled
    Plugs, sockets, and extension leads are in good condition

    Flexible cords are protected from water, being damaged or
    cut


    Maintenance program established for electrical plant and
    installations


    Agreed procedures for the use of portable electrical pant on
    board the vessel

    Electrical safety information is part of your crew induction

    Crew have been provided with the vessels safe working
    procedures

    Isolation procedure in place




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                                                                         Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


PERSONAL HYGIENE AND INFECTION CONTROL


Plan

Hand washing facilities
•   Hand washing facilities are provided in addition to the toilet hand basin
•   Hand soap is provided at all hand washing facilities
•   Towels or drying machines are available

First aid treatment
•     Disposable gloves are provided in the first aid kit


Procedures

1.0    General principles

1.1    Hands should be washed using soap and water:
•      At all points before handling food or any product
•      Before and after contact with an ill or injured person
•      When there is contact with blood or body substances or contaminated items
•      When protective gloves are removed.

1.2    When soap and water is not available use an alcoholic chlorhexidine hand wash or equivalent.

2.0    Blood or body substance spillage

•      Spills attended to immediately using protective disposable PVC or latex gloves.
•      Absorbent material such as paper towels should be used to absorb the bulk of the blood or body
       substance.
•      Dispose of the contaminated materials in a sealed leak proof waste bag.
•      The area where the spillage occurred should be cleaned with warm water and detergent and then
       disinfected.
•      Mops and buckets should be rinsed with warm water and detergent and stored to dry
•      Reusable gloves and other protective clothing should be removed and disinfected after cleaning the
       contaminated area and equipment.

3.0    Personal protective clothing and equipment

•      Protective Gloves such as disposable PVC, latex gloves
•      Protective clothing such as disposable non porous aprons or plastic aprons
•      Safety glasses or goggles
•      Closed in footwear
•      Resuscitation mask for CPR.




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                                                                          Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


INFECTIOUS DISEASES PREVENTION



Infectious Diseases - Types

Tuberculosis: Results from a bacterial infection of the lungs or other organs and is transmitted through
casual contact – such as coughing and sneezing.

Hepatitis: A disease of the liver, which can be caused by exposure to viruses or chemicals. Viral hepatitis
causes Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.

Hepatitis A: Can be spread through eating or handling food or drink contaminated with the hepatitis A
virus. The virus is found in human excreta.

Hepatitis B & C: Can be found in body fluids such as blood and semen. It can be passed on from one person
to another by infected blood, body fluids or tissues physically entering the body.

Legionnaires’ Disease: A bacteria that thrives in warm undisturbed water in rain tanks, air conditioning
systems and shower heads which when airborne can causes a specific pneumonia. The bacteria is also known
to be located in potting mixes and other dry fine earth materials.

AIDS: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a blood borne disease that results from infection with HIV.

HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus is a disease which damages the body’s immune system so it is unable
to fight off infection. Infection with HIV can occur through the transfer of infect human blood or body fluids
and can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, needle sharing related to drug us or needle stick injury,
and where infected materials such as blood or body fluids come into direct contact with broken skin or the
mucous membranes of the eyes, nose or mouth.

Leptrospirosis: A zoonotic disease caught from urine (mainly rat’s) contaminated water. The disease enters
the body through cuts in the skin and through the linings of eyes, nose and throat. If untreated it affects the
kidneys and internal bleeding occurs.

Bacteria and Parasites

There are certain bacteria and parasites affect the health of man. These are listed below:

Bacteria
 Leptospira sp.                                   Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonei and M. marinum


 Edwardsiella tarda                               Bacteria from processing contamination such as Salmonella
                                                  spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas
                                                  spp., and Stretpococcus iniae


 Yersinia ruckeri                                 Bacteria whose action causes scombroid poisoning and
                                                  other microorganisms that produce toxins


 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae                     Aeromonas hydrophila


 Vibrio spp.                                      Plesiomonas shigelloides


 Clostridium perfringens and C. botulinum



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Parasites
Nematodes – Anasais simplex, Pseudoterranova decipiens, and Eustrongylides spp.
Cestode – Diphyllobothrium latum
Trematodes – Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis spp., Heterophyes heterophyses and Nanophyetus salmincola.
Protozoa – Cruptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp.

1.0   Modes of Transmission and Employee Groups at Potential Risk

1.1   HIV

•     HIV is not transmitted through non sexual, person to person contact. The virus can be transferred
      where infected materials such a blood or body fluids come into contact with broken skin or the mucous
      membranes of the eyes nose and mouth.
•     The virus can be transferred by injection with contaminated needles.
•     Work related risks confined to first aid officers.

1.2   Hepatitis A

•     Hepatitis A is spread through eating or handling food or drink contaminated with the Hepatitis A
      virus. The virus is found in human excreta.
•     Work related risk to maintenance plumbers if required to handle human excreta.

1.3   Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C

•     Sources of infection:
      - found in body fluids such as blood and semen.
      - can be passed to another by infected blood or body fluids entering the body.

•     Mode of transmission:
      - sharps contaminated with infected blood or body fluids penetrating the skin.
      - infected blood or body fluids splash into the eye or into broken skin or a cut.
      - injection with contaminated needles.
      - sexual contact (mainly for Hep B).
      - transfusion of infected blood products.
      - indirect transfer of infected blood through sharing of razors, toothbrushes and other personal
      items.

2.0   Risk Management

2.1   Hazard Identification

•     Identify all potential hazard from the information above

2.2   Risk Assessment

•     Assess the likelihood of infection to the employees from the tasks they are doing

2.3   Ensure the following control measures are in place:

Procedures

a.    Personal Hygiene
•     Adequate hand washing facilities shall be provided with running water, disinfectant soap and single-
      use towels.
•     Hands must be washed before eating, drinking and smoking.

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                                                                          Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


•     Hands must be washed before and after any contact with blood or body fluids.
•     Cuts or abrasions on a workers body must be covered with waterproof dressings at al times whilst at
      work.
•     Avoid the sharing of razors, toothbrushes, toiletries and other personal items.
•     Ensure kitchen items are adequately cleaned.

b.    First Aid Officers
•     Wash hands with disinfectant soap before putting disposable latex gloves on.
•     Ensure that any cuts, scrapes or skin conditions on the first aid officer are covered with a waterproof
      dressing.
•     Disposable latex gloves must be worn when dealing when administering first aid.
•     Avoid touching or being splashed by body fluids whenever possible.
•     Avoid eating, drinking and touching your mouth, nose or eyes while providing first aid care.
•     Avoid touching objects that may be contaminated with blood or other body fluids.
•     Wash down thoroughly and sterilise any contaminated area.
•     The hands must be washed as soon as possible after giving first aid with disinfectant soap.
•     A resuscitation face mask may be used when expired air resuscitation (EAR) is being administered.
      Never delay resuscitation by searching for a mask.
•     Seek medical attention if cut by any infected/contaminated items.

c.      When Infection Hazards Are Identified
•     A high standard of personal hygiene is essential when infection hazards have been identified.
•     Suitable gloves must be readily available to all workers likely to be exposed to an infectious hazard.
•     Contaminated gloves must be disposed off correctly.
•     Mask and protective eyewear should be worn if necessary.
•     Cuts or abrasions on any exposed part of a worker’s body must be covered with waterproof dressings
      at all times whilst working in a contaminated area.

d.    Occupational Zoonoses, Bacteria & Parasites
•     Appropriate gloves should be worn when handling catch to protect the skin.
•     Any cuts or abrasions must be protected with waterproof dressings.
•     Work areas must be thoroughly cleaned down according to the relevant work procedure and areas
      sterilised where necessary.
•     Medical assistance must be sought for fish spine puncture wounds and other similar injuries.

3.0   Vaccination

•     Vaccination is available against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. There is no vaccine currently available in
      Australia for HIV/Aids or Leptrospirosis.
•     Vaccination is available for first aid officers for hepatitis A and B

4.0   General

•     Employees with HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B or hepatitis C should not administer mouth-to-mouth
      resuscitation.
•     Employees with HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B or hepatitis C should consult their medical practitioner to
      assess their risk of transmission of disease during performance of normal duties.

5.0    Reporting of Infectious Diseases

Legislative requirements

The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 requires employers to notify Worksafe of certain infectious
disease involving employees.


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6.0     Information and Training

•     All employees must be informed about infectious diseases in the workplace.
•     All employees must be informed about the need to practice good hygiene concerning personal protective
      equipment usage.
•     All first aid officers must be trained in infection control.
•     Employee induction program shall contain information about health and hygiene and infection control
      from both the personal and product aspect.
•     Training records must be kept.




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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT


Plan

1.0 Australian Standards
Personal protective clothing or equipment must be made in accordance with the relevant requirements of
each standard applying to that equipment.

The PPC & E should be marked on the item itself when it is purchased. If is not marked then is not likely to
meet the standard


 AUSTRALIAN STANDARD REFERENCE NUMBER                  TITLE


 AS 1270                                               Occupational Noise Management

                                                       Recommended practices for eye protection in the
 AS 1336
                                                       industrial environment

 AS / NZS 1337 and AS/NZS 1338                         Eye protection

                                                       Filters for protection against radiation generated in
 AS 1338 – Part 1
                                                       welding and allied operations

 AS 1338 – Part 2                                      Filters for protection against ultraviolet radiation


 AS 1338- Part 3                                       Filters for protection against infrared radiation

                                                       Selection, use and maintenance of respiratory
 AS 1715
                                                       devices

 AS 1716                                               Respiratory protective devices

                                                       The selection care and use of industrial safety
 AS 1800
                                                       helmets

 AS 1801                                               Industrial Safety helmets


 AS 1891                                               Industrial Safety belts and Harnesses


 AS 2161                                               Industrial Safety Gloves and Mittens


 AS 2210                                               Safety footwear

                                                       Skin protection by way of sunscreen
 AS/NZS 2604

                                                       Clothing to protect skin against burns by heat or fire
 AS 2375

                                                       Clothing to protect skin against toxic or volatile
 AS 3765
                                                       chemicals
                                                       Industrial safety belts and harnesses – selection, use
 AS 2626
                                                       and maintenance




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2.0   SELECTION of PPC & E

2.1   Consider the following aspects of what you are going to choose:
•     evaluate the nature of the hazard
•     the circumstances and restrictions of the task to be performed
•     the acceptable level of hazard to which the worker may be exposed
•     performance requirement of the chosen item
•     where several items are work together, consider items that are designed to be worn together and still
      provide protection.

2.2   Design
•     all personal protective equipment shall wherever possible comply with the relevant Australian
      Standard.
•     where no relevant Australian Standard exists, reference may be made to a relevant international
      standard.

2.3   User acceptance
•     items selected must be compatible both with the work that has to be done and any other type of
      protective equipment that has to be used at the same time.
•     wherever possible, use equipment that is comfortable to the wearer to ensure maximum use.

2.4   Company policy
•     Your company policy may have specific requirements

2.5   Examples of the types of PPC & E required


                             OBJECTS OR PERSONS FALLING FROM ELEVATED WORKPLACES


         Area of
                              Risks                                       Protection
         Exposure

         Head                 Falling objects                             Safety helmets

                              Moving objects                              Bump hats

         Eyes                 Falling fragments                           Safety goggles, face shields

         Hands                Falling objects                             Safety gloves


                              Heavy falling & rolling objects             Safety footwear
         Feet

                              Light objects                               Protective shoes


                              Falls from one level to another
                                                                          Fall injury prevention system
                              level
         Whole Body

                              Falls from slippery surfaces                Slip resistant shoes


      Persons who may fall or be struck by a falling object include: painters, labourers, construction workers, agricultural workers,
      timber workers, roof workers, window cleaners, welders, manual handlers, storemen and packers, metal workers, shipping
      and receiving clerks, assemblers, machine operators, freight handlers, maintenance workers and demolition workers.




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                          NON-MECHANICAL PENETRATION OR IMPACT INJURIES


 Area of
                     Risks                                              Protection
 Exposure


 Head                Cutting, flying, protruding objects, sharp          Safety helmets, protective head
                     objects                                            wear


 Eyes                Protruding, flying objects                          Eye protectors, face shields


 Hands               Cutting, flying, protruding objects, sharp          Safety gloves
                     objects


 Feet                Cutting, flying, protruding objects, sharp          Safety shoes
                     objects


                     Cutting, flying, protruding objects, sharp          Protective clothing
 Whole Body
                     objects


Persons who may incur impact and penetration injuries caused by a non-mechanical object include: timber or logging workers,
agricultural workers, mechanics, laborers, carpet layers, welders, cloth cutters, metal workers, carpenters, cabinet makers,
chefs and cooks, butchers, abattoir workers, doctors, nurses, veterinarians, gardeners, grounds men and cleaners.



   BEING CRUSHED OR CAUGHT IN OR BETWEEN MOVING PARTS OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

  Area of
                         Risks                                        Protection
  Exposure


                         Moving, swinging parts of
  Head/Hair                                                           Safety helmets, hair nets
                         machinery


  Eyes                   Projected debris, off-cuts                   Safety goggles, face shields


                                                                      Machine guards are an effective
                                                                      means of preventing crushing of
                                                                      hands by machines in general and
  Hands                  Crushing
                                                                      presses in particular




                         Moving, swinging parts of
                                                                      Safety shoes
                         machinery
  Feet

                         Crushing                                     Safety shoes


  Whole body             Collisions, crushing                         Seat belts, ROPS, reflective coats


Persons who may be caught in or between, or crushed by moving machinery or equipment include: drivers, construction and
building workers, labourers, machine operators, mechanics, process workers, shipping and receiving clerks, maintenance
workers, lathe and press operators, agricultural workers and demolition workers.




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                                                HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

         Area of            Risks                                   Protection
         Exposure

         Head               Splashes, burns to the face             Face shields


         Eyes               Burns, splashes, irritation             Face shields, goggles. Irritation to the eyes
                                                                    from harmful vapours may be effectively
                                                                    controlled by changing work methods to
                                                                    isolate harmful chemicals from workers.



         Hands              Burns, dermatitis, absorption           Impervious safety gloves
                            into body tissue and blood,
                            defatting



         Feet               Burns                                   Safety footwear, impervious footwear


                            Respiratory vapours, inhalation,        Respirators, breathing apparatus
                            ingestion

         Whole body
                            Burns, absorption into body             Impervious, hazardous chemical suit
                            tissue and blood, defatting


      Persons who may be exposed to hazardous substances include: gardeners and ground keepers, agricultural workers, laboratory
      technicians, store men and packers, freight handlers, painters, labourers, maintenance workers, chemical process operators,
      emergency workers, fire fighters, manufacturing workers, metal workers, paper workers, textile workers and plastics
      workers.


                                                BURNS, SCALDS, SPLASHES

         Area of             Risks                                      Protection
         Exposure

         Head                Burns, scalding, splashes, contact         Face masks, fire protective clothing,
                             with heat                                  protective head wear

         Eyes                Splashes, sparks, burns                    Eye protectors, protective eye wear


         Hands               Burns, scalding, splashes, contact         Protective gloves
                             with heat, spills

         Feet                Burns, scalding, splashes, contact         Protective footwear, gaiters
                             with heat, spills

         Whole body          Burns, scalding, splashes, contact         Respiratory equipment, fire protective
                             with heat, spills                          clothing including aprons


      Persons who may receive burns or be scalded include: welders, foundry workers, mechanics, metal process workers, chemical
      process operators, agricultural workers, labourers, glass and ceramic workers, boilermakers, chefs and cooks, train drivers
      and engineers, and fi refighters, plumbers and maintenance workers, boiler attendants, engineering workshops, auto and
      heavy equipment mechanics using steam cleaners etc.




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                                     TABLE 7 - EXTREMES OF TEMPERATURE HAZARDS


        Area of Exposure        Risks                                       Protection


        Whole body              Heat exhaustion, heat stress,
                                                                            Respiratory equipment, fire
                                burns, scalding, contact with hot
                                                                            protective clothing, gloves
                                surfaces

                                Contact with cold surfaces,                 Thermal clothing, footwear, head
                                frostbite, hypothermia                      wear, gloves

      Persons who may be exposed to extremes of temperature include: welders, foundry workers, electricians, mechanics, metal
      workers, chemical process operators, agricultural workers, machine operators, labourers, transport drivers, glass and ceramic
      workers, boilermakers, chefs and cooks, train drivers and engineers, drycleaners, fi refighters, cold store workers, mechanical
      services plumbers, and all persons working in high or low ambient temperatures.


                                              TABLE 8 - RADIATION HAZARDS


        Area of Exposure        Risks                                    Protection


        Head                    Cancer, skin burns                       Face shields, protective head wear
                                                                         (wide brims)

        Eyes                    Optical radiation, glare,                Eye filters, protective eye wear
                                corneal damage, cataracts

        Hands                   Cancer, skin burns                       Protective gloves

        Feet                    Cancer, skin burns                       Protective footwear

        Whole body              Cancer, skin burns, reproductive         Shields, aprons, protective clothing,
                                toxicity, damage to nervous or           sunscreen lotions
                                cardiovascular system



      Persons who may be exposed to radiation include: welders and foundry workers, electricians, medical staff, health workers,
      glass and ceramic workers, agricultural workers, laboratory technicians, luminous paint workers, electronic equipment
      workers, transport drivers, outdoor workers, machine operators, metal workers, illuminating engineers and electrical
      engineers.

Procedures

1.0   THE EMPLOYER MUST

1.1   Provide the necessary PPC & E as per the risk assessment carried out free of charge to the employee

1.2   Provide information to the employee about the use, fitting, selection, testing, maintenance and storage
      of the PPC & E

1.3   Replace the PPC & E when:
      • it no longer provides the level of protection required to protect the wearer or user against the
        particular hazard;
      • when the safe working life, as specified by the manufacturer has expired;
      • when it is damaged and cannot be repaired.

1.4   Signs conforming to AS 1319 shall be posted in specific locations as a reminder to all employees of the
      need for protective clothing and equipment.


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2.0   THE EMPLOYEE MUST

2.1   must use the protective clothing or equipment in a manner in which he or she has been properly
      instructed to use it;

2.2   must not misuse or damage the clothing or equipment;

2.3   must, as soon as practicable after becoming aware of any damage to malfunction of; or need to clean or
      sterilise, the clothing or equipment, notify the employer of the damage, malfunction or need to clean
      or sterilise the clothing or equipment.

3.0   TRAINING

3.1   The training program for all users of personal protective clothing and equipment (PPCE)shall include
      an induction component and a job specific component:

3.1   Induction training

a.    General information about PPCE shall be presented in the induction training program for new
      employees. An induction program relevant to PPCE should include:
      • duty of care under the Occupational Safety and Health Act
      • safety and health policies and procedures
      • provision, use, storage and maintenance of PPCE in particular the risks with incorrect use or
        maintenance of the PPCE
      • emergency procedures in case of special risks eg. chemical spills or fires.

3.2   Job Training
a.    Training of new and existing employees for their specific jobs should cover the hazards and risks
      associated with the job identified in a hazard identification and risk assessment process. It should also
      include instruction in the use of PPCE required by the job including:
      * recognition of the need for PPE
      * correct selection , use and wearing
      * comfort and fit requirements
      * limitations of a selected item
      * practices to be followed when such clothing and equipment are being worn
      * recognise when the equipment is damaged, no longer performs the function it was designed for,
        malfunctions or requires maintenance
      * care, cleaning or sterilisation of the equipment
      * manufacturers safe working life on the equipment
b.    The training program may be provided in house by a competent person providing this complies with or
      does not conflict with legislative requirements.
c.    Where legislation requires specific training, this shall be done by an accredited trainer in the specific
      area required.




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ULTRA VIOLET PROTECTION


1.0   Definitions

UVR: Ultraviolet radiation – part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted from the sun which cannot be
seen by the human eye. Contains two ranges, UVA and UVB. UVR is at its greatest intensity between 10 am
and 3 pm and is approximately 3 times high in the summer than in the winter.

UVA: Ultraviolet long wavelength radiation (in the range of 314-400 nm) responsible for skin tanning and
ageing.

UVB: Ultraviolet short wavelength radiation (in the range of 280-315 nm) responsible for blistering sunburn
and skin cancer.

SPF: Sun Protection Factor – labelled 4 to 60+. The SPF 15+ is recommended for use in Australia.

EPF: Eye Protection Factor – scaled from 1 – 10. The higher the number the higher the protection. An EPF
10 is recommended for use in the fishing industry.

Broad spectrum: Referring to labelling on sunscreen as being capable of screening both UVA and UVB
rays.

Glare: Reflected, scattered or horizontal radiation from the whole sky. Timber reflects 6.6% UVR, fiberglass
9.1%, open water 3.3% and ocean 8%

Solar noon: When the sun is at its highest in the sky. Perth readings are January, 11.2 minutes; June, 96
minutes.

Cataracts: Cloudiness of the eye lens.

Photo keratopathy: Sunburn of the cornea.

Solar keratopathy: Cloudiness of the cornea.

Pterygium: (pronounced terigium) An overgrowth of the conjunctiva on to the cornea.

Cancer of the conjunctiva: Cancer of the membrane covering the white part of the eye.

Skin cancer of the eyelids: Development of basal cell carcinoma on the eyelid.

Photosensitizing medication: Makes the body and eyes more sensitive to sunlight and can be found in
many medicines including antibiotics such as tetracycline.

2.1   Control measures notes

a.    For significant continuous outdoor work choose sunglasses that have an eye protection factor level
      of 10, have wrap-around Polaroid glare foil lenses which eliminate 95% of direct UVR and 99.9% of
      reflected or scattered light.

b.    Sunglasses comply with AS/NZS1337 & 1338.2 for safety and prescription sunglasses or AS/NZS 1067
      for non-safety sunglasses.

c.    Wide brimmed hat will reduce the UVR to the face by up to 50% and should be worn whenever
      practicable provided it does not compromise the safety of the work being carried out at that time.

d.    Sunscreen with maximum UV protection. Choose a sunscreen base according to the type of work
      conditions. For a dusty workplace water or alcohol base (rather than oil base) is better to save dust
      sticking to skin.

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                                                                           Safety & Health Kit for Small Business


FORKLIFTS


Plan

1.0    Fork Lift Design and Modification Requirements

1.1     Design

a.     The forklift, attachments, guards and other features should meet established standards such as AS/
       NZS 2359.1 – 1995 Powered Industrial Trucks Part 1 – General requirements. All forklifts should have
       some form of verification on the forklift that they conform to this standard.

b.     General design requirements are:
       • Adequately marked operating controls.
       • Appropriate warning devices which may include sirens, horns, beepers and flashing lights.
       • Noise and vibration minimised.
       • Emission control systems fitted where the forklift is to be operated in a poorly ventilated area.
       • Forklifts should not be used in a confined space when powered by petrol, diesel or LPG even with a
         catalytic converter.
       • Adjustable rear vision mirrors and of sufficient size to allow the operator to reverse safely without
         having to twist around in the seat.
       • Provision of a load back-rest extension high enough to prevent the load (or part of the load) falling
         back onto the operator.
       • Where possible provide a sprung adjustable seat that is well maintained.
       • Larger forklifts need adequate steps and handholds so that the operator can enter and leave safely.
       • Where the forklift will be operating in or near areas containing flammable or combustible
         atmospheres the forklift must be flame and static proof.

c.     When second hand forklifts are purchased ensure that the design and construction of the intended
       forklift meets all items under this Section.

1.2     Modifications

a.     Prior to intending to modify a forklift or its attachments in any way that affects operation or
       performance, advice must be sought from the manufacturer, supplier or a competent person.

b.     Where any forklift is modified, the person carrying out the modifications should carry out the
       appropriate tests and examinations of the forklift to ensure it is as safe as was intended by the
       designer.

c.     Where the rated load capacity is changed as a result of modifications to the forklift or its attachments,
       load charts need to be revised to take account of the modifications before putting the forklift or its
       attachments back to work.

1.3     Forklift data plates

a.     Data plates must be attached on every forklift, in clear view with the following information in the
       English language:
       • Make, model and serial number
       • Rated load capacity (kgs) at nominated load center distance (mms) at maximum lift height (metres)
         (mast vertical)
       • Mast tilt (degrees) (forward and rear)
       • Maximum lift height (metres)
       • Tyre pressure (Pa) (if pneumatic)

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      • Gross vehicle mass (kgs) and steer axle load (kgs) (unloaded, mast vertical), or drive axle loads (kgs)
        (unladen).

1.4     Attachments

a.    Where attachments are fitted to the forklift:
      • Correct instructions for its use must be supplied
      • An additional data plate needs to be fitted, specifying limitations of the forklift when operating
        with the attachment
      • Attachments needs to be designed and manufactured by a competent person.

1.5     Guarding

a.    Guards over hot parts, moving parts and exposed wheels should meet AS 4024.1 Safe Guarding of
      machinery, however the types of loads to be handled may warrant a reduction of aperture size of
      overhead and other guards.

1.6   Operator protective devices shall be provided where there remains a risk of the:
•     Forklift overturning
•     Objects falling on the operator
•     The operator being ejected from the seat.

2.0   Safe Systems of Work

2.1   The three areas that constitute safe systems of work in addition to the design are:
•     Operator training and competence
•     Operator supervision
•     Safe work practices

Operator Training and Competence

•     The operator of the forklift must have been assessed by a registered assessor,as being competent to
      operate the forklift in accordance with the National Load Shifting Guidelines.
•     The operator must be provided with additional information relating to the specific forklift that is to be
      operated.
•     Operators should be provided with regular on-the-job performance monitoring and refresher training
      to maintain competency.

Operator Supervision

Regular checks should be made to ensure the operator is following safe work procedures Safe Work
Practices.

a.    Weekly safety checks as per Appendix 1, should be carried out by the operator:
      • Before operating a forklift they haven’t operated before
      • Weekly
      • Safe operation.

b.    Forklifts operated in a safe manner and used for the purposes they were designed for

c.    Operated within the manufacturers design specifications i.e. do not use in an explosive atmosphere
      unless it has been modified accordingly

d.    Working in a poorly ventilated areas such as the cool store or confined space, needs to include the
      consideration of the exhaust emissions, the time the forklift is required to operate and whether other
      persons are working in the area at the time.
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e.   When shutting down the forklift:
     • Fork arms are fully lowered
     • Controls in neutral
     • Power is shut off
     • Park brakes applied
     • Unless other wise authorised, the ignition key is removed to prevent unauthorised use.

f.   Attachments
     • Securely fastened to the forklift.
     • Supplier of the attachment together with the manufacturer of the forklift determines the lifting
       capacity with the attachment fitted.
     • Instructions provided by the supplier of the Attachment, if available, must be followed at all times.

g.   Electricity
     • The forklift or any attachment must not come into the danger zone of an overhead power lines.

h.   Loads
     • Limit the load to the rated load capacity of the forklift or attachment as shown on the data plates.
     • Operators must be competent to calculate whether loads of varying shapes and masses can be lifted
       by their forklifts.
     • Operate with the load firmly against the carriage or back rest with the mast tilted back sufficiently
       to guard against the load slipping or rolling off the fork arms.
     • Any load that may slip or roll off the fork arms or pallet must be restrained with straps or
       equivalent.
     • Loads should be carried as close to the ground as possible.

i.   Fuel Handling and storage
     • If a forklift is to operate in a flammable gas atmosphere or combustible dust atmosphere it must
       comply with Australian Standard 2359.1.
     • Liquid fuel must be handled and stored in accordance with Australian Standard 1940.
     • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) must be handled and stored in accordance with Australian Standard
       1596.
     • Forklifts powered by LPG engine should be refueled parked and stored in a well ventilated area and
       a safe distance form combustible materials.

j.   Battery charging and changing
     • Face shields, aprons and rubber gloves must be used.
     • Forklift parked in a safe position with the park brake applied.
     • Vent caps functioning properly and remain in pace during charging.
     • Any cover over the battery must be kept open while charging to allow generated gases to escape
        into the atmosphere.
     • Safe work practices for charging the battery include:
        i. No smoking
        ii. No open flames
        iii. No use of metal objects that might strike a spark
        iv. Proper tools used
        v. Eyes protected
        vi. Rings and bracelets removed.
     • Running water must be provided for body wash and eye wash
     • Fire extinguishers easily accessible
     • Adequate ventilation in the area

k.   Safe work areas
     • Clearly defined traffic areas
     • Adequate sign posting and safety symbols

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•     Pedestrian and traffic areas separated and barricaded or clearly designated
•     Mirrors and visual aids at blind corners and obscured hazards
•     Where possible prohibit persons from working in the area where forklifts are operating
•     Wherever practicable install bollards inside and outside on both sides of doorways used by forklifts to
      minimise collisions with other forklifts or people
•     Establish and signpost speed limits for the forklift
•     Forklift operating areas should be free of potholes, drains etc
•     Adequate lighting provided in the work area especially in the area immediately inside the building to
      avoid vision problems when passing from bright light into a less lit area
•     Level, secure and robust ramps with edge protection
•     Edge protection to prevent forklift being driven over the side of an edge

l.    Atmospheric pollution
•     Adequate ventilation where forklifts powered by LPG, diesel or petrol are used to avoid the concentration
      of exhaust gas contaminants discharged into the breathing zone of the operator or any other person
      exceeding NOHSC standards
•     Where it is necessary to use a non electric forklift in a poorly ventilated area it is recommended to use
      a diesel powered unit as less fumes are produced

3.0    Risk Management

a)    The manager must ensure they identify assess and control any access and egress hazards in the work
      practices in the wor karea.

b)    Where hazards and controls have already been identified, the manager must ensure those controls are
      followed

3.1     Hazard Identification

a)    Hazards may occur in any of the following areas
•     Slippery floors
•     Potentially explosive atmospheres
•     Toxic atmospheres
•     Restricted ventilation
•     Poor visibility
•     Rear end swing
•     Blind corners
•     Pedestrian areas
•     Uneven surfaces
•     Ramps
•     Other vehicle traffic
•     Wet and dry areas
•     Noisy machines;
•     Confined spaces
•     Lighting conditions

3.2     Risk Assessment

a)    The risk assessment shall consider the following risk factors:
•     Forklift to be used
•     Area where the work is to be done
•     The work required to be done
•     People and other vehicles in the work area
•     Ramps
•     Loads to be moved

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•    Attachments
•    Vision requirements

b)   The operator shall consider the following items as part of the risk assessment:
•    Where will I have to stop
•    Where should I slow down
•    When should I sound the horn
•    Where will I need to reverse
•    What is a safe speed to travel at
•    The weights and shape of the load
•    The height your going to lift the load
•    The forward or backward tilt of the load
•    The area you need to travel.




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3.3   Risk Control


        HAZARD OR RISK                                       RISK CONTROL


        Manual handling injury while servicing forklift,     Get assistance to lift objects such as tyres and
        changing tyres, manoeuvering loads on by hand        batteries.
                                                             Use mechanical lifting devices.


        Being hit by a moving forklift                       Separate forklift and pedestrians.
                                                             Install audible and visual warning devices.
                                                             Drive forklift at walking speed.
                                                             Pedestrians to ensure eye contact is made with
                                                             forklift operator before proceeding.


        Items slipping from forklift                         Ensure load is restrained


        Tripping while removing loads                        Unload forklift in clear area or ensure area is clear
                                                             before unloading


        Falling while getting out of forklift                Do not rush or jump form the seat


        Hitting stationary objects while driving             Drive slower.
                                                             Ensured driveways are clearly marked and free of
                                                             obstacles.
                                                             Drive in reverse when forward view is poor.
                                                             No use of mobile phones while driving.
                                                             Plan storage areas.


        Forklift falling off loading dock                    Provide edge protection


        Forklift falling off ramp                            Level, secure and robust ramps with edge
                                                             protection.
                                                             Maintain load at lowest point on forks.
                                                             Stack load on the flat.


        Forklift tipping over                                Employee training.
                                                             Safe work procedures.


        Operators body being hit by outside objects or the   Employee training to keep arms and legs inside the
        load                                                 operator protective zone.
                                                             Don’t use damaged pallets or drums or containers
                                                             that may collapse during use.
                                                             Ensure back – rest extension and overhead are in
                                                             place.


        Operators suffering sprains or strains               Ensure seating is maintained, and vibration
                                                             minimised


        Hitting another person with the load                 Pick up load when area is clear.
                                                             Do not allow any person to walk under elevated
                                                             forks even if no load is being carried.


        Person falling from forklift forks                   No passengers unless in a seat with appropriate
                                                             restraint devices.
                                                             No persons on forks or load.


        Atmospheric contaminants                             Remove forklift from confined space as soon as work
                                                             is completed.
                                                             Use appropriate forklift with devices fitted to minimise
                                                             contaminants.




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4.0   Inspection, Maintenance and Repair

4.1   Inspection and Maintenance Program

The schedule for inspection and maintenance covers the following:

•     What standards the forklift is to be inspected and maintained by ie. the manufacturers details in the
      handbook
•     The frequency of inspection and maintenance; every week
•     Procedures that are to be followed when carrying out inspections and maintenance
•     Follow the hazard reporting procedures for MG Kailis Tuna
•     Forklifts with a fault or condition requiring repair shall be tagged and not be used until the problem is
      rectified
•     The forklift will be cleaned to facilitate detection of work or defective parts and also fire risks
•     The forklift pre – start check list as per Appendix 1 will be conducted on a weekly basis
•     Employees who have received specific training shall conduct fuel handling and storage, battery charging
      and changing and basic vehicle maintenance.

4.2   Damaged Forklifts

•     Where a forklift is deemed to be damaged an ‘out of service’ tag will be placed on the forklift
•     The operate will report the matter by way of a hazard report.
•     A competent person shall inspect the forklift to determine the nature of the problem and what needs
      to be carried out to rectify the problem.

5.0   Instruction and Training

5.1   A person who is required to operate a forklift must have been assessed by a registered assessor as being
      competent to operate the equipment in accordance with the competency standards in the National
      Load Shifting Guidelines.

5.2   No other person, even for training purposes is permitted to ride on the forklift unless the person is
      seated in a seat specifically designed for carrying another person and the seat is fitted with appropriate
      seat restraints and is located within he zone of protection afforded by the required operator protective
      devices.

5.3   On an annual basis, all forklift drivers will undergo an on the job monitoring to determine they are
      operating the forklift within the requirements and are following procedures.

5.4   All training and annual monitoring will be recorded on the training register.




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APPENDIX 1 - FORKLIFT DRIVER SAFE WORKING PROCEDURES

Weekly Checklist Date: ______________                          Make: ________________________________________


 ITEM                                                        CHECKED                                                    COMMENTS
                                                              (Tick)


 Check Engine Oil


 Check Engine Coolant &
 Temperature gauge


 Visually check tyres (Toyota only)



 Visually check mast, mast chain
 and forks. Grease weekly


 Check seat is secure and seat belt
 is in good condition


 In correct operating position (in the
 seat). Start the unit and listen for
 any unusual noise


 Operate lift and check for smooth
 operation and good control


 Check foot brake is not spongy or
 goes to the floor


 Check hour meter is operational

 SIGNATURE
                                                                                 ...................................................................................................


Service and/or Fault Record

Date: ______________________                      Make/Model: ________________________________________


 COMMENTS:




 SIGNATURE: ...................................................................................................



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APPENDIX 2 - FORKLIFT DRIVER SAFE WORKING PROCEDURES


KNOW YOUR WORKPLACE                                   UNDERSTAND THE LOAD CHART


Check                                                 • The capacity of the forklift is the weight it
• Blind corners                                         can safely lift at a specific loads center
• Pedestrian areas                                    • The load center is the distance from the heel
• Uneven surfaces                                       of the tyne to the center of gravity of the
• Ramps                                                 test load, which is used to establish the safe
• Other vehicle traffic                                  working load of the forklift.
• Wet and dry areas                                   • Tynes should be below axle level when
• Will I hear others                                    traveling
• Confined spaces                                      • Loads should always be against the heel of
• Lighting conditions                                   the tynes
                                                      • Extra weight should not be added to the
                                                        counterbalance in order to carry a bigger
                                                        load
                                                      • The forklift should not be overloaded


CHECKING THE LOAD                                     MOVING LOADS


• Is the load stacked correctly, if not organise      • Loads must not be suspended, or travel, over
  restacking                                            a person
• Is the load likely to slip off                      • Keep clear of other people when moving
• Is the pallet in good condition, remove               and loading objects
  damaged pallets from service                        • Be aware of restricted viewing
• Is the load within the load limit of the forklift   • Secure the load before carrying it
  (check the load plate)                              • Avoid sudden stops and starts
• Does the shape of the load require special          • Never exceed the recommended weight
  precautions such as lifting from the other side     • Carry the load as close to the ground as
  or tying it to the carriage or backrest               possible
• What is the point of balance                        • Do not use the forklift as a towing devices
• Does the size of the load limit your forward        • Do not attach a tow rope to the mast to pull
  vision and you need to drive in reverse of get        or tow loads
  someone to guide you                                • Do not push the load with the point of one or
• Will you need to take a different route               both forks
  because of the height or width of the load          • Do not attempt to move a load that
                                                        appears unsuitable to move


BODY POSITION                                         PEOPLE ON FORK LIFTS


• Do not place any part of the body outside           • Do not allow passengers on the forklift unless
  the operator’s compartment or outside the             there is a separate seat with restraint
  over head protection                                • Do not lift people on the fork arms or a pallet
• Remain seated at all times                          • Do not travel with people on the forks
• Keep clear of the lifting mechanism at all
  times




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APPENDIX 2 - FORKLIFT DRIVER SAFE WORKING PROCEDURES (continued)


 ATTACHMENTS                                               VISION

 •   Make sure the attachment used is appropriate          •   Keep a careful watch on surroundings while
     for the workplace and the job                             working or driving
 •   Do not drag a forked load                             •   Reduce speed as appropriate to the people
 •   Do not sling loads from the fork arms, unless             and vehicle traffic in the work area
     using a proper lifting device secured to the fork-    •   Be aware of blind corners, pathways etc. where
     lift carriage to prevent displacement                     people or vehicles may suddenly appear
 •   When lifting freely suspended loads, forklift         •   If the load obscures forward vision either of the
     capacity is reduced to 80 percent of normal               two options should be used:
     rated capacity. Any attachment forms part of          •   The fork lift should be driven in reverse (except
     the load.                                                 up ramps) OR another employee should act as
 •   Do not use damaged pallets, bins or containers            a guide for the forklift driver
     that may collapse                                     •   Keep warning lights flashing when using the
 •   Do not modify any attachments without the                 forklift
     agreement of a competent person.                      •   Do not raise the load to see under it
                                                           •   Be aware of blind spots created by the mast,
                                                               the lift cylinder or other parts of the forklift
                                                           •   Sound the warning device when going through
                                                               doorways, around blind corners or when starting
                                                               to reverse
                                                           •   Be aware of certain work areas where there is a
                                                               high volume of vehicle and people traffic and
                                                               consider application of a-e as appropriate.
                                                           •   When driving into a darker area or into bright
                                                               sunshine, stop and let your eyes adjust to the
                                                               light
                                                           •   Ensure no one is near you when you pick up a
                                                               load


 RAMPS                                                     PREVENTION OF THE FORK-LIFT TIPPING
                                                           FORWARD

 •   Should not be used unless the operator is trained     •   Check the load capacity and load center of
     in their use.                                             the fork lift
 •   Must be secure                                        •   The load should always be facing uphill: reverse
 •   Must have the capacity to support the forklift            loaded fork-lifts down gradients
     and the load                                          •   The load should be back on the heel of the fork
 •   Be maintained in good condition                           arms
 •   Have good traction even in wet weather                •   Lower the load as low as possible when
 •   Have side rails to prevent wheels slipping off            travelling
 •   Allow smooth weight transfer on and off the           •   Don’t add counter-weights so the fork lift can lift
     ramp                                                      heavier weights that its design capacity allows
 •   Have a gradient that does not exceed the
     angle recommended for safe operation of the
     forklift
 •   Mobile ramps must be fixed at the top to
     prevent dislodgment


 ROLL OVER PREVENTION                                      ROLL OVER PREVENTION

 •   Don’t drive the fork lift across an incline           • Keep the forklift level, avoid uneven driving
 •   Drive up and down gradients slowly                      surfaces, dips and pot-holes
 •   At all times keep the load facing upwards             • Maintain even steering, aggressive steering
 •   Be careful with unloaded fork-lifts, they are often
                                                             may cause rear end swing
     more unstable




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FATIGUE MANAGEMENT



1.0   Introduction

Fatigue becomes an occupational safety and health issue if a person’s ability to exercise judgment, coordination,
motor control, concentration and alertness is affected at the workplace, leading to an increased risk of injury
or illness.

A person affected by fatigue may present a hazard in the workplace, causing injury to themselves or other
persons at the workplace.

2.0    Definitions

Fatigue: a loss of alertness, which eventually ends in sleep. This loss of alertness is accompanied by poor
judgement, slower reaction to events, decreased skill and coordination. Fatigue can be acute or chronic,
physiological or general.

Acute fatigue: relieved by rest.

Chronic fatigue: sets in when there is insufficient recovery time between work sessions.

Physiological fatigue: when one or more muscle groups are used to the point of soreness poor cramping

General fatigue: continuous deterioration leading to reduced performance, increased symptoms and higher
risk.

3.0   Impact of fatigue

a.    Increase in manual handling injuries
b.    Increase in accidents
c.    Damage to plant and equipment
d.    Reduced ability to work effectively through lack of concentration
e.    Falling asleep
f.    Failure to appreciate potentially important signals
g.    Employee behavioural problems.


4.0   Effects of fatigue

4.1   The most common effects of fatigue are:
a.    Desire to sleep
b.    Lack of concentration
c.    Temporary memory loss
d.    Slowed reaction times
e.    Irritability
f.    Headache sand general body aches
g.    Mood swings
h.    Reduce physical capabilities
i.    Reduce hand eye coordination
j.    Poor judgement
k.    Effects to general health and well-being.



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4.2   Indicators that show a person may be fatigued:
a.    blurred vision
b.    difficulty keeping eyes open
c.    excessive head nodding
d.    excessive yawning
e.    repeatedly moving off track if driving vehicles and plant.

4.3    An employer may identify fatigue by the following:
a.    Increased employee irritability
b.    Increased errors by the employee
c.    Falling asleep at work
d.    Increased absenteeism.

5.0   Risk management

5.1     Hazard identification

The following factors may affect a persons ability to work safely:
a.    Long or arduous work
b.    Physical requirements of the job
c.    Irregular or unpredictable hours of work
d.    Time of day or night when work is performed and sleep obtained
e.    Mental stimulation of the job
f.    Continual noise exposure
g.    Workplace climate, too hot or too cold
h.    Continual vibration from equipment
i.    Constant concentration on a fixed or moving point
j.    Excessive work schedules
k.    Manual handling / repetitive work
l.    Quality of rest breaks and relaxation time
m. Personal health
n.    Personal emotional issues.

5.2     Risk assessment

Assessment of fatigue objectively and measuring its impact of safe working procedures is difficult. It is also
relative to the hazards of the job and level of risk involved.

a.    Managers need to determine if a person is fatigued and if it impacts on the safety of persons l
b.    Managers may be able to determine if a persons fatigue affects their ability to work safely by the
      following effects:
      • desire to sleep / falling asleep while at work
      • lack of concentration
      • temporary memory loss
      • slowed reaction time
      • increased irritability
      • headaches and general body aches
      • mood swings
      • reduced physical strength and capabilities
      • reduced eye-hand co-ordination
      • poor judgment/work errors




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5.3    Risk Control measures – employers

a.    Scheduling work flow
      Make sure there are adequate rest periods so employees do not experience fatigue. Ensure work
      schedules, workload and timelines are manageable. Being on call and taking work home on top of
      normal duties should be assessed to determine whether people are working excessive hours.

b.    Rostering of employees
      Define the task, select the people best suited to meet required outputs and ensure that where possible,
      shifts are rotated and sufficient time off is provided between shifts to allow for adequate quality of life.
      This includes designing or rotating jobs and tasks where practical along with recognising potentially
      stressful tasks. Ensure adequate breaks are provided in suitable facilities, if available, so that the
      employee is away from the workstation. Further information on workplace amenities can be obtained
      from the WorkSafe Western Australia Commission Code of Practice entitled First Aid, Workplace
      Amenities and Personal Protective Equipment.

c.    Presenting for work
      Ensure employees are able to work safely. Employees should be made aware that factors in their personal
      life can impact on their level of fatigue and their capacity to work safely. The safety of those around
      them can also be affected. If an employee is fatigued, they should notify their employer who will need
      to introduce temporary measures to manage the risk of injury until the employee has recovered.

d.      Health
      An employee’s health and fitness are contributing factors to the level of fatigue. The employer might
      provide healthy lifestyle information to encourage and promote personal health and fitness of
      employees, and provide support for work related problems. It may also be beneficial to offer confidential
      support for emotional and family problems. (See training and education).

e.    Responsibilities
      An effective fatigue management system should define and communicate responsibilities. Everyone
      needs to be aware of and practice his or her responsibilities.

f.    Documentation and records
      Work schedules, rosters and records of hours worked should be documented and retained for a
      reasonable period as part of good management practice.

g.     Incident management
      Fatigue should be considered as a contributory factor when investigating incidents. The results of all
      investigations should be recorded and assessed to identify unsafe practices and changes made to
      facilitate the prevention of future injury and damage.

h.    Safe environment
      Addressing other occupational safety and health issues can also assist to reduce fatigue especially
      physically demanding work or long periods of time at key boards

5.4    Risk control measures – employees

a.    The employee must ensure they are in a fit state for work when presenting for his/her shift.
b.    The employee shall comply with alcohol and drug policy.
c.    The employee should advise the manager where they have any injuries or illness that may prevent
      him/her carrying out specific duties.
d.    The employee should ensure they have had sufficient sleep prior to commencing shift.
e.    Planning social activities so that adequate time for sleep is scheduled.
f.    Have regular meal breaks.
g.    Healthy nutritional food to be consumed.
h.    Drinking water to be consumed, especially in hot works.

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WELDING



1.0   Risk Management

1.1     Hazard Identification

The following possible welding hazards will be considered prior to commencing welding operations:

•     Contact with electrically live components
•     Burns to the eyes or body due to the welding arc
•     Burns due to weld splatter or hot or molten materials
•     Fire and explosion hazards
•     Foreign matter in the eye
•     Illness from fume inhalation
•     Asphyxiation
•     Excessive noise.

2.2   Risk Assessment

Each hazard shall be assessed as to the potential for injury or harm to the welder or others in the vicinity
while welding is occurring.

      TYPE OF WELDING/   HAZARDS               CONTROLS REFERENCE – WTIA TECHNICAL NOTE 7
      CUTTING PROCESS


      Electric Arc       Plant or Equipment    Equipment to be used is selected and used as per its capacity
      Welding                                  or rating for the job.
                                               Equipment complies with the requirements of electrical supply
                                               authorities.
                                               Plant is manufactured to AS 1966.
                                               Portable welders made to AS/NZS 3195.
                                               Portable welders must have name plates clearly visible.
                                               Plant is located in clean, dry conditions away from high
                                               temperatures.
                                               Welding equipment not to be used in environments
                                               containing flammable gases or combustible gases.
                                               Welding and work return cable must be of sufficient capacity
                                               for the welding current.
                                               Cable must conform to AS 1995.
                                               Cables replaced by authorised persons only.
                                               Cable lengths as short as possible.
                                               Frayed cable or damaged insulation repaired before use.
                                               Do not use faulty work return connections.
                                               Do not connect work return cables to structural systems.
                                               Welding plant remains stationary while in use.


                                               Personal protective clothing and equipment used - see
                         Radiation
                                               section 9


                         Atmospheric           Fume control plan in place – see section 10
                         Contaminants


                         Fire and Explosion    Accumulated dusts should be regularly cleaned up – see
                                               section 6




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      TYPE OF WELDING/     HAZARDS                  CONTROLS REFERENCE – WTIA – CHAPTER 5
      CUTTING PROCESS


      Gas metal arc        Burns from flame,         Personal protective clothing and equipment – see section 9
      welding GMAW         hot objects, molten
      (MIG)                material


                           General plant and        Safe setting up procedures.
                           equipment                Pressure testing and leak test of all components.
                                                    Purging, light up and shut off blowpipe.
                                                    Safe closing down.


                           Explosion by gas         Equipment used from a reputable supplier.
                           leakage from             Satisfactory connections of all gas pressure equipment.
                           cylinders, bulk supply   Use equipment only for the purpose it was designed for.
                           hoses, mixed gas
                           explosions


                           Cylinder storage and     Storage areas well ventilated away from heat sources.
                           handling                 Cylinders stored vertically and secured and restrained.
                                                    No smoking or naked light signs where fuel gases are stored.
                                                    Separate full cylinders from empty ones.


                           Fire by ignition of      Adequate ventilation and leak free systems.
                           flammable materials,      Free acetylene is never used outside the cylinder at pressure
                           leakage of gas or        exceeding 105kPa gauge.
                           contact with hot slag


                           Oxygen ignition of       See section 6
                           materials not normally
                           considered flammable


                           Asphyxiation due         Not used in confined spaces
                           to build up of gas in
                           confined space


                           Radiation damage to      Personal protective clothing and equipment – see section 9
                           the eyes


                           Fume originating         Fume control plan in place – see section 10
                           from materials being
                           welded


                           Electric shock when      See section 2
                           gas welding or cutting
                           on cables



Risk Control

•     Provide the necessary engineering and equipment controls
•     Adopting safe work practices
•     Using personal protective clothes and equipment
•     Training of workers

2.0   Avoiding the Risk of Electrocution in Manual Welding

•     The welder must avoid bare skin contact with the electrode or live parts of the electrode holder or
      gun
•     Bare hands, damp or defective gloves shall not be used
•     The electrode holder should be of AS 2826
•     Prevent direct contact with the work piece by the use an insulating material
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•      Dry overalls or shirt and trousers, insulated boots, welding gloves to be worn by the welder
•      Stand on an insulating material when working at a bench
•      When welding in physically cramped conditions or wet, hot or damp locations use a voltage-limiting
       device.

3.0    Prevention of Arc Radiation

3.1    Personal protection for both skin and eyes for the welder.
3.2    All personnel operating within 10 metres of welding processes shall be protected by screens.
3.3    Screens should be of the following:
       • either portable or permanent
       • opaque or appropriate translucent materials
       • sturdy constructions to withstand rough usage
       • non-flammable material which will not be readily set alight by sparks or jh0ot metal
       • permit circulation at floor and ceiling level
       • not be so heavy as to discourage movement or use.

4.0    Fires and Explosion Protection

4.1    Ensure hot particles or sparks cannot lodge in crevices or combustible material
4.2    Discard electrode stubs separate from ignition sources
4.3    Do not use oxygen to refresh air
4.4    Ventilation of confined spaces
4.5    Oxygen is not to be used as a substitute for compressed air
4.6    Avoid kinking of pressure hosing
4.7    Oxygen or compressed air shall not be used to dust off clothes
4.8    Choose location of hoses to avoid accidental damage
4.9    Do not heat a gas cylinder by direct or nearby welding, cutting or other heat generating processes
4.10   Ensure there are no flammable products on other sides of screens or partitions
4.11   Ensure all electrical connections are in good condition
4.12   Determine the flammability of the materials within range of sparks or splatter
4.13   Prevention of dust explosions or fires:
       a) Cleanup dust accumulation
       b) Store accumulated dusts in a safe area free of ignition sources
       c) Ignition sources such as open flames, welding flames, arcs or splatter not present where a hazard
       exists

5.0    Control of Fumes

5.1    Adopt safe work practices such as good housekeeping.
5.2    Substitution of a less hazardous material, process or procedure where possible.

Local Exhaust Ventilation by: (see page 54- 55 of WTIA - Technical Note 7 –98)
a)    Fixed local exhaust units
b)    Movable exhaust hoods
c)    “On gun” fume extractors.

Mechanical Dilution Ventilation
a)   By dilution of contaminated air with un contaminated air.
b)   Must have correct exhaust volume and control of air flow through the workplace.
c)   This is only suitable in some applications where the hazard is low.

Natural Ventilation
a)   Only used where the concentration and type of contaminant are not considered a hazard to health.
Further information on specific control measures can be found in Technical Note 7 –98 Chapter 17

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6.0   Noise Control

•     Elimination of the noise sources
•     Substitute the noisy operation or equipment
•     Enclose the noise sources or modifying it
•     Control the noise transmission to others in the workplace
•     Use personal hearing protection
•     Limiting the exposure of the worker

7.0   Personal Protective Equipment (Chapter 19 WTIA- Technical Note 7)

7.1   Protection of Eyes and Head
a)    Welding helmets and head shields that conform to AS 1337 and AS 1338 with protective filters made
      of non-flammable, non-conducting materials.
b)    Protective goggles that conform to AS 1337:
      • Non flammable with anti-glare sides
      • Safety spectacles underneath helmets
      • Protective filters installed appropriate to the type of welding – up to 250amps – use filter 12 and
      above
      • Welding helmets with self darkening filters where appropriate.
c)    Welders caps as required, made from heat resistant material
      • Flame cutting - Protective filters installed use filter 5 for medium cutting

2.2   Protective Clothing for the Body
a)    Wear wool or flame resistant overalls or trousers and shirt.
b)    Clothing to be free of cuffs or open pockets.
c)    Fit snugly at wrists but be loose fitting when working in hot conditions.
d)    Cover tops of foot wear.
e)    Leather welding gloves/gauntlets be worn that comply with AS 2161 and be pliable and flame resistant
      with seams inside.
f)    Safety footwear in accordance with AS 2210.
g)    Additional items such as aprons, sleeves, shoulder covers, leggings or spats of flame resistant material,
      may be appropriate in some situations.

2.2   Respiratory Protection
a)    Used in addition to fume management systems.
b)    All devices must conform to AS 1715.
c)    The selection of the appropriate device depends on the following:
      • Type of contaminants
      • Fitting under helmets
      • Fume management system in use
      • Welder comfort
      • Oxygen deficient atmospheres i.e. confined spaces require air supplied.
d)    Class P2 – Dust / Mist / Fumes – specific to welding and ozone relief.




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8.0    Welding/Cutting Summary – atmospheric contaminants

8.1    Fume controls (based on table 13.1, 17.1 and17.2 of WTIA – Technical Note 7


 TYPE OF        MATERIAL          LOCATION    ATMOSPHERIC                HAZARDS        FUME MINIMISATION
 WELDING/       BEING             OF          CONTAMINANTS                              EQUIPMENT TO BE USED
 CUTTING        WELDED/           WELDING/    EMITTED (special                          ie. ventilation, extraction,
 PROCESS        CUT               CUTTING     materials included)
                                  PROCESS

 ARC            Stainless Steel   Work Shed   Chromium, Nickel,          Fumes,         Mechanical 1
                                              Molybdenum                 radiation,     Doors open
                                                                         electrical,    Ceiling vent
                                                                         fire


                Steel             Work Shed   Iron, Lead                 Fumes,         Mechanical 1
                                                                         electrical,    Doors open
                                                                         fire            Ceiling vent


                Brass Rods        Work Shed   Copper, Zinc, Tin          Fumes,         Mechanical 1
                                              Manganese, Nickel, Lead    electrical,    Doors open
                                                                         fire            Ceiling vent

                Galvanised        Work Shed   Zinc, iron, aluminium      Fumes,         Mechanical 1
                Steel                                                    radiation,     Doors open
                                                                         electrical,    Ceiling vent
                                                                         fire


 PORTABLE       Stainless Steel   Work Shed   Chromium, Nickel,          Fumes,         Mechanical 1
 ARC WITH TIG                                 Molybdenum                 radiation,     Doors open
 ATTACHMENT                                                              electrical,    Ceiling vent
                                                                         fire

                Stainless Steel   Vessels     Chromium, Nickel,          Fumes,         Natural Ventilation or Mechanical 1
                                              Molybdenum                 radiation      or Local Exhaust systems in confined
                                                                         electrical,    space
                                                                         fire

                Steel             Work Shed   Iron, Lead                 Fumes,         Mechanical 1
                                                                         electrical,    Doors open
                                                                         fire            Ceiling vent


                Steel             Vessels     Iron, Lead                 Fumes,         Natural Ventilation or Mechanical 1
                                                                         electrical,    or Local Exhaust systems in confined
                                                                         fire            space


 GMAW – MIG     Stainless Steel   Work Shed   Chromium, Nickel,          Fumes,         Mechanical 1
 AND CUTTING                                  Molybdenum                 radiation,     Doors open
                                                                         electrical,    Ceiling vent
                                                                         fire

                Steel             Work Shed   Iron, Lead                 Fumes,         Mechanical 1
                                                                         electrical,    Doors open
                                                                         fire            Ceiling vent


                Brass Rods        Work Shed   Copper, Zinc, Tin          Fumes,         Mechanical 1
                                              Manganese, Nickel, Lead    electrical,    Doors open
                                                                         fire            Ceiling vent

                Galvanised        Work Shed   Zinc, iron, aluminium      Fumes,         Mechanical 1
                Steel                                                    radiation      Doors open
                                                                         electrical,    Ceiling vent
                                                                         fire


                Aluminium         Work Shed   Aluminium, manganese,      Electrical,    Mechanical 1
                (Carbon,                      Magnesium, Chromium,       fire            Doors open
                aluminium)                    ozone, Beryllium, Copper                  Ceiling vent



 OXY CUTTER     Heavy Steel       Work Shed   Iron, Lead                 Fumes,         Mechanical 1
                                                                         electrical,    Doors open
                                                                         fire            Ceiling vent




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8.2   Terminlogy

VENTILATION / EXTRACTION CONTROLS

            CONTROL          WORK SITUATION                     TYPE OF VENTILATION /
            NUMBER                                              EXTRACTION


                                                                Local exhaust system
            1                High work volume



                                                                Natural ventilation
            2                Outdoors



                                                                Mechanical ventilation (1)
            3                Open work space                    or (2)


                                                                Local exhaust systems;
            4                Limited work space                 Mechanical ventilation (1)


                                                                Mechanical ventilation ( 1) with
            5                Confined space
                                                                Local exhaust systems




        WORK SITUATION                            DEFINITION


        High volume work                          Duty cycles greater than 40% and/ or amperage >
                                                  350A


        Outdoors                                  Outside of buildings in fresh air


        Open work space                           Average space per welder exceeds 300 cubic
                                                  metres (minimum height 3 metres).

                                                  Free cross ventilation occurs and fume disposal is
                                                  not obstructed by the work, partitions, balconies or
                                                  screens.

                                                  The welder keeps his head out of the main plume.

                                                  The shop has rook or high wall vents and is not air
                                                  tight construction.


        Limited work space                        Does not fulfil the requirements of an open work
                                                  space but is not a confined space.


        Confined space                             Mechanical ventilation (1); Local Exhaust system.




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VENTILATION/EXTRACTION TITLE                          EXPLANATION


Natural Ventilation                                   Highly variable whether indoor or outdoor.
                                                      Work upwind of the fume production.
                                                      Keep head out of welding fumes.


Mechanical Dilution Ventilation (General exhaust or   Air is blown into the workplace by portable fans
plenum ventilation) (1)                               and extracted from the workplace by roof fans
                                                      or wall exhaust fans.

                                                      Successful only if:
                                                      • Correct exhaust volume
                                                      • Control of air flow
                                                      • Clean air only is moved through the workers
                                                         breathing zone
                                                      • Other workers are not exposed inadvertently
                                                         to the fumes
                                                      • Quantity of contaminant must be identified
                                                         as low
                                                      • Toxicity of contaminants must be low
                                                      • Evolution of contaminants must be reasonably
                                                         uniform.



Mechanical ventilation (2)                            Mechanical or local ventilation is unlikely to
                                                      be required if process working time is not more
                                                      than 5% ( 24 minutes) of an 8 hour working day,
                                                      provided that the process is used at reasonably
                                                      intermittent periods( eg. a maximum of 5
                                                      minutes in any 1 hour) see below

                                                      Note: Welding is done on a daily basis and
                                                      intermittently over an 8 hour day at MGK
                                                      Lincoln work shed. It is likely that on some days
                                                      welding would be greater than 5 % of the 8
                                                      hour day.


Local exhaust systems                                 Section 7 above


Personal respiratory protection (PRP)                 Section 9 above




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WORKING ALONE


Plan

1.0    Definitions

As per the OS & H Regulation 3.3 and the Worksafe WA Guidance Note Working Alone, November 1999.

Isolate: to set apart; detach or separate so as to be alone.

Refers to any person who is alone in any place as part of their work.

2.0    Notes

A person is alone at work when they are on their own; when they cannot be seen or heard by another person;
and when they cannot expect a visit from another worker or member of the public for some time expect.

People who have regular contact with the public as part of their work are not “alone” and these procedures
do not apply.

3.0    Risk Management

There is not a minimum time that a person has to be on his or her own for a person to be considered “isolated”
or “alone”. Each situation should be assessed on its risk factors.

3.1     Hazard identification
A person may work alone in a metropolitan area, because of the time, location or nature of the work. Some
people may work alone for part of the work time only. For example a person may work alone when he or
she:
•     works in a depot or business when there are not employees;
•     works in a workplace when everyone else has gone home;
•     examines large structures, such as cranes, when there is no one else in the vicinity;
•     undertakes maintenance or construction work in vacant premises;
•     cleans offices in high rise buildings outside normal business hours when there is no-one else in the
      area being cleaned;
•     Is called out at night to check on security alarms or faults in a business premises that is closed;
•     works on his or her own as a ranger in parkland and reserves;
•     inspects vacant small land holdings to assess the risk of fire or look for the presence of noxious weeds
      when landowners are not present.

People who have regular contact with the public as part of their work are not “alone”.




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3.2    Risk assessment




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3.3   Risk minimising guidelines

a.    Safe system of work
      When establishing a safe system of work, employers should question the work methods to determine
      whether it is necessary for the person to work alone. There may be a decision that the level of risk
      associated with certain activities is too high for the person to carry out the activity alone.

      In some situations, it may not be reasonable or possible to eliminate situations where a person works
      alone, so the system of work should include measures to reduce risk.

b.    Information, instruction , supervision and training
      It is up to each employer to determine the most effective way of supervising employees who work alone.
      Because of the nature of the work, direct supervision would not be possible. This means a method of
      indirect supervision should be in place.

      It is not sufficient to introduce safe procedures without monitoring their implementation to ensure
      that they are adopted and are effective.

      In situations where there is a new employee who is not well known to the employer or, for any other
      reason, the employer is not sure of the employee’s ability to work alone, that employee should not be
      assigned to work alone. As far as practicable, the employer should be satisfied that the employee will
      work in a safe manner and be able to follow all emergency procedures when left alone.

c.    Communication with isolated employees
      In addition to the control measures above Reg. 3.3: Communication with isolated employees requires
      an employer to put in place procedures for communication if an employee is isolated from other
      persons because of the time, location or nature of the work.
      More specifically the employer must ensure:
      • there is a means of communication available which will enable the employee to call for help in the
      event of an emergency; and
      • there is a procedure for regular contact to be made with the employee and the employee is trained in
      the procedure.

d.    Regular contact and a means of communication
      Whilst regulation 3.3 requires there be regular contact and a means of communication, it does not define
      these terms. However both requirements should be in place as part of a safe system of work. Thus
      the regulation provides for these matters to be determined according to what is practicable for the
      circumstances and in consultation with the employees. Regular contact should be systematic contact
      at pre-determined intervals having regard for the hazards involved.

e.    Application to self-employed or the employer
      While the regulation applies to “employees”, the principles of establishing a means of communication
      and a procedure for regular contact should be applied to the system of work for employers and self-
      employed people who may work alone.

f.    Employee traveling over roads
      Where the employee is required to travel over well constructed and frequently used roads and return
      to home base on the same day and the work activities are assessed as low risk, a telephone call to home
      base on arrival and departure may be sufficient.

      Where an employee is required to travel and work in remote areas, policies or procedures covering
      time away from their home base, developed in consultation with employees, should be implemented
      and monitored. These procedures should include a requirement for an itinerary to be approved by the
      employer well in advance of departure. The employer should be advised of any changes to proposed
      routes, departure and arrival times and accommodation arrangements.

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      If a company vehicle is used to travel to and work in a remote area, the policy should cover use of the
      vehicle during working hours and non-working hours. Where an employee is required to work in a
      remote area, and drive to the worksite over poorly signposted or poorly constructed roads, the employee
      should be contacted at prearranged intervals. In addition to a procedure for regular contact to be
      made with the employee, an emergency location beacon should be carried in the vehicle. In emergency
      situations where there is no other form of communication, the beacon should be activated.

4.0   Forms of communication

4.1   Levels of communication
      Communication via the telephone is adequate provided the person is able to reach the telephone in an
      emergency. In remote areas or in situations where a telephone is not available, selection of a means
      of communication should follow the development of specifications that lead to a system that will
      allow an employee to call for help in the event of an emergency at any time when working alone. The
      system may provide for the employee to speak to someone, but this is not essential in order to comply
      with regulation 3.3(a). The call for help may be via a personal security system or, in remote areas, an
      emergency location beacon.

      In developing the safe work procedure consider the distance from base and the environment in which
      the employee will be located or through which he or she will be traveling, that is, whether it is flat,
      open country, dense forest or hilly, rugged terrain. Local knowledge will also assist in this regard.

4.2   Personal Security Systems
      Personal security systems provide a means of emergency communication for people working alone or
      in potentially dangerous environments. These systems, being wireless and portable, are suitable for
      people moving around or checking otherwise deserted workplaces.

      The person carries a transmitter or transcriber to a central receiver. Some personal security systems
      include a non-movement sensor that will automatically activate an alarm transmission if the transmitter
      or transceiver has not moved within a certain time.

4.3   Radio Communication Systems

      Two-way radio systems fall into categories with different levels of complexity and capabilities dependent
      upon a number of factors such as frequency, power and distance from or between broadcasters.
      Equipment is available for mobile or fixed use, portable or vehicle mounted.

      Radio communication may be between two mobile users in different vehicles or from a mobile vehicle
      and a fixed station. Mobile phones cannot be relied upon as an effective means of communication in
      many locations. When they are used, there should be arrangements to maintain an adequate supply of
      charged batteries.

4.4   Satellite Communication Systems
      Satellites have an important role in global communication making it economical to communicate
      with people in geographically remote locations. They serve a variety of functions including relaying
      telephone signals.

      Satellite phones are probably most suitable for Western Australia’s “outback”. They allow voice
      transmission during transit, however, their operation is affected by damage to aerials, failure of vehicle
      power supplies, or vehicle damage.

4.5   Emergency Location Beacons
      The carriage of an emergency location beacon is strongly encouraged for use where life-threatening
      emergencies may occur, to pinpoint location and to indicate by activation of the beacon that an
      emergency exists. It is important for the users of this equipment to understand that it should only

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      be used in a life threatening emergency or as a last resort. For a person travelling in remote locations,
      there will usually be a system for voice communication as well as an emergency location beacon.

      Emergency location beacons are not dependent on local base stations or affected by damage to aerials,
      failure of vehicle power supplies, or vehicle damage as is the case with satellite phones, and two-way
      radios.

      The beacons are simply alerting devices used to pinpoint location using an aircraft to home in on the
      transmissions when the beacon is activated. It is not possible to transmit voice or speech on emergency
      location beacons.

      The capability of models currently available vary in accuracy. With some beacons positioning is accurate
      within a 5km radius. Some models must be in line of sight of both satellite and groundstation to be
      effective whereas in others this is not necessary.

      Some beacons can be coded with owner details, which will be transmitted when the beacon is
      activated.




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PREVENTION OF FALLS


Plan

1.0    Hazard identification

Hazards from falls can arise in may areas. It may as simple as a fall while changing a light bulb to accessing
the mezzanine floor to accessing a roof to do work. A risk assessment on the hazard must be carried out prior
to the job being done.

Falls can be grouped into the following three categories:
• falls from height (a fall from one level to another);
• falls into a depth (falling into a hole); and
• slips, trips and falls (falls on the same level).

Factors that may cause a fall include when:
• movement suddenly starts or stops;
• moving from one surface to another;
• the surface is not capable of supporting a load;
• openings or holes are not identified or protected
• open edges are not protected;
• levels change;
• hand grip is lost;
• surfaces are slippery (e.g. surfaces are wet, polished or oily);
• footwear is unsuitable;
• equipment, tools, rubbish are causing obstructions in work areas;
• ladders are used incorrectly;
• clothing is caught;
• surfaces move;
• lighting is unsatisfactory;
• weather conditions are bad (e.g. heavy rain or wind is present);
• struck by a moving or falling object; or
• fall arrest systems and devices are not provided or are used incorrectly.




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COMMON HAZARDS

The table below shows some of the common fall hazards.




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2.0   Risk assessment

2.1   Assessing risk associated with each fall hazard will indicate the probability or likelihood of injury or
      harm occurring to workers who will be exposed to the hazard. It will also indicate the likely severity of
      this harm

2.2   Risk assessment requires a detailed knowledge and awareness of the potential risks of a work process,
      so persons undertaking risk assessment must have experience of the work process. They must be able
      to access complete information regarding the work to be carried out and the proposed methods.

2.3   There may need to be some investigations around the work to assess certain work locations, such as
      checks of roofing material to establish whether the roofing surface is capable of supporting a load; or
      checking anchorage points for safety equipment used whilst working at heights.

2.4   The size, height and layout of the workplace, the movement of all people, materials and equipment
      around the site, means of accessing the work surface and the type of work to be performed should all
      be considered as part of the risk assessment process.

2.5   The level of competence required for each task and the skill levels of the workers available for the work
      should also be taken into account when assessing risk. In some situations, workers such as riggers or
      scaffolders may require a licence of competency issued by a recognized authority before they are able
      to begin work. In others, the assessment should identify students, trainees and other inexperienced or
      less skilled workers who may require a higher level of information, instruction, training and supervision
      to work safely at heights.



         YOU ARE MORE LIKELY TO FALL FROM A HEIGHT
                                                                         REDUCE THE RISK
                   WHEN WORKING ON:


       • roofs and support beams                            Safe use of building maintenance units

       • climbing equipment that is incorrectly set up or   Correctly erected scaffolding or other types
         erected (eg. ladders, stairs)                      of safe work platforms

       • supporting equipment that is incorrectly set up    A safe means of entering and leaving the
         or erected (eg. scaffolds, ramps)                  area where you are required to work

       • trucks and cherry pickers.                         Guard rails, covers, fender boards or other
                                                            forms of safe guarding

                                                            Correctly erected and secured ladders
                                                            Fall arrest equipment




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3.0   Risk control

Use the hierarchy of controls:


        ELIMINATION               Redesign existing work processes where you can eg. module
                                  prefabricated before being lifted into position, can the need to work
                                  at a height be eliminated?


        SUBSTITUTION              Provide a stable work surface instead of an unstable or fragile one eg.
                                  using scaffolding and other types of work platforms such as elevating
        Eg. working on fragile    work platforms (cherry pickers, scissor lifts, order pickers), personnel
        material requires         cages, light duty suspended stages and false cars (platforms used for
        a scaffold or other       work in lifts before lift cars are installed).
        working platform
                                  Each of these work platforms must be properly designed, constructed
                                  and used in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.

                                  It must be properly installed or set up for safe use and should be
                                  maintained by competent persons.

                                  No one should walk directly on a fragile roof. The system of work
                                  should be organised so an alternative, sound working platform is
                                  available for the work that is to be carried out on or near the roof,
                                  and other measures such as safety mesh and fall protection are used.

                                  Replace portable ladders with fixed ladders where possible and use
                                  other ideas to provide a safer way for workers to reach the work
                                  activity. Some of the examples of stable work platforms above may
                                  also provide safer access and egress to the work activity.




        ISOLATION                 Use physical barriers to separate or isolate the workers from the place
        Eg. use edge and hole     they may fall from or through.
        protection
                                  Use edge protection and hole protection. Design and construct the
                                  building or structure to provide for safe work at heights.

                                  Where guard rails, around the edge of a work platform or around holes
                                  are used to reduce the risk of a person falling from a height, they should
                                  be constructed in a manner that will withstand the force of a person
                                  falling against them.

                                  The guard rails should also incorporate a mid rail or mesh panels and
                                  include a fender (toe) board that is securely fixed.

                                  Safety mesh and safety nets can be used to prevent a person from
                                  falling all the way from one level to another or to prevent a person
                                  falling through a hole. Safety nets are used in situations where there is
                                  a risk that people may fall into open spaces.



        ENGINEERING               Consider the prevention of falls at the design and planning stage
                                  during the construction of the building or structure and for subsequent
                                  use or maintenance work. The design may include features such
                                  as permanent safe access and egress, permanent guard rails and
                                  permanent anchorage points for the use of fall arrest systems and
                                  devices or suspended work platforms.




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    ADMINISTRATIVE        Training: is a risk control measure that should reduce the workers risk of
                          falling. It should not be seen as something that is added on to make
                          sure workers understand the other measures used to reduce the risk of
                          falls.

                          The training should include ways of demonstrating the practical skills
                          and assessing the trainees while they are actually using the new skills.
                          There should be supervision on the job to reinforce the new skills learned
                          in the training courses and to ensure each worker continues to put the
                          new skills into practice.

                          It is not sufficient to provide information on safe work practices that will
                          reduce the risk of falls and hope the workers apply them when they
                          return to their work at heights.

                          Safe work procedures: Workers must be able to understand and follow
                          procedures to return safely to ground level if there is an emergency and
                          evacuation is required. This would include safe systems to rescue workers
                          trapped at heights and the rescue of someone who was suspended in
                          a harness after a fall.

                          People who are working at a height or an elevated position must not
                          work alone. If they do fall and are suspended in a full body harness,
                          they should be rescued as soon as possible

                          Warning signs, such as MIND THE STEP or DANGER FRAGILE ROOF can
                          be used to alert workers to the presence of a hazard, although care
                          should be taken to provide for workers who cannot read the language
                          used in the signs.


    PERSONAL PROTECTIVE   Fall arrest systems and devices should be provided where other means
    EQUIPMENT             are not practicable or to provide greater protection for the worker.
                          Choosing the most appropriate fall arrest system and ensuring correct
                          installation is essential if the system is to be effective.

                          The system should be designed so the person will not crash into the
                          ground or any part of the building; or have injuries inflicted on the body
                          by the harness. Waist type belts must never be used as part of a fall
                          arrest system. With a waist belt, the force is applied to a small area and
                          the fall may result in life threatening injuries to internal organs.

                          With a full body harness and a shock absorber installed as part of the
                          system, the deceleration force that is applied when the body reaches
                          the end of the lifeline is distributed over the whole of the torso and is
                          tolerated by the body.

                          When purchasing a fall arrest system, ensure the equipment meets
                          recognised manufacturing Standards and maintain it correctly with
                          inspections and examinations of the components at regular intervals
                          by a competent person.

                          If a fall arrest system and device has been used to arrest a fall, it should
                          be withdrawn from service and inspected by a competent person. The
                          forces applied to the equipment in the fall may have caused damage
                          to some parts and it may not withstand the force of another fall.

                          Anyone planning to use a fall arrest system should receive high level
                          technical advice on how to design a safe system for the particular work
                          activity and location where it is to be used. The Standard referred to
                          previously also contains useful information on the selection, use and
                          maintenance of fall arrest systems.

.



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SPECIFIC HAZARD AND THEIR CONTROLS


        WORK ACTIVITY                                 CONTROLS


        Roof work                                     Roof edges in place


                                                      For fragile roofs use scaffold or other platform


        Scaffold                                      Erect in accordance with manufacturers/
                                                      suppliers instructions


                                                      Use a licensed scaffolder for specific types of
                                                      scaffold.


                                                      Train employees on safe use


                                                      Instruct employees that riding on mobile
                                                      scaffold while its being moved is not allowed


                                                      Wheels locked when scaffold is stationary


                                                      Access ladders not placed on the inside of
                                                      the scaffold


                                                      No climbing on the outside of a mobile
                                                      scaffold


        Ladders                                       Safety checks to include:
                                                      • no damaged, loose or missing parts
                                                      • properly erected and secured
                                                      • projects at least 1 meter above the landing
                                                      surface
                                                      • set ant an angle of 75 degrees
                                                      • set on firm, level ground
                                                      • employees practice 3 points of contact
                                                      when climbing ladders


        Falls into depth                              Wire mesh and covers
                                                      Warning signs



Further information: Code of Practice – Prevention of Falls at Workplaces 2004 commission for occupational
safety and health




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VIOLENCE


1.0   Plan

1.1   What is Workplace Violence?

Workplace violence is an action or incident that physically or psychologically harms another person. It includes
situations where employees and other people are threatened, attacked or physically assaulted at work. Non-
physical violence, such as verbal abuse, intimidation and threatening behaviour, may also significantly affect
a person’s health and well being. Threats may be perceived or real and there does not have to be physical
injury for the violence to be a workplace hazard. Employees may be affected by workplace violence, even if
they are not directly involved. Not every violent outburst has a reason that can be easily identified. However,
some common factors may apply in a workplace. Violence, abuse and threats at work may occur for different
reasons and a combination of factors may be working together.

Some examples are:
•    criminal activity; thrill seeking or revenge;
•    mental instability;
•    the influence of alcohol or other drugs;
•    being forced to wait, causing irritation and frustration;
•    feeling aggrieved – a sense of being treated unfairly, whether real or imagined;
•    a build up of feelings of rage or anger;
•    feelings of loss of control;
•    uncomfortable physical conditions;
•    the general culture of the workplace and the acceptance of violent behaviour, such as, intimidation,
     harassment, initiation ceremonies, bullying or the use of strong abusive language; and
•    prejudice because of cultural, religious or political differences between groups in society, gender bias
     or bias against minority groups such as people with disabilities.

1.2   Work area that may be affected by violence

•     may come from inside (supervisors, managers or other employees) or outside of the workplace
      (members of the public, customers, clients, patients or students).
•     employees at an increased risk included nurses and other hospital staff, welfare officer, security guards,
      prison officer, child care workers, teachers and teachers aides.
•     people who work on their own in community settings are also at a higher risk eg. estate agents, bus
      drivers, taxi drivers, newspaper sellers.
•     people who work on their own at night eg pizza delivery driver, service station workers, chemists,
      video outlets.
•     people who handle cash, drugs or valuable merchandise.
•     people who deal with members of the public in service industries eg. public housing, services to children
      and families, parking officers.

1.3   Why is workplace violence a problem?

Violent incidents can disrupt work to the extent that action has to be taken to restore order and confidence.
In some cases work may stop altogether and some employees may not be able to return to work for a period
of time. There can be considerable direct and indirect costs for the organisation. In addition to the lost
productivity that occurs when people are not working, there can be the cost of repairing property damage,
medical expenses and transport costs. Reactions to workplace violence can continue for a long time after the
incident. If the incident and employees’ reactions are not actively managed, the impact of the incident can
be very damaging. Productivity can be affected in the long term by reduced morale, impaired performance,
absenteeism, increased sick leave and a high staff turnover. There is also the personal cost of the psychological
trauma suffered by people involved in the incidents.

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The reactions of individual employees will vary according to the nature of the incident and the extent to
which the person is directly or indirectly involved. It is likely though, that employees affected by workplace
violence will experience some common reactions, such as:

•       immediate body changes that may be associated with distress, such as changes to the heart rate and
        breathing rate, muscle tension and nausea or vomiting;
•       feelings of anger, protest and frustration;
•       feelings of being out of control;
•       feelings of anxiety and shock;
•       feelings of guilt and embarrassment, especially if they failed to respond appropriately;
•       irritability and loss of concentration;
•       sleeplessness and nightmares for some time after the event;
•       “reliving” the event; and
•       fear of returning to work.

1.4     Managing workplace violence

It is useful to break the management of workplace violence into three phases, using a “before, during and
after” approach:


    PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION             Planning to eliminate or reduce the impact of workplace
    (BEFORE)                                violence and introducing measures to reduce risk.

                                            Training should be arranged to provide employees with the
                                            skills to recognise and defuse a potentially violent incident and
                                            to teach them how to follow the measures that are in place.
                                            Training could also cover the need for tolerance of others within
                                            a workplace and the development of good communication
                                            skills between employees to promote a more positive working
                                            environment.


    IMMEDIATE RESPONSE                      Following the plans and procedures that are in place and
    (DURING)                                taking action to contain the violent incidents that occur.

                                            Restarting the work processes, returning things to normal as
    RECOVERY AND REVIEW                     soon as possible and providing support and counselling to
    (AFTER)                                 employees to minimise the impact of the incident.

                                            Reviewing violent incidents to identify areas in need of
                                            improvement.



1.5       Managing risks of workplace violence

•       identify situations where employees and visitors to the workplace may be subjected to workplace
        violence
•       workout what violent situations are more likely to cause injury or harm to health of employees and
        visitors
•       work out how to reduce the risk




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Procedures

2.0   Hazard identification

Below is an example of the foreseeable hazards in a small supermarket

Name of organisation: Green family supermarket

Information collected by: Susan Green – Supermarket Manager

Date: 2 April 2000


            TASK AND                               PEOPLE
                               HAZARDS                           HOW OFTEN              COMMENTS
            LOCATION                              AFFECTED

         Handling                              Counter staff
                          Verbal abuse and
         dissatisfied                           and customers   From time-to-
                          physical violence
         customers at                          who may be      time
                          from customers
         front counter                         nearby
         Handling
                          Verbal abuse and                     Sometimes
         drunken
                          physical violence    As above        around pub
         customers from
                          from customers                       closing time
         pub next door
                          Customer service
         Maintaining                                                                 Need to move
                          too slow resulting   Counter staff
         rosters and                                                                 staff to the front
                          in unreasonable      and customers
         managing                                              Peak times            counter when
                          pressure on staff    waiting for
         customer                                                                    an employee is
                          and irritated        service
         service staff                                                               off sick
                          customers

         One person                            Night shift                           Need to look at
                           Robbery                             After dark
         rostered at night                     employees                             this

                                               All employees
                                                                                     Check cash
         Handling cash                         and customers
                          Robbery                              All times             handling and
         at the counter                        who may be
                                                                                     alert procedures
                                               there

         Handling cash in                                      Especially in         Need to review
                          Robbery              As above
         the office                                             quiet times           procedures

                                               Employees in                          New
         Unloading new    Robbery of
                                               truck bay and   Stock delivery        emergency
         stock in truck   valuable goods,
                                               truck drivers   times                 help button has
         bay              such as cigarettes
                                                                                     been installed
                          Physical violence    Employee who
         Shop-lifting     if offenders are     apprehends      At irregular times
                          caught in the act    offender

       This form covers all employees and customers who may be affected by work in the supermarket.




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3.0   Risk control

There are various risk minimisation strategies that can be used. It is up to each business to determine what
controls they will put in place in accordance with their risks. It should be noted that as this violence hazard
is often not under the control of the employer or employee, risk minimisation strategies may never reduce
the risk to the level you as a business owner would like.

3.1   Eliminate the hazard

Key Principle: Change the system of work to completely eliminate the trigger for workplace violence.

In some situations it is possible to pinpoint the exact reason or “trigger” for workplace violence. If this
“trigger” could be completely eliminated, the work could be carried out without the threat of violence,
robbery or attack. For example, using electronic payment of wages directly into employees’ bank accounts
completely eliminates the need for cash delivery. Eliminating the reason for workplace violence is always the
best way of protecting employees and other people who may be affected by the violence.

3.2   Use a safer alternative

Key Principle: Replace a hazardous procedure with a less hazardous one.

Where the hazardous situation cannot be eliminated, there may be safer alternatives that will reduce the
risk. Some examples follow.

•     For delivery people who receive cash payments as part of their day-to-day activities, non-cash payments
      should be considered.
•     In situations where cleaners work alone at night, moving from building to building, the night cleaning
      could continue with less risk of attack if the cleaners worked together, cleaning one building after the
      other, rather than working alone in different buildings.
•     In situations where people are waiting for a service, it may not be possible to avoid delays. However, the
      people waiting would be less likely to confront employees, if there was a good customer communication
      system and they knew what was happening.
•     Removing potential weapons, such as paper spikes and scissors, in public areas would reduce the
      opportunity for a violent situation to become worse. Clips, files and other safer alternatives could be
      used to secure papers.

3.3   Use engineering solutions

Key Principle: Design the building or structure to provide for safe systems of work.

It is important when designing a building, vehicle or structure, and when planning the layout of a work site,
to give consideration to the hazardous situations that have been identified and the measures that are likely
to permanently reduce the risk of workplace violence. The design may include features such as security doors,
permanent screens, security lighting, alarm systems and communication systems.

Workplace layout and design should also allow for “escape routes” and avoid dead ends where employees
are unable to retreat to a safer place when necessary. Design is an important consideration in purpose built
vehicles, such as armoured cars.

Key Principle: Make changes to the working environment.

Where the workplace is in an existing structure or building, structural changes can be made to add the
features described above. Examples are:
•     improving security and lighting;
•     redesigning waiting areas to provide comfortable surroundings;
•     providing play corners so children are occupied and quiet;
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•     installing high counters and other barriers; and
•     alarms (duress/personal).

Key Principle: Use physical barriers to separate employees from customers, clients or members of the public who
may cause them harm.

Physical barriers can be used in a variety of situations, such as in reception areas where aggressive clients
are likely to be; in workplaces where employees handle drugs, cash or valuables; or in prisons, hospitals and
psychiatric facilities where there is the risk of attack from inmates or patients. Electronically controlled
doors that allow full view of visitors to workplaces before the doors are opened from the inside or security
doors where access is via a security card or code are other examples of barriers that can be used to protect
employees. Screens may also be used in work settings to reduce the risk of attack from clients.

3.4   Reorganise the work and provide training

Key Principle: Provide training in communication, handling aggression and responding to aggression or violence.

Training is essential if the job is to be done safely. It should take into account the duties and functions of each
employee so they are provided with the necessary skills and knowledge to work safely. Employees should be
trained to follow the safety procedures that are in place to reduce the risk of workplace violence.

Training may be formal or informal; in a classroom situation or on the job and it should be competency
based. This means the training should include ways of demonstrating the practical skills and assessing the
trainees while they are demonstrating the new skills.

Training is a risk control measure that should improve employees’ ability to communicate, and defuse and
manage situations where there is potential for workplace violence. Effective communication can reduce the
likelihood of a violent reaction.

The training should include information on the responsibilities that employees have under occupational
safety and health laws to follow instructions given by their employers regarding their own safety and health
and the safety and health of others at work. This would increase awareness of the extent to which employees
should cooperate with employers to reduce the risk of injury or harm as a result of workplace violence.
Employees should also be aware of the consequences of failing to follow safety instructions.

It is important that workplace violence training is linked to the hazard identification, risk assessment and risk
reduction processes. There may be times when employees will have to assess the level of risk in a particular
situation and choose the most appropriate procedure. This could include withdrawing from a particular work
situation to seek assistance. Training should equip employees with the ability to make reasonable decisions
in the circumstances and to balance the actions needed to maintain their own safety and the safety of others
who may be in their care.

Supervision should be provided on the job to reinforce the new skills learned in the training courses and to
ensure each employee continues to put them into practice. It is not sufficient to train employees in how to
behave if a violent incident occurs and hope the employees apply it when they return to their workplaces.

There should be prior consultation with all relevant parties regarding the training delivered. The training
should be evaluated to ensure employees have acquired the skills they need to work safely.

Employers should continue to provide safety information, instruction, training and supervision. It is not a
once only process, or just for employees who are new to the job. If the work is changed in any way, additional
information, instruction, training and supervision should be provided to make sure employees’ safety
knowledge and skills are up-to-date.

Employees should be given information on the legal aspects of self-defence and the concept of “reasonable
force” where appropriate.

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Key Principle: Set up general work arrangements so assistance is available when it is needed.

Stressful work situations, where there are not enough employees to handle the business of the day, may
result in frayed nerves and short tempers. In these situations, employees may lose control of the situation
more easily.

Job rotation may be used to reduce the amount of time employees are in stressful situations, especially
when they are new to the job. In an organisation with client contact, ensure new employees are not required
to work alone until they have the competencies to do so. Assistance from more experienced staff should be
available when it is needed.

Rostering is important in situations where it is known that the situation may be difficult. In a school setting,
for example, where there are students with a history of aggression, there should be a system where there is
support at hand for a teacher who needs it. The period of exposure to aggressive students should influence
risk management procedures.

There should be ongoing analysis of reported incidents to work out whether additional training or information
should be provided to employees. In some situations, it may be necessary to provide relevant employees with
specific information on triggers that cause violent behaviours in clients.

Key Principle: Set up effective communication systems between employees to ensure they are aware of potentially
violent situations.

In situations where employees interact with people who may be violent, the transfer of information from one
employee to another would allow each person to be prepared for a potentially violent incident. This applies to
employees in workplaces such as prisons, detention centres, psychiatric hospitals, nursing homes and other
health care facilities, where the care of inmates or patients is handed over from one person to another at
various times during the day.

Key Principle: Set up effective communication systems to be used in an emergency.

This is especially important for people who work alone, such as transport employees, but also for employees
requiring rapid assistance. Have relevant emergency numbers readily available.

Key Principle: Use monitoring and surveillance systems to improve security.

Video monitoring and observation mirrors may be used as part of a security system. However, the use of
these items should always be in accordance with any relevant legislation that is in place at the time (for
example: the Surveillance Devices Act 1998).

Signs should be displayed to indicate the presence of security systems. Employers who use surveillance
devices should ensure that their employees are fully informed of the location of all devices and the reasons
for the surveillance in each area. Employers should have the express or implied consent of employees working
in areas where surveillance devices are used.

Key Principle: Use administrative barriers to separate employees from customers, clients or members of the public
who may cause them harm.

Effective barriers could be in the form of procedures that isolate employees from hazards. Examples are
agreements that employees will only provide a service when clients are sober and using procedures that
prevent customers from contacting employees out of business hours. Refusing to provide unknown callers
with employees’ home phone numbers and addresses is one approach that could be used.

When administrative procedures could be used to protect employees, it is up to each employer to decide on
what approach is appropriate for the workplace.


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Key Principle: Separate or isolate visitors from patients, inmates or clients who may become violent and cause
them harm.

The physical barriers and procedures needed to prevent workplace violence may be for visitors to the workplace
as well as for employees themselves. These may be needed in workplaces such as psychiatric hospitals, nursing
homes and other facilities where people who may become violent are cared for. They may also be required in
workplaces, such as police stations and Government agencies, where the nature of the work may result in
outbursts of violence from offenders or distressed people who are in interview rooms and offices.

Key Principle: Coordinate the administration of the system for controlling violent incidents.

Employers should provide the resources needed to manage any situation where workplace violence may
disrupt the work. Disruptive incidents present a complex administrative challenge that should be under the
direction of a senior person in the organisation.

Management responsibilities should be allocated to properly integrate the management of violent, disruptive
incidents into the emergency management plan. All employees should clearly understand their role in the
event of a violent disruptive incident. In cases of physical assault, it is up to the individuals involved in an
incident to determine if the matter should be referred to the Police. This could be done in consultation with
the employer.

Key Principle: Establish clear policies relating to violence between co-workers.

Workplace policies should make it clear that management will not tolerate workplace activity that is
deliberately designed to humiliate, degrade or embarrass other employees. The policy should cover activities
such as initiation ceremonies and practical jokes where there is a risk of physical injury as well as psychological
harm. There are legal responsibilities for management and employees in these situations. Management has
a general duty to ensure that employees are not exposed to hazards at the workplace and employees have a
responsibility to avoid adversely affecting the safety and health of other people through actions at work.

Employees should be provided with information on the processes that are in place to seek assistance, resolve
issues and to deal with various forms of workplace violence that may occur between co-workers.

3.5   Add personal protection

Key Principle: Use personal protective clothing and equipment.

Personal protective clothing and equipment (PPE) should be provided to provide greater protection for
employees or as a temporary measure whilst other risk controls are being organised. PPE should not be the
only control that is used as it is the least effective way of dealing with workplace violence. PPE may include
protective body gear or riot gear in some workplaces, such as prisons or high security detention centres.

It is important to remember the key principles set out in this code of practice should be used together to
reduce risk to an acceptable level. In situations where workplace violence has been identified as a hazard,
there may be job redesign and a combination of changes to the working environment, protective barriers,
alarms, good communication systems, training and possibly PPE.




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4.0   Additional risk minimisation strategies

4.1   Implementing agreed response plans

It may not be practicable to completely eliminate or reduce risk associated with all situations where violence
may occur. It is therefore essential that there are procedures to be followed when violent incidents do occur
so the effects can be minimised.

When a violent incident occurs in a workplace, ideally all of the planning should result in a well-coordinated
response, with agreed procedures followed in accordance with the training provided. If this does not occur,
the incident should be seen as a learning experience and feedback used to improve the system in preparation
for future incidents.

The response to an incident is a real test of the extent to which the various parts of the emergency management
system are working. The aim is to have an effective immediate response that controls and defuses the situation
and reduces the risk of long term psychological harm for employees at all levels.

4.2   Critical incident response

Employee assistance should be available as part of the immediate response and the recovery phase of violent
incidents to minimise the effects of trauma. When violent incidents occur, employees should know who has
the authority to take charge of the situation. That person should have had training in how to coordinate the
response, including taking care of employees who may be injured, in shock or affected by the incident in
other ways.

The main focus of the employee assistance is to provide immediate professional counselling and support.
General arrangements, such as allocating a safe place to retreat to, controlling media access to the employees,
providing communication with families and arranging transport home are also important to relieve the
immediate pressure on employees.




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STRESS


1.    What is stress?

Stress is the body’s natural response to pressures or stressful situations that people perceive or experience
and may not cope with effectively. Situations that are unfamiliar, challenge or threaten us increase levels of
stress. Severe stress reactions may result from exposure to trauma or violence at work.

The more obvious forms of work-related stress are:
•    work pressure;
•    work overload; and
•    conflict in the workplace between colleagues/management.

2.    I am suffering from work-related stress. What should I do?

You should:
•     consult with your doctor; and
•     discuss any work-related issues that you consider to be a problem with your employer.

3.    What are the requirements in the OSH Legislation for dealing with stress?

There are no specific requirements in the OSH legislation that deal with stress. However, workers have an
obligation under section 20(2)(d) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 to report to their employer
any situation at the workplace that he or she has reason to believe could constitute a hazard. The employer
is required under section 23(K) of the Act to investigate the matter and report back to the worker.

Employers are also required under regulation 3.1 of the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996 to
identify and assess each hazard to which a person at the workplace is likely to be exposed, and under Section
35(1)(c) of the Act are required to consult with Safety and Health Representatives on any changes to the
workplace that may be reasonably expected to affect the health or safety of the employees. This could include
changes relating to workload and work practices.

4.      How do I recognise stress in my workplace?

When the body is under stress, the person’s behaviour and mood may be affected. This can include:
•   irritability;
•   indecisiveness;
•   lack of or increased appetite;
•   increase in smoking/drinking;
•   drug misuse;
•   reduced performance;
•   deteriorating relationships;
•   absenteeism;
•   job dissatisfaction; or
•   low morale.

The physical symptoms of stress can result in, but not limited to:
•     increased heart rate;
•     heavy breathing;
•     increased muscle tension;
•     headaches;
•     upset stomach;
•     sleep disturbances; or
•     difficulty concentrating.

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5.      What are the causes of stress?

Different people will perceive certain things or events as stressful while others will not perceive them as stre
ssful. Research shows that certain situations and factors in the workplace are more likely to cause stress than
others. These include:

•     culture of the workplace;
•     too little or too much work;
•     lack of control over work activities;
•     lack of support from management and colleagues;
•     work-family life balance;
•     conflict in relationships;
•     bullying;
•     harassment;
•     discrimination;
•     role ambiguity/conflict;
•     job insecurity; and
•     uncertainty about changes happening in the workplace.

6.    Why do I need to address stress in my workplace?

Apart from the OSH legislation, stress has other consequences for organisations. Stress does not just affect
the individual but it can also be very costly to organisations. If workers are suffering from stress, there may
be an increase in absenteeism, turnover and a loss of productivity, performance and profitability for the
organisation.

7.    Are the causes of stress costly to fix?

Reducing the causes of stress does not need to cost the workplace a lot of money. It may be as simple as
reallocating workloads or extending deadlines for projects. Consultation with staff is an important part
of reducing the causes of stress.

8.    How do I assess the risk of stress in my workplace?

There are numerous ways to assess the risk of stress in your workplace, including:
•     consultation with staff;
•     conducting a survey of the workplace;
•     focus groups;
•     using commercially available “toolkits”; or
•     obtaining specialist advice.

It is up to you to decide the suitability of the assessment tools and techniques available to your workplace in
assessing stress.




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MOBILE PHONES


Hazards

•      Radio waves possibly causing heating to human cells in the brain.
•      Using mobile phones whilst driving may cause accidents.

Note: A number of studies world wide have not been able to demonstrate any harm to health through using hand
held mobile phones. At the same time, a number of studies has not been able to totally eliminate the possibility of
harm from radio waves put out by mobile phones

Plan

Limiting exposure to radio waves by:

•      Using land lines where practicable, especially for longer calls.
•      Making fewer mobile phone calls or limiting the people who have the number.
•      Reducing time spent on calls as twice the amount of time spent on a call doubles the exposure.
•      Using hands free kits.
•      Buying mobile phones with lower power outputs.




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CONFINED SPACES


1.0   Broad definition

The various definitions of a Confined Space as cited in standards, codes and regulations may differ slightly
but basically they refer to enclosed or semi enclosed areas where access and egress may be restricted and/or
hazardous conditions may occur while workers are engaged inside.

Importance of identifying hazards and creating a confined spaces entry program
It is essential that persons having control of workplaces where work in confined spaces may be necessary,
ensure that personnel are competent to readily identify such situations and are provided with clear and
precise guidelines in the form of a confined spaces entry program that must be enforced.

The confined spaces entry program should include provision for entry permits that detail the type of work to
be conducted and the results of a risk assessment that must be completed prior to entry.

An example confined space entry permit is shown on the next page.

2.0   Confined space hazard management

Small or enclosed spaces of some description can be found in many workplaces but most are not a risk to
persons engaged there during normal operations.

2.1     Identify possible confined space hazards:

a.    Where a combination of difficult access and egress occur with the possibility of exposure to atmospheric
      or combustible hazards and physical and mechanical hazards.

b.    Where the physical shape of the work-site changes eg. Work in confined spaces may be difficult to
      monitor within workplaces where numerous industrial processes and procedures are being conducted
      at the same time as the physical shape of the work site is constantly undergoing rapid change.

c.    Inadequate hazard identification eg. hazardous situations can be ignored due to misinterpretation
      of definitions that cause workers to incorrectly assume there to be little or no risk. A workplace that
      may be normal in day to day operations may become a confined space hazard when certain chemical
      products are being used.

d.    Many projects in industries such as steel fabrication may start as simple steel skeletons but gradually
      develop into enclosed tank like structures that ultimately become confined spaces. Such projects
      include the hulls of ships and the bodies of road and rail tankers.

e.    Although the enclosed spaces may in themselves not pose any significant risk, the introduction of
      metal work processes such as cutting and welding into such spaces does. These are also typical areas
      where confusion arises if a focus is maintained upon the definition of a confined space as opposed to
      assessing the risk as the project develops.

f.    Similarly the construction of fibreglass units such as boats and swimming pools may commence as open
      structures and develop into potentially hazardous confined spaces as construction nears completion.
      Toxic and flammable vapours from the fiberglass process may collect where workers have restricted
      means of egress.

g.    Every situation requires hazard identification. Eg. in industries or utilities such as water supply and
      sewerage management, work in confined spaces such as inspection pits and sumps is commonplace.
      Each situation still requires formal hazard identification as a start to the assessment process. It may be

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        that the hazards that deem one such installation to be a confined space may differ from those to be
        found in another. This is especially important where movements of air are likely as hazardous
        atmospheres can form in pockets and envelop unsuspecting workers operating in tunnels, trenches
        and pits that form integral parts of larger systems. It is also not uncommon for fumes from internal
        combustion engines or escapes of natural gas to accumulate in below ground spaces.

DAILY PERMIT FOR CONFINED SPACE ENTRY

(Where work conditions are consistent, the daily permit may be used for more than one day)

PRIOR TO ENTERING THIS SPACE ALL PERSONS ARE TO FULLY OBSERVE THE PERMIT DATES AND CONDITIONS
BELOW.

PERMIT DATES: _____________________________________________________________________________________________

WORK AREA: ______________________________________________________________________________________________

DETAILS: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

TYPE OF TASK: _____________________________________________________________________________________________

                           NO UNAUTHORISED PERSON IS TO ENTER THIS CONFINED SPACE.

           THE FOLLOWING PRECAUTIONS MUST BE FULLY OBSERVED AND CARRIED OUT WHERE TICKED


            ALL PERSONNEL WILL WEAR                 USE OF CHEMICAL AGENTS
 TICK       EYE & FOOT PROTECTION                   (No chemical agents other than those
                                                    listed below may enter this space)
            Risk Control


            Natural venting                         (A)


            Stand by personnel                      (B)


            Personal atmospheric tester


            Respiratory protective device           (C)


            Mechanical venting                      (D)


            Flame proof lighting                    (E)


            Air monitoring


Any other hot work precautions, isolations, cleaning precautions: ____________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What rescue procedures are in place to retrieve a person from the space conscious or unconscious?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

IF YOU ARE ENTERING THIS SPACE FOR ANY OTHER REASONS THAN THOSE SPECIFIED ABOVE, PLEASE CHECK WITH
YOUR SUPERVISOR WHETHER A HAZARD ASSESSMENT AND FURTHER PRECAUTIONS ARE REQUIRED.




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ALL PERSONS TO CHECK THAT AIR MONITORING REQUIREMENTS ON THE TABLE BELOW ARE COMPLIED WITH PRIOR
TO ENTRY.

Air Monitoring Requirements (please tick):        Continuous         Daily     Four Hourly       Two Hourly

Other testing requirements: ________________________________________________________________________________

Testing Apparatus:       Make : Gastech           Model : GX98


                                                      LEL      CO       Comments
                 Date      Time      O2%     H2S%     PPM      PPM      (if any)


 Initial test


 Second test


 Third test


 Fourth test


 Fifth test


 Sixth test


 Seventh test


 Eighth test


 Ninth test


 Tenth test


The above space has been tested for oxygen and LEL readings and it was found to have acceptable levels for
safe entry in accordance with the conditions stated hereon. The testing officer shall accept no liability for any
person entering this space if any of the above conditions have not been adhered with.


TESTING OFFICER: _____________________________________ SIGNED: _____________________________________




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2.2   Assess the risk of each hazard by a formal risk assessment

2.3   Use risk management tables as in the front of the kit

 CONTROL MEASURES                 CONTENTS

 TRAINING                         • Understanding of relevant systems of work.
                                  • Confined spaces hazards.
                                  • Skills required for the job.
                                  • Use of equipment.
                                  • Emergency response for stand by persons.
                                  • Reasonable person to provide adequate supervision for the confined spaces work.
                                  • Observers must be trained to the same level as the persons entering the confined
                                    space. Observers are also part of the rescue team.
                                  • Emergency response training for those associated with the job. Practice drills and
                                    rescues must be done.

 ISOLATION                        • All plant, equipment and sources of energy connected to the confined space must
                                    be totally isolated or disconnected. All connecting pipes or ducts must be physically
                                    disconnected, blanked off or other wise sealed.
                                  • Lockout all energy sources. Especially automatic start up or shut down processes.
                                  • Sources of mechanical energy disconnected or disabled.

 EXPOSURE TO PRODUCT AND          • Assess the likely substance that may be in the space or that may be generated
 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES               through the work to be done. Eg. certain products may become contaminants
                                    when welded or heat cut.
                                  • Where a risk assessment identifies substances remaining in the plant and systems
                                    under repair, Cleaning or purging of chemicals prior to entry is required.

 PHYSICAL HAZARDS                 • Barricade, sign post to indicate that confided space work is being conducted.
                                  • Consider the vicinity of the work area in relation to outside hazards.
                                  • Possible exposure to climatic factors such as extremes of heat and cold or water
                                    entering the work site.
                                  • Minimise heat exposure in the space to workers especially in warmer months of the
                                    year. Minimise temperature drops in colder times of the year.
                                  • All sources of power provided for the space must be low voltage or provided with
                                    earth leakage protection. Portable electric hand tools could be double insulated.
                                    Kill switches may be required in some situations.

 ACCESS AND EGRESS                • Normal access and egress and emergency response.
                                  • Rescue of injured workers and with injuries possibly life threatening and/or spinal.
                                  • Prevent falls into depths or voids, restricted openings or paths of workers.
                                  • Ladders, working platforms, to provide a secure point of entry.
                                  • Restricted openings must be of a minimum size that comply with Regulations and
                                    also allow for the physical characteristics of the workers especially in an emergency
                                    situation.
                                  • Consider a temporary openings to allow for extra light, ventilation or easier access
                                    and egress.
                                  • Ensure all obstructions are considered prior to entry. Get information from those with
                                    knowledge of the area to determine what obstructions may be in place.

 HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES            • Internal atmospheres may be flammable, toxic, oxygen deficient or oxygen rich
                                     which may increase the risk of fire and explosion. Suitable atmospheric test must be
                                     carried out either daily or start of the shift or continuously.
                                  • First stage is to consider the use or product to which the area has been subjected.
                                  • Assess the cleaning and purging process and check for any closed or hidden
                                     compartments.
                                  • Gas detectors to test for oxygen levels, carbon monoxide or flammable gases, lower
                                     explosive limit.
                                  • Test atmospheres at the entry point and also at extremities of the space and area
                                     where toxic atmospheres may build up.
                                  • Eliminate the cause of any toxic atmosphere.
                                  • If safe provide mechanical ventilation to provide a flow of fresh air during
                                     occupations.

 MONITORING AND OBSERVATION       • An observer (stand-by person) must be positioned at the point of entry at all times
                                    while the space is occupied. They must have received training in all aspects of the
                                    work required and also emergency procedures.
                                  • Emergency procedures should be practical and rehearsed regularly.




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ALCOHOL AND DRUGS

INTRODUCTION

A range of factors, both at the workplace and in our private lives, impact on our ability to work safely. These
factors, as they relate to the workplace, must be dealt with through the normal procedures for dealing with
safety issues at the workplace. Alcohol and other drugs may be a factor that affects a person’s ability to work
safely the same as other safety and heath hazards

The use of alcohol and other drugs becomes an occupational safety and health issue if a person’s ability to
exercise judgment, coordination, motor control, concentration and alertness is affected at the workplace,
leading to an increased risk of injury or illness.

Employees affected by alcohol or other drugs may present a hazard in the workplace, causing injury to
themselves and others. Co-workers may also be placed in difficult situations, expected to cover for unsafe
work practices or faced with reporting a fellow employee.

Alcohol and other drugs can cause a range of problems for employers. In some cases, their use may lead to
loss of life, injury, damage to plant or equipment and negative publicity for the business.

The consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs whilst at work is therefore unacceptable and employees should
present themselves for work and remain, while at work, capable of performing their work duties safely.

While there is no single way to address the problem of alcohol and other drugs at the workplace, there are a
number of strategies that may be adopted. Deciding upon which strategy to adopt will depend on the extent
of alcohol and other drug use, the nature of the industry and the size and resources of the business.

Any strategy should be tailored to meet the needs of that workplace. Information and education about
alcohol and other drugs should form part of any strategy. The aim of the strategy should be to eliminate or
reduce alcohol and other drug related harm as far as practicable.

This objective should be achieved through a three-tiered approach:
•     preventing harm through such steps as providing information and education;
•     management of hazards through introducing procedures for dealing with affected persons at the
      workplace; and
•     provision in the strategy for the return to usual work duties of affected employees.


WHY DEVELOP A POLICY?

There are a number of reasons why it may be appropriate to develop a workplace policy on alcohol and other
drugs. An employer could be found in breach of the general duty to provide a safe workplace that is free from
hazards if injury or harm is suffered as a result of alcohol or other drug use.

Having a clearly defined policy with supporting procedures in place will assist the employer to provide a safe
workplace and manage drug and alcohol related issues in the workplace.

The existence of a policy also provides a means of informing employees and other people at the workplace
about what behaviour is acceptable in relation to alcohol and other drugs.

Having an alcohol and other drug policy also demonstrates management commitment to a safe and healthy
workplace.

It may be good practice to have a policy even if alcohol and other drugs do not pose a current risk at a
workplace. It is important, however, that all workplace safety and health policies, including alcohol and other

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drug policies, are prioritised according to the hazards present and perceived level of risk at your workplace.

One approach to managing alcohol and other drugs is to establish a policy, with supporting procedures,
which takes into consideration the specific circumstances of the workplace.

The development of a policy provides an opportunity to develop management strategies dealing with a range
of alcohol and other drug related issues. The policy should outline the organisation’s aims in relation to
alcohol and other drug use with the objective being the reduction of the hazards and risks associated with
alcohol and other drug use. The “supporting procedures” should provide the strategies and action plans to
meet this objective.

Plan

HOW TO DEVELOP A POLICY

The way in which a policy on alcohol and other drugs is developed will depend on the individual requirements
of your workplace. It may suit your workplace to have a separate policy dealing specifically with “alcohol and
other drugs.” Alternatively, the contents of an alcohol and other drugs policy could be incorporated into an
existing occupational safety and health policy framework.

At some workplaces it may be appropriate to have a policy that deals with impairment from a wide range
of sources, in which alcohol and other drugs are included. Such a policy could incorporate other workplace
safety and health issues such as stress and fatigue.

KEY STEPS IN POLICY DEVELOPMENT

1.0    Establishing a representative group to formulate and implement the policy

A group established to oversight development of the policy should include any Safety and Health
Representatives, other employee representatives and management. The more diverse and encompassing the
range of people involved in formulating the policy, the more likely the policy will be viewed as relevant and
appropriate.

An existing safety and health committee could be used to frame the policy or a working group could be
formed for that purpose. In some cases it may be beneficial for larger companies to establish a steering
committee to oversee the development of the policy and the associated implementation program.

The group should clarify its task to ensure a clear mandate. Adequate resources should be provided to enable
the group’s objective to be carried

2.0    Development of the policy

•      policy to be developed through an open, participatory process.

•      effective communication strategies that ensure regular consultation and feedback to employees should
       be adopted. This approach will give employees a sense of ownership of the policy, making the policy
       more likely to be accepted and followed at the workplace.

•      A preliminary draft policy should be produced and then reviewed by the over sighting group. It is
       important that feedback is received at this stage from all persons at the workplace who may be affected
       by the operation of the policy. Procedures and an implementation timetable for the policy should also
       be devised.

•      inclusion of a trial period can assist in its successful introduction.

The draft policy should be reviewed and, where appropriate, feedback from the workforce incorporated.

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•     Upon preparation of the final draft, the policy should be presented to management for endorsement
      and then distributed to all employees and persons at the workplace.
•     To successfully introduce a new policy, it may be necessary to take steps to overcome the anxiety
      the changes precipitate. Throughout the policy development stage, employers and managers should
      convey the message that the business values its employees and is committed to responding to the
      issue of alcohol and other drugs responsibly. The policy should clearly explain why an alcohol and other
      drugs policy would benefit the workplace.
•     Good communication and provision of accurate information will reduce anxiety for employees. It is
      essential employers make it clear to their employees that they are endeavouring to assist them to
      work safely and that an alcohol and other drugs policy is not aimed at removing people from the
      workplace.
•     Employers should point out that while employers are not responsible for the private lives of their
      employees, they carry the primary responsibility for safety at work through creating and maintaining
      a safe working environment. The impact of unsafe behaviour caused by alcohol and other drugs should
      be emphasised in any communications and in the policy.

3.0   Content of the policy

Contents will vary according to the nature of the workplace and supporting procedures should be simple and
easily understood. An effective policy should include information on the following areas:

3.1   Aims and objectives
•     The policy should aim to prevent harm, whilst also dealing with occurrences and rehabilitation. The
      objective could include, for example, fostering and maintaining a safe working environment. The
      expected outcomes and standards arising from the policy should also be clear.

3.2   Scope
•     The application of the policy and its supporting procedures should be outlined. It should be clear
      that every person including employers, directors, consultants, employees, as well as visitors, clients,
      customers and contractors entering the workplace is covered. People at the workplace need to be
      assured there will be no discrimination between employees in the way in which they will be treated
      under the proposed policy and procedures.

•     The organisation’s policy and procedures with respect to alcohol and other drugs at the workplace
      should be communicated clearly to everyone who comes onto the workplace.

3.3   Infringement of the policy
•     The policy is the opportunity to specify what constitutes an infringement in relation to alcohol and
      other drug use. Clear direction should therefore be provided about how people are expected to behave
      in relation to alcohol and other drugs at the workplace.

•     The policy also provides the means to state clearly what happens on the first, second and third
      infringement. This should be determined in consultation with any Safety and Health Representatives
      or through another employee consultative process. The policy may include provisions to ensure
      compliance.

4.0   Content of Supporting Procedures

4.1   Identification of an impaired person
•     The procedures for identifying persons impaired by alcohol and other drugs should be specified in the
      supporting procedures. Unless such procedures are clear, complications and uncertainty will arise.

•     It may be appropriate to include information that assists employees to identify and appropriately
      respond to hazardous behaviour by co-workers in the supporting procedures.


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Strategies

•     The procedures for managing a person affected by alcohol and other drugs at the workplace should
      be outlined in the supporting procedures. The supporting procedures should also provide that if any
      employee has doubts about a co-worker’s ability to work safely, this safety concern should be reported
      to their Safety and Health Representative, supervisor, or other person, as nominated in the policy.

4.2   Dealing with an impaired person
•     If any person at a workplace appears to be impaired by alcohol and other drugs the procedures outlined
      in the policy should be followed.
•     The person nominated in the policy should approach the impaired person. A suitable person may
      include a staff counsellor, for example. If the person is aggressive or appears unpredictable, more
      than one person should be involved in the initial approach which should be quietly assertive – not
      aggressive, argumentative or threatening.

4.3   Information and training seminars
•     Ensure everyone at the workplace is aware of the existence and contents of the alcohol and other
      drugs policy and supporting procedures. Copies of both documents should be readily available at the
      workplace.
•     Information and training sessions on the alcohol and other drug policy should be provided Employers,
      supervisors or other nominated employees also need to be fully aware of its contents so they can
      advise and answer questions about its operation.

4.4   Workplace induction
•     Workplace induction procedures should be adapted to ensure new staff are made aware and understand
      the policy and procedures in relation to alcohol and other drug issues at that workplace.

4.5   Confidentiality
•     Procedures dealing with confidentiality and protection of privacy should be included .

4.6   Rehabilitation and counselling
•     If Employee Assistance Programmes (EAP’s) are available at the workplace, employees should be made
      aware of the assistance available. It may also be appropriate to include a means of referral to EPA’s or
      other counselling or rehabilitation services in the supporting programmes.

4.7   Evaluation
•     It is important any workplace alcohol and other drug policy is evaluated after implementation. The
      supporting procedures may provide a mechanism, including a time-frame and criteria, for such an
      evaluation.

4.8   Testing
•     If alcohol testing or testing for illicit drugs is introduced, written procedures for testing and an
      implementation timetable need to be included in the supporting procedures. Procedures for managing
      an employee testing positive at a workplace need to be developed through a consultative process and
      communicated to everyone at the workplace. The follow up action and outcomes from positive tests
      should be made clear in the supporting procedures.

4.9   Third persons
•     It may be appropriate to include procedures dealing with the situation where a third party, who is not
      an employee, enters the workplace affected by alcohol or other drugs. In some workplaces there may
      be a greater risk of this incident occurring.
•     The supporting procedures should provide for management of such a potential hazard through
      specifying safety precautions and procedures that will minimise the risk of harm.




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4.10 Work sponsored functions
•    At some workplaces it may be advisable to include a section outlining the organisation’s policy on
     consumption of alcohol at work sponsored functions. Alternatively a separate policy or set of procedures
     dealing with "work sponsored" functions may be developed.

•     Whichever mechanism is used, the document should clearly outline the employer’s expectations of
      appropriate behaviour in relation to the consumption of alcohol at work sponsored functions.

•     There are also a number of steps that can be taken by management to minimise the risk of alcohol
      and drug related harm at such functions. Simple strategies such as providing low alcohol beer and
      nonalcoholic drinks at functions, providing a choice of beverages and serving substantial food can
      lessen the chance of alcohol induced injuries or incidents.

•     Other initiatives include ensuring workplace social activities do not center around alcohol. Hosting
      family-friendly functions during the day, as an alternative to evening functions, for example, may
      contribute to a safe and healthy environment. Employees should be encouraged to organise alternative
      transport prior to the function, to minimise the risk of their driving under the influence of alcohol.

•     Employees should be encouraged to organise alternative transport prior to the function, to minimise
      the risk of their driving under the influence of alcohol.

5.0   Identifying Persons Impaired By Alcohol And Other Drugs

5.1   Persons in the workplace are expected to be able to carry out their work without risking the safety and
      health of themselves or others. It is therefore important that any identification addresses whether an
      employee’s ability to work safely is impaired.

5.2   Potential difficulties should be borne in mind when identification strategies are being formulated.
      When assessing “impairment” of an employee, the possibility of impairment through other causes,
      such as fatigue or stress, should be borne in mind. Strategies should aim to differentiate between the
      effects of a drug, alcohol and fatigue.

5.3   Fatigue, which can be defined as loss of alertness, eventually ending in sleep, is common in a range
      of industries, particularly in motor transport. This loss of alertness leads to slower reaction times,
      decreased skill and poor judgment. Fatigue can result from long or arduous work, poor sleep or lack of
      sleep.

5.4   The following steps may assist in developing an identification process:

•     Criteria should be formulated that clearly set out the factors that will be considered when employees,
      that appear impaired by alcohol and other drugs, are identified. It is essential that criteria are developed
      in consultation with all employees, any Safety and Health Representatives and management. Expert
      assistance may be required in formulating the identification process. For example traditional sobriety
      tests may be used in some cases
•     The question as to who will identify an impaired employee must be clear in the policy or supporting
      procedures. Options include identification by a supervisor or senior manager; a fellow employee
      or co-worker;self-assessment by the employee; a position designated in the workplace policy; or a
      combination of some or all of the above. It may be worthwhile for management to state that the entire
      workforce is encouraged to report a person at the workplace who may be impaired or not working
      safely.
•     Identifying persons affected by alcohol and other drugs is a complex process, therefore designated
      persons who approach employees should be properly trained in substance abuse identification.
•     If the impaired person refuses to cooperate contact the person specified in the policy or supporting
      procedures which may include the union representative, the employer or other person specified in
      the policy and assess dangers; and evacuate all surrounding people at risk from the location of the
      impaired person or isolate the impaired person.

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6.0   Management after the incident

6.1   After the incident and the employee returns to the workplace not impaired by alcohol and/or other
      drugs:
•     sick leave, special leave or sickness benefits advice should be arranged;
•     information and advice about substance abuse, assessment and counselling should be provided;
•     the policy regarding further incidents should be made clear to the employee, but the normal procedures
      concerning failure to perform should apply.

6.2   Should further incidents of being impaired by alcohol or other drugs occur by the same employee:
•     repeat the above procedure;
•     follow disciplinary procedure outlined in the alcohol and other drug policy or other written
      procedures;
•     keep all parties informed; and
•     encourage the impaired person to seek information and counselling and treatment if appropriate.*

SAFEGUARDS FOR MEDICATION

•     Another issue that may be addressed is the management of employees affected by medication, including
      prescription and over-the-counter medication. This issue may be addressed in the policy on alcohol
      and other drugs or can be considered separately.
•     There are a number of steps that may be taken to minimise the risk of harm caused by consumption
      of medication. If an employee’s ability to work safely may be affected as a result of medication, the
      employee should inform either the employer, supervisor or Safety and Health Representative at the
      workplace of the effects of the medication. It is not necessary for the employee to disclose the illness
      for which they are taking medication.

Sample procedures - Option 1

•     No alcohol is to be brought into the workplace by employees or contractors.
•     No alcohol is to be consumed by employees / contractors during working hours or immediately prior
      to commencing a work shift.
•     Employees / contractors shall consider the consequence of alcohol consumed the night before the next
      shift / contract work
•     No employee will arrive for work, or in the course of their work be under the influence of any alcohol
      or drug substances so as to affect their ability to work in a safe manner.
•     No alcohol is to be consumed on the premises outside of working hours unless provided by the employer
      Alcohol authorised is to be limited to a low to mid strength beer – less than 4% alcohol. Two standard
      drinks in the first hour for men and only one standard drink in the first hour for women.
•     Any person under the influence of alcohol will result in the employee being removed from the work
      place.
•     Any person removed from the workplace suspected of being under the influence of alcohol or illicit
      drugs will be sent for testing at a medical facility by a safe method, either taxi or collection by a friend
      or family member – he/she will be persuaded to not drive themselves home.
•     If impaired person refuses to co-operate with management, after being requested to leave the site,
      they must agree to a medical assessment. Where they refuse testing, the person will be referred to the
      manager.
•     Any person found to be under the influence of illicit drugs in the workplace will be removed from the
      workplace and tested at a medical facility.
•     Any employee / contractor found to be using illicit drugs at the workplace will be instantly dismissed
      and the contract cancelled.
•     Should there be a further incident of being impaired by alcohol or other drugs affecting the same
      employee, management may enforce disciplinary action.
•     When an employee / contractor has returned to work following an incident, management should
      encourage that employee to seek information, counselling and treatment if appropriate.

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•      Any person on prescribed / over the counter medicines must inform the relevant supervisor. It is not
       necessary for the employee to disclose the illness for which he/she is taking the medication. Where
       the medication may affect the person ability to work in a safe manner, the employee should either be
       assigned alternative duties or may be required to be sent home on sick leave. The employee should
       only recommence normal duties when he/she is able to work in a safe manner.

•      In regard to any industry function or work social function where alcohol is offered, the same duty of
       care applies. It is recommended:
       • Food be provided.
       • Monitor the alcohol consumption and have water and soft drinks readily available.
       • Use a designated driver or alternative transport other than employees own vehicle, such as minibus
       or taxi.

Option 2

Purpose: The Alcohol And Other Drugs Procedure is part of the Businesses Occupational safety and health
policies.

These procedures set out the requirements with regard to alcohol and other drugs for all persons in the
Business. Use of alcohol or other drugs may increase the risk to the safety and health of all persons in the
workplace. The effects of alcohol or other drugs during working hours may affect a person’s ability to work
in a safe and efficient manner.

These procedures have been developed through the safety and health consultative process within the
business.

Scope: This policy applies to all persons entering this place of work or for any area where this business has
accountability for Occupational Safety and Health.

Persons includes employers, employees (award or certified agreement), agent, contractors and third parties.

Objectives:
•    To create a safe and healthy work environment for employees, contractors, visitors and the general
     public.
•    To ensure that individuals are able to carry out their duties with minimal risk of injury to themselves
     or others.
•    To ensure that all individuals present themselves in a fit for work state.
•    To ensure individuals receive training and understand the Drug and Alcohol Procedure.
•    To ensure employees breaching the Drug and Alcohol Procedure are offered support through external
     counselling services.

1.     Information, Education, Support And Training Programs

1.1.   Counselling Services
•      List any confidential external counsellign or support services availanlbe anf the requirmetns for
       each.

1.2.   Policy / Procedure Information Sessions
•      All new employees, contractors and visitors to the Company’s workplaces will be briefed on these
       procedures. The briefing will be tailored to the type of activities being conducted by the person and
       appropriate to the nature of their visit to the workplace.
•      All employees and eligible persons will attend information/education sessions on the procedures as
       they are held. These sessions will provide employees with information concerning the program and the
       services available.
•      Existing employees and eligible persons engaged by the company prior to the introduction of this
       policy are also bound by this policy as per the date of introduction.

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2.    Consultation
•     Any person who feels concerned about the use of alcohol or other drugs and its impact on the work
      environment are encouraged to discuss the matter with their supervisor or manager.
•     Such discussions will remain confidential between the individual and their Supervisor.
•     Each person has the right to request another person to accompany them in discussions regarding
      alcohol or other drugs.

3.    Assessment and Management of Fitness for Work

Alcohol Test: A Breath test done at the workplace or when presenting for work seeking a Blood Alcohol
Concentration in accordance with Australian Standards AS 3547:1997.

Drug Screening: An initial test done at the workplace or when presenting for work involving a urine test
for a positive result for drugs.

Drug Testing: A test in accordance with Australian Standards AS/NZS 4308:2001.

Nominated testing site: A site that can test for drugs in accordance with Australian Standards AS/NZS
4308:2001.

3.1    Assessment Methods
Methods that may be used to manage fitness for work for this policy include:
•    Breath testing for blood alcohol concentration;
•    Urine screening and / or testing for drugs;
•    Saliva swab screening for drugs;
•    Other screening or testing methods that may come into use that are authorised in accordance with
     Australian Standards AS 3547:1997 (Breath Alcohol Testing Devices), AS/NZS 4308:2001 (Collection,
     Detection and Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Urine), AS 4760.1 (Collection, Detection and
     Quantitation of Drugs in Oral Fluids) or subsequent amendments and other relevant Australian
     Standards that come into effect. Assessments will be performed by an appropriately trained
     Representative.

3.2   Assessment frequency
a)    Self-assessment at any time
•     Individuals who believe that they may not be fit for work are encouraged to self-screen before they
      commence work.
b)    Random screening
•     The purpose of random screening is to create a deterrent to alcohol or drug use that could impact on
      the workplace and to ensure that Individuals are aware at all times that they may be randomly tested.
•     Random screening / testing for persons selected at random at any time over any given period and for
      those who have previously tested positive.
c)    ‘For cause’ testing
•     The purpose of for cause testing is to establish whether alcohol or drugs contributed to workplace
      incidents.
•     The relevant Manager / Supervisor may initiate screening or testing when he/she feels drugs or alcohol
      may have been a contributing factor.
•     ‘For Cause’ screening / testing includes following incidents and where general behaviours of an
      individual indicates to a supervisor that there may be areas of concern.
d)    Hazard Report
•     Where any individual suspects that another person is a risk to health, safety or performance, that
      individual should discuss the issue with their Supervisor / Manager.




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4.    Testing For Alcohol

4.1   Blood alcohol concentration (BAC)
•     Whilst any person is at a Company place of work or any area where the Company has accountability for
      Occupational Safety and Health, a BAC reading of 0.03% or below must be achieved.
•     BAC will be tested using a Company authorised, calibrated BAC testing device as per Australian
      Standards AS 3547:1997 and used in accordance with the written manufacturers procedures.
•     A BAC reading exceeding 0.03% will result in the individual being removed from the work area
      concerned.
•     Where there is a BAC reading exceeding 0.03%, a second test will be conducted 30 minutes later.
•     If a reading exceeding 0.03% BAC is confirmed in a second reading, the disciplinary process as outlined
      in this policy will be followed.

4.2   Manager’s Discretion
•     If an Individual returns a reading of 0.03% BAC or less, but there is still concern regarding their
      fitness for work the Supervisor has the final responsibility for determining whether an Individual is
      fit for work. This decision is based on the Manager/Supervisor's considered opinion and may include
      instances when an Individual is considered unfit for work despite a less than 0.03% BAC.
•     In such cases, Managers/Supervisors have the right to remove the Individual from the premises or
      move the Individual from their regular activities if it is considered that a significant risk exists.

4.3   Self assessment as requested by an individual
•     If an Individual voluntarily tests through self-assessment, BAC readings exceeding 0.03% will not
      result in disciplinary action. However, a BAC reading exceeding 0.03% will mean that the individual
      will not be allowed to commence their work activities or enter the work area until a BAC or 0.03% or
      below is obtained.
•     Time off must be taken as annual leave or leave without pay.
•     Repeated occurrences of time off due to voluntary self-assessment showing a BAC reading exceeding
      0.03% may result in disciplinary action being taken for absenteeism.

5.    Screening and testing for drugs

Whilst any person is at a Company place of work or any area where the Company has accountability for
Occupational Safety and Health a negative drug result must be achieved.

5.1   Drugs screening / testing
•     Screening test will be a urine sample analysis and / or saliva swab test with the test performed at the
      workplace. Screening for drugs will be performed with Company nominated testing device, as specified
      in section 4.1 and in accordance with the written manufacturers procedures.
•     Where there is a positive result (i.e. in excess of the detection limits) in the screening test, the same
      sample will be sent to a nominated testing site in accordance with Australian Standards AS/NZS
      4308:2001, to be tested.
•     Where an individual’s screening tests results are positive, they will be given an opportunity to explain
      the results and to request a second screen on the same urine sample to be tested on site.
•     Where a screening result is shown as positive, the person is deemed to be in breach of this policy and
      will be removed from the workplace, and the disciplinary process as outlined in this policy will be
      followed.
•     The cut-off levels used are those set in Australian Standards AS/NZS 4308:2001.




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                    SUBSTANCES*                                   MICROGRAMS /LITRE


                    Amphetamines                                  300


                    Total Cannabinoid’s                           50


                    Opiates                                       300


                    Barbiturates                                  200


                    Benzodiazepines                               200


                    Cocaine                                       300


                    Methadone                                     300


                    LSD                                           0.5


* For definitions of Substances please see Appendix 1

•     Urine samples must comply with the urinary creatinine levels of greater than 1.8 mmol/L and be in the
      temperature range of 33°C to 38°C. Failure to comply with these requirements will be investigated and
      the Individual will be required to provide a valid sample. The Individual may be required to provide an
      observed sample.
•     All positive samples will be sent to an accredited testing service provider.

5.2   Testing service provider
•     The testing service provider shall be accredited to meet the requirements of Australian Standards AS/
      NZS 4308:2001 Recommended Practices for the collection, detection and quantity of drugs of abuse
      in urine or equivalent.

5.3   Testing procedures
•     Urine testing will be carried out in compliance with Australian Standards AS/NZS 4308:2001.

5.4   Manager’s Discretion
•     If an Individual returns a negative reading, but there is still concern regarding their fitness for work,
      the Supervisor has the final responsibility for determining whether an Individual is fit for work. This
      decision is based on the Manager/Supervisor's considered opinion and may include instances when an
      Individual is considered unfit for work despite a negative result.
•     In such cases, Managers/Supervisors have the right to remove the Individual from the premises or
      move the Individual from their regular activities if it is considered that a significant risk exists.

5.5   Self assessment as requested by an individual
•     Positive readings from voluntary urine drug tests will not result in disciplinary action. However,
      positive readings from voluntary tests from any Individual will mean that they will not be allowed to
      commence their work activities or enter the work area until a negative test is obtained.
•     Time off must be taken as annual leave or leave without pay.
•     Repeated occurrences due to positive voluntary test results may result in disciplinary action being
      taken for absenteeism.




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6.    Management of Persons Affected by Medically Prescribed Drugs
•     Where an employee / contractor is taking a prescribed medicine that has warnings such as ”this
      medication may impair ability to drive machinery” etc. the employee / contractor must inform the
      Company Supervisor.
•     Where the employee / contractor’s ability to work safely as a result of prescribed medication taken may
      be impaired then:
      a. The employee / contractor must inform the relevant supervisor as to the side effects of the
         medication.
      b. The employee / contractor must provide some means of verification as to the side effects of the
         medication to the supervisor.
      c. Where the employee / contractor can perform their duties safely, the supervisor shall ensure the
         employee is appropriately supervised to monitor on a regular basis the safe work performance.
      d. If an employee is unable to perform their normal work duties due to the side effects of prescribed
         medication, the Supervisor, employee and safety and health representative (if appropriate) should
         discuss and determine an appropriate course of action.

7.    Possession of Illicit Drugs or Drug implements at the Workplace
      Any person found using or in possession of illicit drugs or drug implements at the workplace or
      when presenting for work will be treated as third occasion as in the disciplinary section of these
      procedures.

8.    Possession of Alcohol at the Workplace
•     Alcohol may be brought to the workplace by employees/contractors, at the Manager’s discretion.
•     Alcohol is not to be consumed on any Company property during working hours.

9.    Refusal to Take a Test
      If an Individual refuses to take a BAC breath test or Urine screen/Mouth swab screen, this will be
      treated as a positive test result.

10.   Disciplinary Action

10.1 First Occasion
•    The supervisor or a company nominated person will counsel the individual.
•    The individual will be required to sign a declaration acknowledging the results of both the first and
     second BAC tests.
•    The individual will be required to take time off through either annual leave or leave without pay.
•    In the case of a positive drug screen, the urine sample will be sent to the testing laboratory for a
     confirmatory test. The individual will be required to take time off through either annual leave or leave
     without pay, pending the return of results from the test. If the drug test is returned as negative, the
     individual will be able to return to work and either annual leave reimbursed or leave without pay
     remunerated.
•    Before returning to work, the individual will be required to provide a negative test/screening result.
•    The individual will be offered assistance through appropriate counselling.
•    The individual will be monitored at work for 12 months from the date of positive test result. This may
     include being subject to random testing.
•    The individual will be issued with a written warning stating the points covered above, with the screen/
     test results and a copy of this placed in the personnel file of the individual.

10.2 Second Occasion
•    The supervisor or a company nominated person will counsel the individual.
•    The individual will be required to sign a declaration acknowledging the results of both the first and
     second BAC test.
•    The individual will be required to take time off through either annual leave or leave without pay.
•    In the case of a positive drug screen, the urine sample will be sent to the testing laboratory for a
     confirmatory test. The individual will be required to take time off through either annual leave or leave

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       without pay, pending the return of results from the test. If the drug test is returned as negative, the
       individual will be able to return to work and either annual leave reimbursed or leave without pay
       remunerated.
•      Before returning to work, the individual will be required to provide a negative test/screening result.
•      The individual will be offered assistance through appropriate counselling.
•      The individual will be monitored at work for 12 months from the date of positive test result. This may
       include being subject to random testing.
•      The individual will be issued with a final written warning advising them that any recurrence will
       result in dismissal, with the screen/test results and a copy of this placed in the personnel file of the
       individual.

10.3 Third Occasion
•    The individual will be required to sign a declaration acknowledging the results of both the first and
     second BAC test.
•    In the case of a positive drug screen, the urine sample will be sent to the testing laboratory for a
     confirmatory test. The individual will be required to take time off through either annual leave or leave
     without pay, pending the return of results from the test. If the drug test is returned as negative, the
     individual will be able to return to work and either annual leave reimbursed or leave without pay
     remunerated.
•    The individual will be requested to participate in a formal investigation that will be carried out to
     determine if there were any mitigating circumstances that existed and allow the individual to state
     their case.
•    The individual will be dismissed immediately (except under mitigating circumstances as outlined
     above) with all entitlements paid up to the time of termination.

10.4 Continued positive results
•    When an individual has been unable to return to work due to the failure to achieve a negative
     screening result, discussions will be held with the individual to ascertain their suitability for continued
     employment. Where, in the company’s opinion, the individual is unsuitable to return, the individual’s
     contract of employment will be terminated.

10.5   Wages and costing of tests
•      The Company will pay costs of all testing, reviews and evaluations.
•      Counselling services shall be at the company’s expense.
•      Should further testing, review or medical examination find a clear negative result, the employee will
       be reinstated and lost wages and entitlements be reimbursed.

11.    Protection of privacy
       All information will be dealt with in the manner as stated by the privacy act.

12.    Grievance procedures
       If an individual has a grievance in relation to the procedures, they should refer to the Company’s
       grievance policy.

13.    Provision of alcohol on Company Property or at Company Sponsored Events
•      The Company may, from time to time, provide alcohol for consumption on Company property or
       sponsor events at which alcohol may be provided.
•      Managers must take responsibility for ensuring that the work site is suitably safe for the consumption
       of alcohol.
•      Managers and individuals are responsible for ensuring that a safe means of departure have been
       considered.
•      Individuals consuming alcohol on Company property or at Company sponsored events must act in a
       responsible manner.
•      Managers may request that an individual does not consume any more alcohol, or may request that
       persons affected by alcohol leave the premises.
•      Refusal by an individual to follow the Manager’s instructions in relation to the above will result in
       disciplinary action.

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APPENDIX 1 – TYPES OF SUBSTANCES INVOLVED

Alcohol: Alcohol consumption may impair work performance. “Hangovers” from alcohol may also decrease
work performance. Alcohol dependence is also likely to lead to deterioration of skills and communication
difficulties. Alcohol is a depressant drug and consumption can lead to delayed reaction time, impaired
coordination, memory and other cognitive functions and decrease the ability to concentrate and communicate
and can sometimes lead to an increased likelihood of violent or aggressive behaviour.

Amphetamines: Known also as speed, goey, fast and whizz. The user will experience increased pulse rate
and blood pressure, anxiety, confusion, insomnia, loss of appetite and occasionally psychosis.

Cannabis: The hemp plant Cannabis Sitiva produces marijuana, hashish and hashish oil, also known as
grass, mull, pot, weed, dope or ganja. The user will experience a ‘high’ and affects mood and perception
resulting in signs of tiredness, lack of interest, poor coordination, confusion, clumsiness, glazed eyes and
vision problems, decreased mental alertness, impaired judgement and slowed reaction times.

Cocaine: Also known as coke, charlie, flake, snow and c. The user will experience increased pulse rate and
blood pressure, anxiety, confusion, insomnia and loss of appetite. Large amounts may cause chest pain,
heart attack or psychosis.

Ecstasy: User may experience increased blood pressure and body temperature, dehydration, nausea and
anxiety.

Hallucinogens: Mainly phencylcyclidne (PCP); lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) also known as trips, tabs
and microdots; and psylocibin (magic mushrooms). User may experience illusions and hallucinations, poor
perception of time and distance, panic, paranoia, possible drowsiness, hyperactivity, confusion, inability to
concentrate, loss of memory and insensitivity to pain.

Opiate Analgesics: Produces euphoria in the user. Adverse physical effects include nausea, vomiting,
constipation, drowsiness, reduced vision and respiratory depression, lack of emotion, apathy and indifference.
Opiates include: Heroin (illegal opiate) also known as smack, skag, hammer, h, gear, slow and horse; Opium
(illegal opiate); Pethidine (prescription or illegal opiate); Morphine (prescription or illegal opiate); and
Methadone (prescription or illegal opiate). Methadone is used in the treatment of opiod dependence.

Over the Counter Medication: Some commonly taken medication can cause drowsiness and impair the
ability to work safely.

Prescription Medication: Any directions or warnings on the medication should be read carefully and
followed. Side effects may include drowsiness, tiredness, loss of concentration, slowed reaction times and
loss of coordination.

Solvents and Inhalants: Includes butane gas, paint thinners and petrol which affects the central nervous
system. User becomes intoxicated and the effects will include headache, sore eyes, drowsiness, disorientation,
double vision, anxiety, dizziness, tiredness, nausea, poor coordination, slowed reaction time and possibly
reduced muscle strength. Extensive usage leads to brain damage.




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WORKPLACE BULLYING


What is workplace bullying?

Workplace bullying is repeated inappropriate behaviour, direct or indirect, whether verbal, physical or
otherwise, conducted by one or more persons against another or others, at the place of work or in the course
of employment, which could reasonably be regraded as undermining the individuals right to dignity at
work.

Bullying may occur as a one off incident or as a series of incidents. A workplace situation can be identified
as bullying if it harms, intimidates, threatens, victimises, undermines, offends, degrades or humiliates an
employee or employees, whether in front of co-workers clients, visitors, customers or alone.

Bullying may be part of the culture of the workplace, eg. an initiation, but if the behaviour harms or offends
someone it may be classed as bullying.

There may be differences of opinion or conflicts in working life and employers are entitled to make reasonable
demands on employees, however when the treatment of another person is unreasonable or offends them,
this should be treated as a safety and health issue.

What are bullying behaviours?

Behaviours that may show bullying is occurring include:
•    Abusive , insulting or offensive language by one or more persons to another or others
•    Behaviour or language that frightens, humiliates, belittles or degrades, including criticism that is
     delivered with yelling and screaming
•    Inappropriate comments about the persons appearance, lifestyle or family or cultural values
•    Teasing or regular jokes at the expense of someone else
•    Interfering with another persons personal effects or work equipment
•    Physical assault or threats
•    Organisational behaviour that undermines, treats less favourably or disempowers others or overloads
     the person with work demands

What isn’t bullying?

All employers have the right to direct and control how work is done and identify performance issues problems
however it is the manner in which these are handled is where the issue of bullying may be considered.

Why bullying is a problem?

Bullying can disrupt work to the extent that action has to betaken to restore order and confidence. Employees
may stay way from work to avoid bullying situations. Some of the symptoms that may indicate bullying as
an issue are:
•     Stress, anxiety, sleep disturbance
•     Ill health or fatigue
•     Panic attacks or impaired ability to make decisions
•     Incapacity to work, concentration problems, loss of self-confidence and self-esteem
•     Reduction of work output
•     Depression or sense of isolation
•     Physical injury
•     Reducing quality of home of family life
•     Post-traumatic stress
•     Suicide in extreme cases

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Possible direct and indirect costs for your business
•     High staff turnover
•     Low morale
•     Costs in recruiting new staff
•     Mediation costs
•     Lost productivity
•     Investigations, possible prosecutions by Government agencies
•     Common law actions by affected persons

Why does bullying go unreported?

Employees are less likely to report bullying if they fear retribution. They also may feel intimidated or
embarrassed to raise the issue especially if the person bullying is their supervisor. They also may feel nothing
will change especially where bullying is part of the business culture.

Policy

An anti-bullying policy should set out an organisation’s position on workplace bullying and give everyone
confidence that bullying reports will be treated fairly and seriously.

Policy contents:

•     State bullying is inappropriate and will not be tolerated
•     Describe bullying and the types of behaviour that constitute bullying
•     Demonstrate commitment by owners and managers
•     Encourage employees to report incidents of bullying
•     Educate employees to what bullying is
•     Ensure prompt action when bullying occurs

Procedures

1.0   Complaint Handling and Investigation Procedures

1.1   Development of procedures

Procedures should be developed to suit the business, the type of work and the culture of the business.

Anti-bullying procedures which could be incorporated into existing grievance procedures should:
•     Be in plain English and, if necessary, other languages
•     Be fair and equitable
•     Ensure natural justice principles are upheld and the alleged bully has an opportunity to answer
      allegations
•     Ensure privacy and confidentiality
•     Be designed to resolve the problem as quickly as possible
•     Complaints may be made verbally or in writing , whatever suits the business
•     Provide for prevention of victimisation by any party who makes or receives a complaint
•     Provide for disciplinary action.

2.2   Suggested procedures

Actions
•    Encourage parties to resolve the issue themselves
•    Use a third party to mediate or facilitate
•    Reassess the situation (is there a risk of physical or psychological harm?)
•    Get a formal investigation done by an independent person

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•    Consider providing alternative working arrangement until the issue is resolved
•    Provide access to counseling for all parties
•    Confidential assessment and outcome discussed with all parties
•    Worksafe may become involved if after this process the issue remains unresolved
•    Where the complaint of bullying is justified, initiate disciplinary action.


RECEIPT OF A COMPLAINT       Date: __________________


ASSESS THE NATURE OF THE COMPLAINT (is it a minor concern through to possible criminal activity)




MINOR ISSUE




OTHER




ACTIONS




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OFFICE ENVIRONMENT

Hazards: occupational overuse syndrome, atmospheric contaminants from photocopiers, chemicals , air
conditioning, manual handling, electricity, cigarette smoke, poor lighting.

1.0   JOB DESIGN


      HAZARD                            EXAMPLE                                  CONTROLS


      Physical factors


      Manual handling                   Lifting and carrying boxes or            Modify the load to be carried;
                                        photocopy paper;                         Use a trolley;
                                        Moving office furniture and               Training
                                        equipment;                               Store item off the floor where
                                        Handling large files, books and heavy     possible;
                                        documents;                               Training
                                        Prolonged data entry;                    Use devices to eliminate the need
                                        Opening and closing filing cabinet        to hold the phone, instill good
                                        drawers                                  keyboard practices;
                                                                                 Where possible structure work
                                                                                 demands to account for manual
      Musculoskeletal       disorders   Lifting a heavy box from the floor        handling factors;
      Forceful exertion in a bent or                                             See keyboard section of this
      twisted posture;                                                           section

      Maintaining static posture for    Holding the telephone for long periods
      extended periods of time          of time;
                                        Keyboard work for long periods of
                                        time;
                                        Sustained mental effort and peak
                                        demands work rates


      Psychosocial factors


      Stress – content of work          Monotonous work such as data entry;      Good customer relations systems
                                        Poorly designed work shifts;             that consider workers role;
                                        Inadequate environmental                 Provide communication
                                        conditions;                              opportunities between supervisors
                                        Long or unsocial hours of work           to staff and staff to staff;
                                                                                 Provide leadership;
                                                                                 Establish clear roles for employees;
      Stress – social and               Inadequate communication system          Match employees with the skills
      organisational context of         with the supervisor;                     necessary for the job;
      work                              Uncertainty of tasks required to do;     Implement a work performance
                                        Job change;                              assessment system;
                                        Under training of staff;                 Consider work/family/home life
                                        Under / over promotion;                  balances for employees;
                                        Rewards systems rewarding long           Assess the risk of violence in the
                                        hours or taking risks;                   workplace;
                                        Poor relations ship with other           Manage       serious    interpersonal
                                        employees or supervisor;                 incidents, don’t ignore them
                                        Emotionally draining jobs dealing with   Consult with workers about issues
                                        stressful situations;                    relating to OS & H;
                                        Conflicting demands of home, family       Provide information to staff about
                                        and work;                                the hazards of stress;
                                        Inconsistent people management by
                                        supervisors;




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        Bullying                         Verbal abuse, excluding or isolating     See bullying section of this safety
                                         workers, harassment or intimidation;     kit
                                         Assigning meaningless tasks to
                                         workers;
                                         Changing work rosters deliberately to
                                         upset people;
                                         Intentionally withholding information;
                                         Unreasonably threats of dismissal or
                                         work performance;
                                         Trainees, new workers or casuals,
                                         minority ethnic groups.


        Occupational Violence            Worker to worker; worker to supervisor   See occupational violence section
                                         and vice versa                           of this safety kit
                                         Denying someone a service or
                                         customer frustration;
                                         Working alone at night;
                                         Handling cash; Working in the human
                                         services area


        Fatigue                          Mentally and physically demanding        See fatigue section of this safety
                                         work;                                    kit
                                         Long periods of time awake;
                                         Inadequate sleep (ie. when on call)
                                         24 hour shift work;
                                         Environmental stresses;
                                         Work scheduling and expectation for
                                         workers to do overtime


        Shift work                       Call center having people work rosters   See fatigue section of this safety
                                         over 24 hours;                           kit
                                         Prolonged night shifts




2.0   LIGHTING IN THE OFFICE

2.1   The key factors to consider when determining the adequacy of lighting are the:
•     amount of light in an area;
•     number, type and position of the light sources; and
•     tasks or activities performed, how often and for how long these are performed.

2.2   Good lighting should:
•     enable people to easily view their work and environment without the need to strain their eyes.
•     Consider the visual demands of the activity or task performed determine the lighting needs of an area.
      Activities that do not require a high level of visual acuity – for example, walking through a corridor – do
      not require high levels or an optimum quality of light. Tasks such as drawing or checking a document
      for errors involve fine and detailed work requiring a moderate to high level of visual control, and so
      greater levels and a higher quality of light are required.

2.3   How much light is needed?
•     To reduce the demands on your eyes and the need to adapt when changing tasks or viewing fields, or
      when moving from one work area to another, specific levels of lighting for particular types of tasks are
      recommended

•     The amount of light in an area can be measured using a light meter (or lux meter). This measures the
      amount of light falling onto a surface, which is known as the luminance of that surface. I luminance
      is measured in lux. Recommended luminance levels for different types of work areas are approximate
      and are shown overleaf.



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                         RECOMMENDED                                                   REPRESENTATIVE
                                              CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ACTIVITY
 CLASS OF TASK           MAINTENANCE                                                   ACTIVITIES AND
                                              AND INTERIOR
                         ILLUMINANCE (LUX)                                             INTERIORS


                                              Interiors requiring intermittent
 Intermittent task       80                   use with visual tasks limited to         Staff change rooms
                                              movement and orientation


                                              Occasional reading of clearly
 Simple                  160                                                           Waiting rooms
                                              printed documents for short periods


                                              Continually occupied interiors
 Ordinary or                                  where moderately easy visual tasks
                         240                                                           Computer usage
 moderately easy                              with high contracts or large details
                                              are required


                                              Areas where visual tasks are
 Moderately
                         400                  moderately difficult with low             Routine office work
 difficult
                                              contrasts


                                              Areas where visual tasks are difficult    Drawing offices
 Difficult                600
                                              with low contrast                        (boards) proof reading



2.4   Quality of light

This refers not only to the level of lighting, but also to other factors which have a significant impact on how
well we are able to perform a task. These include:
•      the number of lights in use – having the correct number of lights will provide evenness of lighting over
       the area;
•      the type of lights, e.g. fluorescent tubes, tungsten and halogen lights – the most common type of office
       lighting is fluorescent, most resembling natural light and long-lasting. Fluorescent lights can provide
       different qualities of light, such as white, warm, natural, daylight or colours;
•      the type of light fittings used – the design of light fittings can influence the direction of lighting;
•      the position of the lights – lights should be positioned to illuminate the workstations;
•      how colours appear under them; and
•      maintenance of the lighting system.




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2.5    Other issues related to lighting in the office



 HAZARD                EXAMPLE                                 CONTROL

 Glare                 One part of an area is much             Control natural light from windows, eg. Venetian blinds enable
 May cause eye         brighter than the background, eg.       people to adjust the light in their work areas;
 fatigue and           if a bright window is positioned        Reduce the contrast between the foreground and
 headaches, as         behind a computer screen the            background, e.g. the use of a slightly darker partition with a
 well as decreased     contrast (difference between            matte surface reduces the contrast between a computer
 ability to view the   dark and light) can be so great         screen and the surrounding area;
 screen.               that the eyes have to constantly        Reposition the workstation to reduce the light falling on the
                       adapt to the change.                    work surface;
                                                               Reduce the general lighting to suit the task being performed.


 Reflections from a     It can be difficult to read a screen     Development of color monitors, Windows-based systems, LCD
 work surface          when light from artificial lighting or   screens and non-reflective screen surfaces. Additional controls
                       windows is reflected from it.            for reflections include positioning the screen side-on to the main
                                                               light source.
                                                               A light screen background also reduces difficulties caused by
                                                               reflections.
                                                               Move the workstation to another location.
                                                               Use screen filters.


 Shadows across a      Reduce the visibility of work,          Increasing the number and spread of overhead lighting,
 work surface          contribute to glare problems            repositioning work or redirecting lighting Barriers to light falling
                       and cause the adoption of poor          on the work surface – for example, an overhead shelf – should
                       posture in order to view work.          be removed or relocated to reduce shadows.
                                                               An adjustable task lamp may provide specific lighting where
                                                               shadows are a problem, where light from a particular direction
                                                               is required or when an increase in general lighting is not
                                                               practicable.
                                                               A task lamp can, however, create pools of light, causing the
                                                               eyes to have to adapt rapidly when looking at the whole work
                                                               surface, so the removal of barriers to light falling on the work
                                                               surface is the preferred control measure.


 Posture               When people find it difficult to see      If lighting is contributing to poor posture, the location and all
                       what they are working with, it is       aspects of the lighting relative to the task need to be considered,
                       common for them to lean closer          for example:
                       to the object or to bring it (eg. a     Is a shadow being cast over the work surface?
                       document) closer to their eyes. In      Is there enough light for the task being performed?
                       both cases, this may lead to an         Are reflections or glare causing the person to adopt an
                       awkward posture.                        unsatisfactory posture?


 Visual fatigue        Eye muscles can become tired            A change of focus, such as a view out of a window or to a
                       when constantly focused on close        picture along a hallway at a distance from the operator, can
                       work.                                   provide exercise to other muscles of the eyes while resting the
                                                               tired muscles.


 Natural Light         Take into account the time of day       By providing staff with control and adjustment of natural light, for
                       and year, as this will affect the       example, Venetian or vertical blinds, many of these issues can
                       quantity and quality of natural         be addressed.
                       light in a work area.


 Colour                Choice of colours can determine         It is recommended that ceilings have high reflectance, (reflecting
                       the mood of an environment              around 80% of the light) and are usually white or off white.
                       and the level of reflection from a       Walls should have 50 – 75% reflectance (subdued cool colours)
                       surface.                                and a gloss or semi gloss finish. Floors should have low (less than
                                                               20%) reflectance and therefore should be darker and not glossy.
                                                               The use of colourful posters or non-reflective paintings can
                                                               relieve monotony and provide visual relief.


 Flickering lights                                             Regular maintenance




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3.0   NOISE

 HAZARD             EXAMPLE                 CONTROL


 Internal sources   Telephones, printers,   Use a layout which separates noise generating activities or
                    photocopiers,           equipment from tasks requiring concentration;
                    people, background
                    noise such as lifts,    Isolate noisy equipment such as printers or photocopiers by
                    engines, pumps, air     placing them in separate rooms
                    conditioning
                                            Use sound-absorbent materials, including suitable floor coverings,
                                            wall panels, ceiling panels and dividing screens.
 External sources   Road traffic, general
                    industrial noise
                                            Installation of barriers should also take into account the effect
                                            this may have on ventilation and any sense of isolation it may
                                            cause with staff;

                                            Provide acoustic-grade dividing screens to reduce conversation
                                            noise. Studies have found that partitions with sound absorbing
                                            panels of at least 1,600mm height are required to have any
                                            effect on the transfer of sound between workstations.

                                            Panels need to be used in conjunction with other sound
                                            absorbing surfaces – floors, walls and ceilings – to be effective.
                                            In an open-plan office compromises may be made to allow
                                            communication between workstations by using 1,200mm height
                                            partitions between employees and 1,600mm between work
                                            sections;

                                            Select equipment with the lowest noise specifications
                                            practicable;

                                            Install noise barriers – including double-glazed windows, solid
                                            walls and fences – to reduce external noise sources;

                                            Lower the volume setting on a disruptive telephone.

                                            Adopt administrative controls such as encouraging employees
                                            to use meeting areas away from work areas for conversations;

                                            Use masking sound, i.e. electronically generated background
                                            noise that is deliberately introduced to mask or cover up intrusive
                                            noises.

                                            It is best to control unwanted noise rather than try to mask it.
                                            Masking has generally been found to be an unsatisfactory way
                                            of dealing with unwanted noise

                                            Orient workstations so that one person does not use the phone in
                                            a direct line to the ear of the person in the next workstation.




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4.0    THERMAL COMFORT

4.1    Controlling thermal comfort issues
       Some general suggestions for improving thermal comfort include:
•      regulate air conditioning for temperature and humidity;
•      avoid locating workstations directly in front of or below air conditioning outlets;
•      install deflectors on air vents to direct airflow away from people. These measures will help prevent staff
       being annoyed by draughts
•      control direct sunlight (radiant heat) with blinds, louvres and window treatments;
•      minimise draughts and thermal differences between the head and the feet (thermal gradients);
•      ensure adequate air flow. Feelings of stuffiness can result when air flow is low,and draughts occur when
       air flow is high. An air flow rate of between 0.1 and 0.2 metres per second is desirable.

4.2    Air quality in offices
•      Air in offices may be contaminated by several different sources, including odours and micro-biological
       and chemical contaminants. In an office environment, the quality of the air is often controlled through
       an air conditioning system.

4.3    Legionnaire’s disease
•      Legionnaire’s disease is an infection caused by exposure to legionella bacteria. Infection can often
       be traced to exposure to mists of airborne droplets carrying the bacteria. These may be related to
       contaminated air conditioning cooling towers and warm water systems. Other sources may include
       aerosols from spa baths or potting mix.
•      Effective prevention of exposure to legionella is achieved through appropriate design and maintenance
       of air conditioning systems a risk management plan being in place and regular testing and maintenance
       of systems.

4.4.   Sick Building Syndrome
•      Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) refers to a situation where a proportion of people complain of symptoms
       of discomfort such as a headache, eye, nose or throat irritation, fatigue, dizziness or nausea while
       inside a building and the symptoms go away upon leaving the building. Instances of SBS are rare and
       may be related to psychosocial factors in the workplace as well as poor air quality. Where air quality
       problems exist or SBS is thought to be a problem, specialist advice should be sought.

4.5    Ozone

•      Ozone is a gas produced in small amounts by electrostatic photocopiers. Under normal circumstances,
       the concentration of ozone is not sufficient to cause symptoms such as itchy eyes or illness. Most
       older photocopiers now have activated carbon filters fitted to decompose ozone. It is best to store
       photocopiers in a well-ventilated area.




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5.0   OFFICE LAYOUT


 HAZARD                                            CONTROLS/SOLUTIONS


 Inadequate space for tasks to be carried out
                                                   Relocate equipment and workstations to provide
                                                   adequate space for the tasks being performed.

                                                   Review the tasks being conducted and consider whether
 Insufficient space for busy or intermediate foot
                                                   they need to be done in that office or in another location.
 traffic through an area Insufficient space for
 individual workstations
                                                   Space for busy foot traffic must comply with the
                                                   requirements of the Building Code of Australia.
 No areas for tasks that require dedicated
 space, ie. photocopying
                                                   Ensure aisle widths of at least 1 metre in intermediate foot
                                                   traffic areas.
 Inappropriate floor surfaces for the tasks
                                                   Allocate areas for tasks that require dedicated space and
 (slippery, reflective, difficulties with pushing
                                                   install appropriate workstations for those tasks.
 equipment)




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6.0    WORK STATIONS


 HAZARD                                                    CONTROLS/SOLUTIONS

 Insufficient space at the workstation for documents        Assess each workstation using workstation checklist .
 to be spread out within easy reach no easy access
 to equipment such as a telephone and keyboard;            Provide adjustable height sitting workstations.
 no height adjustability of work surfaces; workstations
 and equipment not set up to reduce awkward                Design reception or counter areas to reflect the work being done
 postures.                                                 and the level of security necessary.

 Standing workstations not suitable for all users;         Provide adjustable height standing workstations.
 insufficient width and depth for the tasks being
 carried out                                               Provide suitable adjustable seating to match the type of work
                                                           and the floor surfaces, ie. glides or braked castors on hard floor
 No provision for sitting at this workstation when short   surfaces.
 periods of continuous work are required.
                                                           Use the checklist at the end of this section to assess work stations
 Reception desks or counters too deep or high,
 inadequate work space or risk to security of staff.

 Chairs unstable when sitting down or standing
 up; chairs not adjustable for different users; chairs
 damaged or uncomfortable.

 No footrests provided for office workers who cannot
 rest their feet flat on the floor when their chair is
 adjusted to suit the desk height.

 No suitable document holders available should user
 require one.

 Staff not trained to adjust workstation and chair.

 Frequent telephone tasks without headsets.

 Seated workstations not designed for suitability for
 tasks done

 Reception or counter area desks not suitable for the
 tasks

 Standing workstations unsuitable for users

 General office workstation seating inadequate

 Receptionist chairs inadequate

 Keyboard operator chairs inadequate

 Meeting/board room chairs inadequate

 No headsets provided for frequent telephone work




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7.0   OFFICE EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS


 HAZARD                                                       CONTROLS/ SOLUTIONS


 No electric stapler for tasks that require frequent          Provide access to electric stapler and heavy duty
 stapling                                                     stapler.

 No heavy duty stapler for stapling thick documents           Provide lever action staple remover for frequent
                                                              staple removal.
 High frequency staple removal using hand pincer
 type tool                                                    Store sharp tools in a manner that does not expose
                                                              persons to risk of being stabbed or cut.
 Letter openers and other sharp tools exposed
                                                              Provide letter opening machines for bulk opening
 Frequent use of hand letter openers                          of letters.

 Use of high force to operate hole punch on thick             Provide powered hole punch or a mechanical
 documents                                                    punch designed specifically for thick documents.


8.0   STORAGE


 HAZARD                                                CONTROLS/ SOLUTIONS


 Insufficient storage space at each                     Provide additional storage close to workstations.
 workstation.
                                                       Relocate infrequently used items to off-site storage.
 Storage space not within easy reach (ie.
 between shoulder and mid-thigh height).               Provide additional shelf storage.

 Insufficient space around storage areas to             Relocate heavy items to shelving between knee and
 enable easy and safe access.                          shoulder height.

 Filing cabinets and cupboards unstable when           Provide additional general storage areas.
 open.
                                                       Secure filing cabinets and cupboards to the wall or floor to
                                                       prevent them falling over.

                                                       Provide filing cabinets fitted with locking devices to
                                                       prevent opening of more than one drawer at a time.




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9.0   COPYING EQUIPMENT


 HAZARD                                            CONTROLS/ SOLUTIONS


 Copier lids not functioning to reduce exposure    Repair or replace equipment.
 to intense light.
                                                   Prepare safe use and maintenance procedures.
 Copier not functioning quietly and as quickly
 as indicated in the specifications for the         Ensure supplier provides toner cartridges in sealed state.
 equipment.
                                                   Store used toner cartridges in sealed container.
 Self-contained toner cartridges not supplied in
 a sealed state.                                   Post copies of current toner MSDSs close to photocopiers.

 Safety procedures for use and maintenance
 not available or regularly reviewed.

 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on
 toners not readily available.




10.0 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES


 HAZARD                                            CONTROLS/ SOLUTIONS


 No list of the likely hazardous substances.       All hazardous substances in use identified, assessed and
                                                   controlled with documented safe work procedures.
 Hazards have not been identified, assessed
 and controlled.                                   Eliminate or isolate processes that generate dust, smoke,
                                                   fumes or gases.
 Noticeable fumes in the air.
                                                   Eliminate chemicals or products known to be toxic,
 Work processes that use or generate dust,         corrosive, inflammable or explosive or substitute with less
 smoke, fumes or gases.                            hazardous chemicals or products.

 Chemicals in the office known to be toxic,         Ensure good ventilation of areas where chemicals and
 corrosive, inflammable or explosive.               products are stored or used.

 No MSDS and written safe work procedures          Provide chemical training to all staff required to use
 accessible.                                       chemicals and products.

 Inadequate ventilation to remove odours and
 fumes.

 No training provided to relevant staff.




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11.0 ELECTRICAL


HAZARD                                     CONTROLS/ SOLUTIONS


Excessive numbers of power boards and      Install sufficient fixed power points in area.
extension cords
                                           Ensure all portable electrical leads regularly tested in
No inspection and testing of portable      accordance with AS/NZS 3760: In-service safety inspection
electrical leads                           and testing of electrical equipment.

Faulty electrical appliances               Remove all damaged electrical leads from service.

Damaged electrical leads in use            Replace multiple plugs with power board provided that
                                           there is sufficient capacity in the electrical circuit.
Use of multiple plugs in one power point




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12.0 HOUSEKEEPING


 HAZARD                                           CONTROLS/ SOLUTIONS


 Deep carpeted areas in high use trolley areas.   Use slip-resistant floor surface in areas where ice, grease or
                                                  dust create a slipping hazard.

 Wet surfaces near external doors where traffic    Slip resistant door mats at entrances should be secured or
 and weather brings in rain; in kitchen areas,    large enough to remain in place.
 particularly around sinks, urns.

 Wet/polish cleaning of floors during working      Hazardous warning signs and procedures for the
 hours.                                           immediate management of spills.

 Change of surfaces – carpeted office to           Cleaning of floor surfaces outside working hours; or use an
 polished timber office; sheet vinyl hallway to    effective system to exclude personnel from floors that may
 tiled kitchen; concrete car park to terrazzo     be hazardous until dry after cleaning.
 office.

 High heeled shoes worn on step or straight       Floor surfaces must be chosen to ensure non-slip conditions
 ladders or expanded mesh flooring.                when employees move from one floor surface to another;
                                                  or treat floor surfaces to make the slip resistance of both
 Floor surfaces not properly maintained with      surfaces similar.
 damaged tiles, frayed carpet.
                                                  Ensure suitable footwear is chosen and is worn when doing
 Floors of offices, passageways, corridors and     the task.
 stairways not kept clear.
                                                  Ensure the slope of a ramp is no more than 1 in 8 and if
 Lifts, escalators, etc, not in good working      people in wheelchairs may have to use the ramp, the
 order, e.g. differences in height of lift and    maximum slope should be 1 in 12 as per AS1428.
 floor; damage to escalator comb that may
 lead to a trip; damage to escalator handrail     Ramps should be made slip-resistant with foot grips or
 that may cause injury.                           textured surface.

 Sharp corners or edges of furniture and other    Regularly review and maintain uneven, damaged floor
 fittings close to pedestrian traffic areas.        surfaces and external access areas.

                                                  Ensure aisles or passageways remain uncluttered at all
                                                  times and keep work areas tidy.

                                                  Paint a bright strip (highlight) on nosing e.g. steps that are
                                                  poorly defined visually.

                                                  Where doors open onto stairs a landing with sufficient
                                                  space for the door to open fully without striking the
                                                  employee should be provided.

                                                  Eliminate isolated low steps; or if not reasonably
                                                  practicable, ensure isolated low steps are highlighted.

                                                  Develop a system so that faulty or damaged equipment is
                                                  taken out of service and replaced or repaired.




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13.0 GENERAL HEALTH AND SAFETY


HAZARD                                              CONTROLS/ SOLUTIONS


Stock, materials or displays stored or stacked to   Use a safety step to gain access to items at head or shoulder
a height where ladders or steps are required to     height.
access them.

Chair used as ladder; straight ladder used on       Ensure appropriate ladder, steps or stairs are used to climb
smooth surfaces.                                    or descend levels.

Step or straight ladder rather than platform        Ensure stock, materials or displays are not stacked above
ladder used to get items or to put away items       shoulder height.
into storage.

Reaching too far to either side; standing on the    Ensure ladders and steps are stable or secured when in
top rung of a ladder; ladder used on uneven         use.
floor surfaces; rung ladder used without being
secured; rung ladder used at too shallow or         Ensure ladders or steps are well maintained with non-slip
too steep an angle.                                 feet and treads in good condition.

Storage of stock, materials or displays             An item should not be carried while the employee is using
at height                                           a ladder.

Unstable or inappropriate ladders/steps             Provide adequate length ladders for tasks (user’s waist
                                                    should not be higher than the top rung of the ladder, i.e.
Unsafe ladder usage                                 top
                                                    3 rungs of a straight ladder and top 2 steps of a step ladder
                                                    should not be used for the feet).

                                                    Ensure the tops of ladders are tied to a secure structure to
                                                    prevent slipping or sliding.

                                                    A ladder should be long enough so that when it rests against
                                                    the upper support, an employee’s waist is not higher than
                                                    the top rung of the ladder or above the rung at which the
                                                    side rails are resting against the upper support. So the
                                                    top 3 rungs of a straight ladder or the top 2 steps of a step
                                                    ladder should not be used for the feet.




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14.0 KEYBOARD WORKSTATION ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST




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PLANT

1.0   ‘Plant’ means more than you might think

Plant is a general name for machinery, tools, appliances and equipment. It can include things as diverse as
presses in a foundry and computers in an office. It can range from electric drills to lifts and escalators; from
tractors to hand trolleys; cranes to commercial fishing nets and arc welding gear.

Examples of plant used in different kinds of businesses and workplaces might be:

Restaurant: Stoves, electric knives, meat slicers, vegetable cutters, blenders, boilers

Plumber: Welding equipment, pneumatic drills, electric drain cleaners, powered hand tools, builder
ladders, concrete mixers, power tools, scaffolding, cranes, hoists, wheelbarrows ...

Offset printer: Presses, binders, guillotine, forklifts, scissor lifts ...

Hospital: Lifts, boilers, sterilisation equipment, trolleys, syringes ...

School: Heaters, guillotines, desks and chairs, computers, workshop equipment, tractors, lawn mowers ...

Factory: Lathes, presses, grinders, milling machines, conveyors ...

Warehouse: Conveyors, forklifts, scissor lifts, stacker cranes, overhead gantry crane ...

Fish & Chip shop: Deep fryers, grills, exhaust fans, potato peelers, chipmakers ...


2.0   Hazard identification

2.1   Process

•     List the plant in your workplace.
•     Examine company records to see if they reveal any hazards
•     Develop checklists and a worksheet to use in physically inspecting the workplace.
•     Inspect the workplace and talk to employees who work with plant.
•     Record hazards identified.
•     Work out what can be done to minimise the risk.




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2.2   Some examples of plant hazards


 PLANT                             HAZARD                        CONTROL


 Paper processing machine          Crushing hazard: Someone’s    Isolating plant during maintenance would
                                   fingers or hand may get        be essential.
                                   caught between the two
                                   rollers, most likely during
                                   maintenance or cleaning


 Pizza oven                        Possible burns when taking    Use gloves
                                   out food


 Electric meat cutter              Possible electrocution        Connect through RCD and test RCD
                                                                 regularly

                                   Cutting hazard                Use steel mesh cutting gloves and safe
                                                                 work practice


 Large paper guillotine            Crush from paper bar          Protect operator and passers by

                                   Amputation from blade due     Install guard
                                   to access to the blade from
                                   the rear


 Metal guillotines                 Crushed or amputated fingers   Guards

                                   Strain from lifting           Safe lifting techniques


 Power press                       Crushing or amputation        Guard


 Angle grinder                     Eye injuries, cutting         Maintain disc
                                                                 Wear eye protection




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2.3    Questions per item of plant to consider when inspecting the plant

 PLANT IDENTIFICATION


 Possible kinds of hazard                                                   Comment


                              Could the plant cause injury due to things
                              like entanglement, crushing, trapping,
                              cutting, stabbing, puncturing, shearing,
                              abrasion, tearing or stretching?


                              Could the plant create hazardous
                              conditions due to things like pressurized
                              content, electricity, noise, radiation,
                              friction, vibration, fire, explosion,
                              temperature, moisture, vapour, fumes,
                              gases, dust, ice, hot or cold parts?


                              Could the plant cause injury or ill health
                              due to poor ergonomic design?


 Possible sources of hazard


                              What is the general condition of the plant?
                              How old is it? What is its
                              service and maintenance history?


                              How hard has the plant been worked? Has
                              it been used constantly or rarely?


 Suitability


                              How suitable is the plant for its intended
                              purpose? Is the plant actually being used
                              for its intended purpose? If not, what
                              hazards arise from this unintended use?


                              How suitable are the materials used to
                              make the plant?


                              How suitable are any accessories to the
                              plant? In what condition are they?


                              How well is the plant supported? Is it
                              stable? Might it roll over?


                              If the plant is intended to lift and move
                              people, equipment or materials, how
                              capable is it of doing this? Is there an
                              effective back-up system to support the
                              load?


 Location


                              How does the plant affect the safety of
                              the area where it is located?
                              (Consider its impact on design and layout
                              of the workplace.)




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                               How does the location affect the safety
                               of the plant? (Consider things like
                               environmental conditions, terrain, work
                               area.)


                               Are there other people or other plant in
                               the vicinity? What effect does this
                               have?


    Abnormal situations


                               What abnormal situations, misuse or
                               fluctuation in operating conditions can
                               you foresee?


                               Is there potential for falling objects?


                               What effects would failure of the plant
                               have? Would it result in loss of
                               contents, loss of load, unintended
                               ejection of workpieces, explosion,
                               fragmentation, collapse of parts?


                               Is it possible for the plant to move or be
                               operated inadvertently?


    Systems of work


                               What systems of work are associated with
                               the plant Could they create any hazards?


                               What arrangements are there for access
                               to and egress from the plant, eg., during
                               operation, for maintenance, in an
                               emergency?


                               Does the plant’s safety depend on the
                               competency of its operators?



3.0      Control options

3.1      Employers should:
•        have a maintenance program to make sure all equipment and machines are in safe working order and
         guards are fitted;

•        have a system in place for locking out and isolating machinery during maintenance, cleaning and
         repairs;

•        train the employee to operate any item of mechanical equipment before use and make sure adequate
         supervision is in place

•        provide any personal protective equipment to the employee and instruct on how to wear and use it
         correctly.

3.2      Employees should:

•        wear clothing that will not catch in moving parts;
•        wear any personal protective equipment provided by your employer;
•        operate the machinery and equipment correctly and safely;
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•     keep all guards in place;
•     make sure guards removed during cleaning are replaced before you use the machine;
•     switch off machinery and equipment when not in use and lock out and isolate machinery before any
      adjustment, cleaning or maintenance is done;
•     concentrate on the job as distractions might cause injuries;
•     keep the area around the equipment or machinery clean.

3.3   Guarding - general

Types of hazards from plant and equipment that require guarding
•     Cutting
•     Shearing
•     Stabbing and puncturing
•     Impact
•     Entanglement
•     Friction and abrasion
•     Crushing
•     Shearing or crushing nip-points
•     Projectiles (flying particles of the machine or material)
•     Release of potential energy

Consider operational (rolls, saws, drills, cutters) and non-operational (chains and sprockets, belts and pulleys,
gears, shafts, flywheels)

Consider the machine layout and the location of the plant to other equipment

3.4   Guarding specific

•     Fixed guards; prevent access to dangerous parts without introducing another hazard.
•     Interlocked guards: machine cannot operate until the guard is closed
•     Control guards: machine must not be able to operate until the guard is closed
•     Automatic Guards: Physically eliminating from the danger area and part of the body which may be
      exposed
•     Distance Guards: barriers or fences
•     Adjustable guards: Where it is impractical to prevent access to dangerous parts but requires strict safe
      work procedures and operator training
•     Self adjusting guards: automatically opens by the movement of the work piece and returns to the
      closed position when the operation is complete
•     Trip devices: machine stops quickly when the device is activated
•     Two hand control devices: operator must use both hands to operate

3.5     Isolation and lock out

•     What is an isolation procedure?
      An isolation procedure is a set of predetermined steps that must be followed to ensure that plant and
      related hazards cannot jeopardise the safety of those working on the plant. Where plant is combined
      with other machinery or equipment and may involve different processes, hazards and power sources,
      written isolation procedures should be developed.

•     Basic isolation procedure
      1. Shut the plant down.
      2. Identify all energy sources and hazards.
      3. Isolate and lock out all energy sources.
      4. De-energise all stored energy sources.
      5. Control other potential hazards.

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      6. Tag plant controls, energy sources and other potential hazards.

      7. Test by “trying” to re-activate the plant, without exposing the tester or others to risk, to ensure
      isolation procedures have been effective, before commencing any maintenance, cleaning, inspection
      or repairs on the plant.

      8. Once remedial work is complete, the persons who tagged the controls are to remove the tags before
      the plant is returned to operational status

•     If isolation is not practicable
      There may be workplaces where all the above steps cannot be carried out because of the way plant is
      designed or installed. Or there may be certain plant that can only be cleaned, maintained, repaired or
      adjusted by moving components slowly under power.

      In these cases Regulations 4.37A (5), (6) and (7) provide for alternative measures to be taken by an
      “authorised person”.

      If plant cannot be stopped during cleaning, maintenance or similar work, the plant must be fitted with
      controls that allow safe controlled movement, and written safe procedures must be developed and
      followed.

      If isolation and lockout procedures are not practicable, the obligation holder under the legislation must
      ensure alternative written safe procedures are developed, followed and reviewed at regular intervals.

3.6     Tagging

A tag is NOT in itself an effective isolation device. A tag acts only as a means of providing information to
others at the workplace. When practicable, a lock must be used in preference to a tag, as an isolation device.

A personal danger tag should accompany each lock used in an isolation procedure and should identify the
person who put the tag and lock in place, the time and date this occurred and the item of plant being isolated.
In a large workplace it should also identify the work group of the person who attached the tag.

The tag system requires a notice to warn personnel against using the equipment to which a tag is attached.
No one should interfere with or operate any tagged equipment such as a main switch, push button or other
electrical device until the item has been cleared for safe operation and the attached tag has been removed.

The tag must only be removed by the person who attached it, or by the “authorised person” in accordance
with an approved procedure. The “authorized person” is responsible for ensuring procedures affecting the
use of tags are followed.

Locks are available that have a personal danger tag incorporated to ensure that the tag cannot be removed by
any person other than the person who attached it.

Warning tags normally used are –

(a)   personal danger tags: Personal danger tags should be restricted to employees who will be working
      on equipment. A personal danger tag on the isolation devices of an item of equipment is a warning
      that the equipment is in an unsafe condition and that operation of that equipment may endanger the
      person who attached the tag. All personal danger tags of the disposal type should be destroyed after
      use.

(b)   out of service tags: An out of service tag is a notice that distinguishes appliances or equipment out
      of operation for repairs and alteration or which are still being installed. While an out of service tag is
      attached to the appliance or equipment, it must not be operated.

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3.7   Personal danger tags

•     A personal danger tag (red and white) must be attached to an isolator whenever the isolator is used to
      lock out an energy source to allow work to be done.

•     The person doing the work must personally fasten their personal danger tag on all lockout devices
      involved in the isolation procedure.

•     A personal danger tag attached to an isolation device means the person is currently engaged in work
      on the plant, and that it is likely that the person will be injured if the isolating device is not maintained
      in the safe position.

•     If more than one person is involved in the work, each person must attach their own lock and personal
      danger tag to the lockout device.

•     A personal danger tag should be removed only by the person whose name is written on the tag.

•     Removal of a personal danger tag from an isolating device should be carried out as soon as practicable
      after completing the work. In every case a personal danger tag should be removed prior to leaving the
      worksite at the end of the shift.

•     The isolation procedure should include the action to be taken should a person fail to remove a personal
      danger tag before leaving the worksite.

•     Where work on plant is not completed by the end of a working shift and the plant is required to remain
      isolated, arrangements must be made for out of service tags to be placed on each isolating point before
      personal danger tags are removed.

•     If work on the plant is to continue during the next shift there must be a “hand over” briefing by the
      shift leaving the site to those taking over the work. The briefing should include the status of the work
      and the removal or replacement of personal danger tags and locks.

3.8   Out of service tags

•     A yellow and black out of service tag on an item of equipment indicates that the equipment is
      unserviceable and should not be used. It can be attached to non-powered plant such as ladders, jacks
      and trolleys as well as powered plant and should be attached to the main controls if possible, or to a
      prominent part if there are no controls (such as in the case of a damaged ladder).

•     Out of service tags should be attached by a competent person having specific knowledge relating
      to the plant. However, this should not preclude any other person from attaching an out of service
      tag in emergency situations where it is apparent that the continued use of the equipment could be
      dangerous.

•     Out of service tags should, where applicable, be placed on devices which isolate energy sources, only
      when those devices are set in the ‘off’ or ‘safe’ position.

•     Prior to attaching an out of service tag all required details on the tag must be clearly and indelibly
      entered in the spaces provided, with emphasis given to the reason for placing the tag.

•     Tags must be securely fixed, so as to be clearly visible. Except in an emergency, out of service tags
      should be removed only by an “authorised person” who is both familiar with the equipment and fully
      conversant with the reason that the tag was placed.

•     In the absence of any personal danger tag or lock, removal of an out of service tag effectively releases

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      plant or equipment for use, and must not be done prior to ensuring that:
      • all persons known to have been working on the plant are clear of the equipment; and
      • an inspection of the plant indicates that all machinery guards are in place, that all protective devices
      are functional, that all maintenance tools and aids have been removed, and that the equipment is safe
      for normal use.

•     Out of service tags are intended to convey a clear DO NOT OPERATE warning, and that failure to
      comply may result in damage to the equipment and may cause injury to a person.

•     It is essential that isolating mechanisms with out of service tags attached are not switched, manipulated,
      or interfered with in any way while these tags are in place.

•     Out of service tags must not be relied upon to provide personal protection.

•     Whenever work is required to be undertaken in or about equipment or machinery that could cause
      injury, personal danger tags should be used.

•     It may be necessary by use of an out of service tag to also register on any computer controlling the
      plant that the plant or (part of it) is OUT OF SERVICE.

•     Personal danger tags and out of service tags should not be used together on the same item of equipment
      because they relate to different circumstances. An out of service tag should be removed when a personal
      danger tag is added, and vice versa.

•     The above comments relate to tagging systems used in most workplaces. However, group tagging is
      also acceptable.

4.0   Registration of plant

•     Some kinds of plant must be registered before they can be used in a workplace. (See the Occupational
      Safety and Health Regulations 1996 Schedule 4.2).

•     This plant includes most types of boiler and pressure vessels; tower cranes and most mobile cranes;
      lifts and escalators; building maintenance units; most amusement structures; truck-mounted concrete
      placing units with booms.

5.0   Specific regulatory requirements

There are specific legislative requirements for the following in the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations
1996 for:

•     Access to and egress from plant
•     Operational controls
•     Risks from dangerous parts
•     Emergency stops and warning devices
•     Guarding
•     Operator protective devices

6.0   Specific legislative plant requirements

There are specific legislative requirements for the following in the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations
1996 Part 4 for:

•     Plant under pressure
•     Industrial lift trucks

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•     Industrial robots
•     Lifts and escalators
•     Powered mobile plant
•     Electric plant
•     Lasers
•     Amusement rides
•     Plant without and cold parts
•     Scaffolds
•     Plant designed to lift or move
•     Tractors.

7.0   Damaged plant

7.1   All damaged plant or equipment that poses an increased risk to employees must be assessed by the
      relevant supervisor for damage and whether the plant or equipment can be repaired.

2.2   The supervisor shall ensure that any repair, inspection and where necessary testing of the plant or
      equipment is done by a person competent in that work

2.3   The competent person repairing the plant or equipment shall ensure that the original design limits in
      relation to the plant/equipment are not exceeded.

2.4   Where damaged plant or equipment exposes a person to a hazard in the presence of electricity then :
      a. Inform the supervisor of the hazard
      b. Supervisor to ensure the plant/equipment is disconnected from the electricity supply and the
         plant/equipment is not used until the damaged part/device is repaired or replaced
      c. The supervisor ensures an out of service tag is fixed to the plant/equipment and of the common
         isolation points for the plant.
      d. The supervisor removes the out of service tag when the electrical hazard is no longer present
      e. The supervisor ensures the plant is returned to operational status




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PART 3

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER


Step 1: Identify what types of hazards exists in your business from using the resources in this kit and use
        the form to write them down, use your employees , they will be useful in this

Step 2: Where the hazard is a legislative requirement that you have to do something eg. forklifts, follow
        the forklift section in the kit, eg. confined spaces, follow the confined spaces section in this kit, eg.
        plant, follow the plant section.

Step 3: Where the hazard requires further evaluation assess the risk of each of the hazards using the table
        below and fill in on the form

Step 4: What are you going to do about it? Is it serious and imminent or can it wait a bit? Who is going to
        do anything about it? Do you need to do something right now and something a bit later?

Step 5: You will probably need to refer to other sources of information on some of these issues. See the
        Worksafe page for a suggested list.

Step 6: Develop your safe work procedures for your business in consultation with your employees.

Step 7: Train your employees in the procedures.

Step 8: Induct any new employees use the sample induction form as shown.

Step 9: Keep records of all the above.




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HAZARD RISKS AND CONTROLS REPORT SHEET

Work area _________________________________________

Name of Person completing this form_______________________________

Date of form completion__________________________________________


                                                          Assess the
       What is the hazard          Action taken           risk (use                             Action by whom
 No.                                                                       Controls proposed
       identified                   immediately            the table                             and when
                                                          below)




                                     LIKELIHOOD


        CONSEQUENCE                  Very Likely   Likely       Unlikely               Highly Unlikely


        Fatality                     High          High         High                   Medium


        Serious injuries             High          High         Medium                 Medium


        Minor injuries               High          Medium       Medium                 Low


        No injuries/Negligible
                                     Medium        Medium       Low                    Low
        Injuries




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TRAINING & RECORDS


EMPLOYEE INDUCTION (not just OH&S. Also use for casual staff and contract labour)

Work out what you will induct a new employee in accordance with the level of risk of the hazards on:

• Day 1                • Week one             • Month 1.


 ITEM                                             WHAT TO DO                                          DATE COMPLETED


 Insert clauses here for tax, employee
 agreement etc.


 Non OSH items


 First Aid locations                              Show them


 Noticeboards                                     Show them


 Duty of care information                         Show – Safety and health kit or worksafe
                                                  brochure – general duty op care


 Consultation process                             Safety committee if you have one or discuss at
                                                  staff meetings, , especially hazard forms etc


 Hazard management                                Discuss hazard management OH&S procedure


 Issue resolution                                 Discuss issue resolution as per OH&S procedure


 Injury / incident reporting procedure            Discuss section in safety and health kit


 Injury management                                Discuss what happens in the case of a serious
                                                  incident and any possible rehabilitation
                                                  required


 Emergency procedures                             Show emergency procures charts on wall and
                                                  floor plan showing muster points


 Personal protective clothing and equipment       Show the equipment and explain where it is
 • Aprons                                         required
 • Gloves
 • Boots
 • Safety glasses
 • Ear plugs


 Smoking policy                                   Show smoking policy in OH&S file


 Alcohol and drugs                                Discuss basic requirements as per interim
                                                  OH&S procedure and explain that there is a
                                                  Company wide policy to be introduced this
                                                  year


 All OSH Procedures                               Discuss relevant section in safety and health kit
                                                  or other




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CONTRACTOR INDUCTION (maintenance person)

Insert any additional clauses as required


 ITEM                                       WHAT TO DO


 Work location                              Show location of where work is to be done


 Hazard management process                  Tell contractor to report any hazards they see or
                                            encounter to a senior staff member


 First Aid facilities location              Show where it is


 First Aid treatment required               Tell contractor to report to a senior member of staff
                                            for any first aid treatment required


 Injury / incident reporting procedure      Tell contractor to report to a senior member of staff
                                            for any incidents that occur


 Emergency procedures                       What is the evacuation sound and whom to follow


 Smoking policy                             Show the policy


 Alcohol and drugs                          No person suspected to be under the influence of
                                            alcohol or illegal drugs will be allowed to work or
                                            continue to work




 CONTRACTOR NAME                            SIGNATURE




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VISITOR INDUCTION

Insert clauses as required relevant to operations


                                                                                                  DATE
                                          WHAT TO DO
 ITEM                                                                                             COMPLETED


 ACCOMPANIED VISITOR


 Smoking policy                           What the smoking policy is


 Alcohol and drugs                        No alcohol or drugs on the premises
                                          No one suspected to be under the influence will
                                          be allowed in to the premises


 Duty of care requirements                Instruct the following:
                                          •Follow instructions and directions of the Company
                                          person
                                          • Do not misuse of recklessly interfere with anything
                                          at the workplace
                                          • Do not place the safety and well being of others
                                          at risk
                                          • Do not wilfully injure themselves


 UNACCOMPANIED VISITOR


 Duty of care requirements                Instruct the following:
                                          • Follow instructions and directions of the
                                          Company person
                                          • Do not misuse of recklessly interfere with
                                          anything at the workplace
                                          • Do not place the safety and well being of
                                          others at risk
                                          • Do not wilfully injure themselves

                                          Confirm areas where visitors are authorised and
 Authorised access
                                          not authorised

 First Aid facilities location            Show first aid facility


 First Aid officers                        Point out first aid officers


 Injury / incident reporting procedure


 Emergency procedures                     Tell them you have emergency procedures
                                          and show the muster point. Tell them to follow
                                          instructions


 Smoking policy                           What the smoking policy is


 Alcohol and drugs                        No alcohol or drugs on the premises
                                          No one under the influence will be allowed in to
                                          the premises




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SAMPLE TRAINING REGISTER

 TYPE OF TRAINING              NAME OF PERSON ATTENDING   DATE PROVIDED   PROVIDER OF TRAINING


 Employee Induction


 Workplace induction           Eg Bill Smith              01/01/06




 Manual handling




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Emergency procedures training


Fire extinguishers              Eg Bill Smith   01/01/06   Fire company ACME




Duty of Care training




First Aid- 3 day


First Aid                       Eg Bill Smith   01/01/06   Red Cross




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 Business OH&S procedures training


 Smoking                       Eg Bill Smith   01/01/06   Brett Arlidge




 Other




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WORKSAFE WA

RESOURCES THAT MAY BE USEFUL
www.worksafe.wa.gov.au




> Click on Resources

> Click on Publications




> Click on Codes of Practice or Guidance notes or whatever area you want

> Or click on this link: http://worksafe.wa.gov.au/newsite/worksafe/pages/websgenI0013.html




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NOTES




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