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Imagining Minority Indonesian Politics and Ethnic Chinese

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Imagining Minority Indonesian Politics and Ethnic Chinese Powered By Docstoc
					                                                      3 Overview
Christian Chua                         28/10/2003
                 Research Project                      two ways of approaching CBB:
                                                      1) ethnic perspective:
        BUSINESS AS USUAL?                                 -> mainstream approach, Chinese ethnicity as
   Chinese Conglomerates in                                given, focuses on “culture”, behaviour, values
 Indonesia’s Political Economy                             (-) cannot treat Chinese tycoons as capitalist
                                                           class
                                                      2) structural perspective: Anderson, Robison
1 Introduction                                             -> structural conditions, class character of so-
- comeback of New Order forces                             ciety
    -> see pre-election melees, “reform” at-               (-) inherent incapability to take ethnicity into
    tempts, IBRA cases                                     account
- here: observe, uncover and interpret return of       up to now: no exclusive study on CBB from a
    Chinese big business (CBB)                             structuralist perspective
- Sofyan Wanandi: CBB = bankrupt [?]                   analysing ethnicised structures
 hypothesis: Chinese conglomerates = recon-               -> combining ethnic and structural approach
    stituted themselves in post-Soeharto Indone-
    sia                                               4 Theoretical Framework
 question: how did they reinvent themselves in        structural perspective with various dimensions:
    a less authoritarian environment?                 - locating power in (New Order-) Indonesia:
    -> patterns? strategies? partners?                          - elites?         - the state?
 significance: gain insight into political economy             - capital?        - society?
    of contemporary Indonesia                          only partial account when using theories exclu-
    -> actual power and adaptation capabilities of         sively
    capital(ists)                                      applying a multi-layered structural approach:
    -> construction and instrumentalisation of             - development confined by structure of capital-
    ethnicity (here: Chineseness)                          ist economy
                                                           -> inside these structures: actors (elites, soci-
2 Context                                                  ety, state) relatively autonomous and important
 defining “Chinese big business”:                         for analysing CBB:
- “Chinese”: constructed category, used here in                 - social groups as new power bases
     purely descriptive way                                     - state as prey, attempts to appropriate it
     -> deconstruct imagined ethnic group “Chi-                 again
     nese”, de-link CBB from “Chinese minority”                 - elites: powerful politico-business partners
- “big business”: only top 30 business groups                   who can change individual outcomes
     -> significantly higher group sales                        -> ethnicity = political tool in power strug-
     -> common knowledge: who is “big”                          gles
- development of CBB:
     - Colonial times: no CBB, but Chinese re-        5 Research Statement
     stricted to certain occupations                   hypothesis: CBB:
     - Independence: first alliances between mili-    - adjustment to new political conditions
     tary leaders and Chinese businessmen             - reconstitution in a more democratic, more decen-
     - Guided Democracy: political constraints             tralised state:
     - New Order: rise of CBB in centralised net-          -> less Chinese: ethnicity not usable as in New
     work of patronage, cukongism                          Order (-> real role of CBB in NO?)
     - Post-Soeharto Indonesia: ?                          -> less big: relative medium scale, diversified
                                                           partners mainly on regional or local level
6 Methodology                                                                7 Outline
 Q: How does business adapt to political                                               Part I: Theoretical framework
     change?                                                                            Part II: Historical background
     -> have the conglomerates survived?                                                           a) - Colonial times
     -> if so, how?                                                                                   - Sukarno
 Analysis:                                                                                        b) - New Order and CBB
a) contemporary:                                                                        Part III: CBB in post-Soeharto Indonesia
     - actual political economy after the crisis: how                                   Part VI: Case studies
     did CBB proceed to recover and reinvent it-
     self in a post-authoritarian environment?                               8 Timetable
b) historical:                        Timetable PhD NUS                                       2003                                2004
     - diachronic development of                                              01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
     conditions, patterns and         Coursework
     government policies that         Qualifying Exam                                                       x
     supported emergence,             Singapore (Literature)
                                      Indonesia (Lit., Research, Interviews)
     weakening and comeback           Ext. Experts, Resources (US, Neth.)
     of CBB                           First Draft
c) comparative:                       Writing
     - global cases (e.g.: Thai-      Submitting Thesis                                                                                            x
     land, Korea, Japan, Germany)
     - comparing relationship of ethnicity and                               9 The largest conglomerates in Indonesia (1996)
     power in various eras                                                                                                             Sales    C
 Procedure:                                                                        Conglomerate              Main Owner               Trill.   B
- historical and comparative part: secondary data                                                                                       Rp.     B
                                                                             1     Salim               Liem Sioe Liong                53.117    
     sufficient                                                                                        Prajogo Pangestu, Bob
                                                                                                                                                
- contemporary section:                                                      2     Astra
                                                                                                       Hasan
                                                                                                                                      20.202

     - business reports, company files, newspa-                              3     Sinar Mas           Eka Tjipta Widjaja             20.191    
                                                                             4     Gudang Garam Rachman Halim                         9.440     
     pers, magazines, statistics, etc.                                       5     Lippo               Mochtar Riady                  9.032     
            quantitative data to determine factual                                                    Bambang Trihatmodjo,
                                                                             6     Bimantara                                          4.292
           state of CBB, answer the “if” question                                                      Indra Rukmana
                                                                                                                                                
     - interviews with                                                       7     Gajah Tunggal Sjamsul Nursalim                     4.196
                                                                             8     Ongko               Kaharuddin Ongko               4.183     
           a) chairmen of medium-sized enterprises                           9     Djarum              Robert Michael Hartono 4.032             
           (e.g. Sofyan Wanandi, Eddie Lembong,                              10 Rodamas                Tan Siong Kie                  3.969     
           Djunaidi Jusuf)                                                   11 Nusamba
                                                                                                       Bob Hasan, Sigit
                                                                                                                                      3.893     
                                                                                                       Harjojudanto
           b) medium and upper management level                              12 Kalbe                  F. Bing Haryanto               3.660     
           of CBB (e.g. Angky Kamaro, Managing                                                         Soehargo
                                                                             13 Dharmala                                              3.426     
           Director of PT Sampoerna)                                                                   Gondokusumo
           c) Chinese tycoons (e.g. Liem Sioe Liong                          14 Argo Manunggal The Ning King                          3.360     
                                                                             15 Barito Pacific         Prajogo Pangestu               2.869     
           or Anthony Salim, Eka Tjiptawidjaya, Pra-                         16 Maspion                Alim Husein                    2.458     
           jogo Pangestu, William Soeriadjaya, Put-                          17 Bakrie                 Bakrie                         2.449
           era Sampoerna, Mochtar/James Riady)                               18 Humpuss                Hutomo Mandala Putra           2.324
                                                                                                                                                
            qualitative research to extract infor-                          19 Danamon                Usman Admadjaja                2.323
                                                                                   Cipta Cakra         Murdaya
           mation about the “how”                                            20
                                                                                   Murdaya             Widyawimarta
                                                                                                                                      2.254     

     - if possible: case studies                                             21 Panin                  Mu’min Ali Gunawan             2.225     
 Problems                                                                   22 Jan Darmadi            JanDarmadi                     2.115     
                                                                                   Pembangunan         Jakarta Govt, Ciputra,
     - lack of accessible and reliable data                                  23
                                                                                   Jaya                Sukrisman, Samolo
                                                                                                                                      2.091     
     - unavailability of interviewees                                        24 Sampurna               Putera Sampurna                1.969     
     - reluctance of informants to talk                                      25 Raja Garuda Mas Sukanto Tanoto                        1.783     
Presentation                         28/10/03      define CBB:
                                                  - usage of “Chinese”: purely descriptive
- NO (regime of Soeharto): gone for already                - aware, that “Chinese” = highly prob-
5 yrs, but:                                                lematic, constructed category
- main pillars of NO: either still there or si-            - but: not only aware, aim to decon-
lently trying to reconstitute themselves, like:            struct it
         - army                                             thesis differs from conventional re-
         - politico-bureaucrats                            search on Chinese in Indonesia: ethnic-
         - CBB                                             ity = given, culture = important; result
- this project: focuses on the latter                      = studies on Chinese minority, Chinese
- some interviews with businessmen and re-                 networks (interesting, but for purpose
searchers, usual answer: “CBB? Don’t waste                 of this project: not appropriate!) 
your time. They are all bankrupt.”                         have to de-link Chinese tycoons from
 my hypothesis: no!                                       Chinese minority
 research question: how did they reinvent        - of interest: only tiny group of Chinese capi-
themselves in a post-authoritarian environ-       talists, even more confined to top 30 business
ment?                                             groups = usually seen to be “big” business
     - patterns?                                  [see table]  these = groups that emerged and
     - strategies?                                flourished in the centralised patronage net-
     - partners?                                  work of the NO
 important question, because:                     now: NO gone, what happened to CBB?
     - hasn’t been done before, at least not
         with an exclusive focus on CBB and
         for post-Soeharto time                   - to find out, if and how conglomerates have
     - conglomerates = integral part of po-       survived:
         litical economy in NO -> to assess        need an appropriate theoretical frame-
         their actual situation and role: gives   work:
         us insight into political economy of          - here: structural perspective, but with
         contemporary Indonesia  findings                 various dimensions
         of eminent significance:                      - ongoing discussion abt: where to locate
              o to measure the real power of                power?
                  capital and capitalists              - elites? society? state? society?
              o to understand how business             -> don’t want to continue or contribute to
                  adapts to political change                this argument;
                                                       - here: everything’s relevant, of potential
                                                            importance for CBB:
                                                            - elites: new pbs
                                                            - social groups: new powerbases
                                                       - attempts to appropriate state again
                                                       - capital: defines structures
                                                   although: structures = most decisive factor,
                                                            - inside of them: relative autonomy of
                                                            actors
                                                            - also: not same mistake as other struc-
                                                            turalist approaches (ignore or neglect
                                                            ethnicity)  ethnicity indeed impor-
                                                            tant, can be used as political tool in
                                                            power struggles
- analyse these power struggles in post-          how to proceed?
Soeharto Indonesia:                              - for historical and comparative part:
 hypothesis: Chinese capitalists won’t be                - secondary data sufficient
kicked out of the game                           - for contemporary section:
- will adjust to new political conditions of             - a) business reports, company files,
more democratic, decentralised state                     newspapers, magazines, statistics, etc.
        -> less “Chinese”: ethnicity not us-             …
        able as in NO                                    -> all quantitative data I can get hold
        -> less big: medium scale, diversified           of  to answer question, if conglom-
        partners, not only in Jakarta                    erates survived
                                                         - b) interviews with
                                                                  - medium and upper manage-
                                                                  ment of CBB
                                                                  - CEO’s of medium-sized en-
                                                                  terprises (aspirants for new
                                                                  CBB)
                                                                  - Chinese tycoons (might be
                                                                  very difficult to interview
                                                                  them)
 threepart analysis:                                             (with first two groups: no prob-
- contemporary part:                                              lem, more inclined to talk)
        - analysis of actual political economy                    (to persons mentioned under a)
- historical part:                                                and b): contacts already estab-
        - trace back emergence of CBB                             lished)
- comparative part:                                       qualitative research (if possible:
        - other cases (Thailand, Korea, Japan,           case studies of tycoons) to answer
        Germany)                                         question: how they reinvented them-
        - ethnicity and power in various time            selves
        spans in Indonesia




                                                  timetable: next year: 4 months fieldwork,
                                                 attached to CSIS (leading research institutes
                                                 and prominent think-tank), done: end of 2004,
                                                 before any of you Master’s students!




                                                  objective: of course: change the world
                                                       - if I don’t succeed with this: enough to
                                                       change the consciousness of the read-
                                                       ers and make them aware of the real
                                                       configurations of power and interest in
                                                       our society

				
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