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The Scientific Method

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					The Scientific Method
       Section 2-1
      TEKS 3A, 4C
     Textbook pp 29-31
Steps of SM
                     The scientific
                     method involves…
Obvious question:    •   Observing.
What are the steps   •   Collecting data.
if the scientific
method (in order)?   •   Forming a hypothesis.
                     •   Testing a hypothesis.
                     •   Developing a theory.
                     •   Communicating.
Observing            • Observing is using the
                       senses to obtain information.
Obvious question:    • Quantitative observations
Why is observation
always the FIRST       involve a measurement.
step in the
scientific method?   • Qualitative observations do
                       not involve a measurement.
Collecting            • Data can be qualitative or
  data                  quantitative.
Obvious questions:
                      • Quantitative data involves
What is the major       the SI system.
distinction between
qualitative and       • Data is collected during an
quantitative data?
                        experiment or non-
                        experimental research.
Forming a            • A hypothesis is not a question,
hypothesis             it is an answer to a question.
                     • A hypothesis is a testable
Obvious questions:
Why must a
                       statement based on
hypothesis             generalizations about data.
statement be
“testable?”          • A hypothesis is the basis for
                       further data collection.
                     • “If-then” statement.
 Testing a            • Requires further experimentation.
hypothesis            • New data either
                         – Supports the hypothesis.
Obvious questions:       – Does not support the
Why is rejecting an        hypothesis.
unsupported
hypothesis            • Rejecting a hypothesis
important?              that is not supported
                        is an extremely important
                        part of science.
Theorizing           • Models are explanations
                       – of how phenomena occur.
                       – and how data and events are related.
Obvious questions:
What are models?
                     • If models successfully explain
How are they used?     phenomena, they can become part
How are models         of a theory.
different from
theories?
How are theories
different from
hypotheses?
Communicating        • Communicating results to other
                       scientists who can verify results.
Obvious questions:
                     • Publishing results and findings in a
Why is
                       scientific journal.
communicating
results an
important step in
the scientific
method?
Scientific                                Constructing Models
                                          Communicating
                                          Organizing and
                                          Collecting data analyzing data
                                          Predicting
Method                 Observing
                                          Predicting
                                          Measuring
                                          Classifying
                                          Experimenting
Overview                                  Communicating
                                          Experimenting
                                          Inferring

Obvious questions:    Hypothesizing       Predicting data
                                          Communicating
                                          Collecting
                                                   If testing data do not
Why would a                               Communicating
                                          Measuring
                                                   support hypothesis,
scientist reject or                                revise or reject
revise a                 Testing                   hypothesis
hypothesis?
Why is it important
for results to be
repeated and           Theorizing
confirmed by other                               Results confirmed by
scientists?                                      other scientists in
                                                 repeated testing
                         Publish                 validates theory.

                      The scientific method truly is not a stepwise process.
                      Scientists may repeat steps many times before there is
                      sufficient evidence to formulate a theory. Each stage
                      represents a number of different activities.
Discuss…
• What is the scientific
  method? Who uses it?
• How do hypotheses and
  theories differ?
• How are models related to
  theories and hypotheses?

				
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posted:3/19/2012
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