The Scientific Method
TEKS 3A, 4C
Textbook pp 29-31
Steps of SM
Obvious question: • Observing.
What are the steps • Collecting data.
if the scientific
method (in order)? • Forming a hypothesis.
• Testing a hypothesis.
• Developing a theory.
Observing • Observing is using the
senses to obtain information.
Obvious question: • Quantitative observations
Why is observation
always the FIRST involve a measurement.
step in the
scientific method? • Qualitative observations do
not involve a measurement.
Collecting • Data can be qualitative or
• Quantitative data involves
What is the major the SI system.
qualitative and • Data is collected during an
experiment or non-
Forming a • A hypothesis is not a question,
hypothesis it is an answer to a question.
• A hypothesis is a testable
Why must a
statement based on
hypothesis generalizations about data.
“testable?” • A hypothesis is the basis for
further data collection.
• “If-then” statement.
Testing a • Requires further experimentation.
hypothesis • New data either
– Supports the hypothesis.
Obvious questions: – Does not support the
Why is rejecting an hypothesis.
hypothesis • Rejecting a hypothesis
important? that is not supported
is an extremely important
part of science.
Theorizing • Models are explanations
– of how phenomena occur.
– and how data and events are related.
What are models?
• If models successfully explain
How are they used? phenomena, they can become part
How are models of a theory.
How are theories
Communicating • Communicating results to other
scientists who can verify results.
• Publishing results and findings in a
important step in
Scientific Constructing Models
Collecting data analyzing data
Obvious questions: Hypothesizing Predicting data
If testing data do not
Why would a Communicating
scientist reject or revise or reject
revise a Testing hypothesis
Why is it important
for results to be
repeated and Theorizing
confirmed by other Results confirmed by
scientists? other scientists in
Publish validates theory.
The scientific method truly is not a stepwise process.
Scientists may repeat steps many times before there is
sufficient evidence to formulate a theory. Each stage
represents a number of different activities.
• What is the scientific
method? Who uses it?
• How do hypotheses and
• How are models related to
theories and hypotheses?