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The Scientific Method Section 2-1 TEKS 3A, 4C Textbook pp 29-31 Steps of SM The scientific method involves… Obvious question: • Observing. What are the steps • Collecting data. if the scientific method (in order)? • Forming a hypothesis. • Testing a hypothesis. • Developing a theory. • Communicating. Observing • Observing is using the senses to obtain information. Obvious question: • Quantitative observations Why is observation always the FIRST involve a measurement. step in the scientific method? • Qualitative observations do not involve a measurement. Collecting • Data can be qualitative or data quantitative. Obvious questions: • Quantitative data involves What is the major the SI system. distinction between qualitative and • Data is collected during an quantitative data? experiment or non- experimental research. Forming a • A hypothesis is not a question, hypothesis it is an answer to a question. • A hypothesis is a testable Obvious questions: Why must a statement based on hypothesis generalizations about data. statement be “testable?” • A hypothesis is the basis for further data collection. • “If-then” statement. Testing a • Requires further experimentation. hypothesis • New data either – Supports the hypothesis. Obvious questions: – Does not support the Why is rejecting an hypothesis. unsupported hypothesis • Rejecting a hypothesis important? that is not supported is an extremely important part of science. Theorizing • Models are explanations – of how phenomena occur. – and how data and events are related. Obvious questions: What are models? • If models successfully explain How are they used? phenomena, they can become part How are models of a theory. different from theories? How are theories different from hypotheses? Communicating • Communicating results to other scientists who can verify results. Obvious questions: • Publishing results and findings in a Why is scientific journal. communicating results an important step in the scientific method? Scientific Constructing Models Communicating Organizing and Collecting data analyzing data Predicting Method Observing Predicting Measuring Classifying Experimenting Overview Communicating Experimenting Inferring Obvious questions: Hypothesizing Predicting data Communicating Collecting If testing data do not Why would a Communicating Measuring support hypothesis, scientist reject or revise or reject revise a Testing hypothesis hypothesis? Why is it important for results to be repeated and Theorizing confirmed by other Results confirmed by scientists? other scientists in repeated testing Publish validates theory. The scientific method truly is not a stepwise process. Scientists may repeat steps many times before there is sufficient evidence to formulate a theory. Each stage represents a number of different activities. Discuss… • What is the scientific method? Who uses it? • How do hypotheses and theories differ? • How are models related to theories and hypotheses?
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