Scientists through Time by yaohongm

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									Scientists through Time

This is a product of the Science
    department of Dartford
      Technology College

• The first recognised doctor, astrologer and
• Born 2630BC Died 2611BC
• A scientist who became a god. He lived in
  ancient Egypt and was the chief minister
  to the pharaoh Djoser.
          Miletus of Thales

• Philosopher and Scientist
• Born 624BC Died 547BC
• First of the seven wise men of Greece.
  Thought to be the founder of modern
  scientific thought.

• Founder of Astronomy.
• Born 610BC Died 546BC.
• The first person to realise that the surface
  of the Earth is curved.

• Mathematician and Philosopher.
• Born 580BC Died 500BC.
• Discovered how to work out the lengths of
  the sides of a right angled triangle.

• Anatomist.
• Born 570BC Died 502BC.
• The first known dissector of the human
    Xenophanes of Colophon

• Founder of Palaeontology.
• Born 560BC Died 478BC
• Discovered remains of life embedded in
  rocks, he suggested that mountains were
  once covered by the sea.

• Father of Medicine.
• Born 460BC Died 377BC
• He believed in cleanliness, moderation in
  food and drink. Clean air, nature and
  medicine from plants. Thought to be the
  first to extract willow bark for pain relief.

• Invented atoms.
• Born 460BC 370BC.
• He argued that all matter was made of
  small particles which were indivisible
  called "Atomon" or atoms.

• The great Thinker.
• Born 384 Died 322BC
• He wrote over 150 books on many
  scientific ideas. He studied everything in
  great detail and recorded his work.

• Founder of Botany.
• Born 372BC Died 287BC
• He wrote about the 500+ plants that he
  classified into four groups, trees, shrubs,
  under-shrubs and herbs.
      Herophilus of Calcedon

• Father of Anatomy.
• Born 372BC Died 280BC.
• He preformed over 600 public corps
  dissections and described his findings in
  nine books.

• First Solar Astronomer.
• Born 310BC Died 230BC.
• He was the first man to correctly describe
  the path of the Earth around the Sun.

• Known as the first maritime explorer
• Born 300BC Died ?
• He sailed the Mediterranean and out
  through the straits of Gibraltar. He
  explored the Cornish coast and the
  western coast of France. He suggested
  the tides were related to the phases of the

• Master Mathematician
• Born 300 BC Died ?
• Euclid wrote the most successful book on
  mathematics of all time called the
• The Greek who went Eureka!
• Born 287BC Died 212 BC
• A great Greek thinker who calculated pi as
  3.14159. He discovered the principles of
  floating and sinking. He was involved in
  working out how much gold was present in
  King Hieron II crown. He also famously
  designed war machines that could destroy
  invading ships.
      Ctesibius of Alexandria

• Inventor extraordinaire .
• Born 270BC Died ?
• He invented many things including an air-
  powered catapult, a water organ and
  improved the water clock by adding gears.

• Brain and circulation dissector.
• Born 250BC Died ?
• This doctor dissected the brain and
  guessed the surface had something to do
  with intelligence. He also came close to
  understanding the circulation of blood
  about two thousand years before Harvey.

• Ancient Greek astronomer who founded
• Born 190BC Died 120 BC
• He discovered the Earth’s wobble at the
  equinox’s and invented many instruments
  for measuring parallax and angles of the

• The first Geographer
• Born 63BC        Died AD 24
• He is famous for his geography, the only
  book of its kind to survive from the world of
  the ancient Romans. Strabo realised that
  the then known world was only a small
  part of the total surface of the Earth. He
  theorised about other continents as yet
  Hero of Alexandria

• Invented a steam engine.
• Born AD 30ish             Died AD 70ish
• This inventor designed coin operated
  machines, water organs and the aeolipile.
  The aeolipile was a boiler that when
  heated rotated because steam jets came
  from the boiler. He understood air could be
  compress 1500 years before Boyle.
   Ts’ai Lun

• Inventor of paper.
• Born AD 50 Died AD 121
• He invented paper in AD 105 from tough
  wood fibres which he made into a pulp.
  The pulp was laid on a screen and allowed
  to dry in to a crisp sheet of paper.
(Cladius Ptolemaeus)

• Mixed Astronomy with Geography.
• Born AD 100 Died AD 170
• Ptolemy’s system of geography and astronomy
  ruled European ideas through the middle ages.
  He thought the Earth was at the middle of the
  universe. Using his mathematical skills founded
  in astronomy he produced scale maps of Asia
  and Africa.
• The Humours doctor.
• Born AD 129 Died AD 216
• He wrote about 300 books about the
  balance of the Humours phlegm, blood,
  bile and melancholy. His weird treatments
  caused many premature deaths. However
  Galen was a good observer and made
  important discoveries about muscles,
  kidneys and the spinal cord.

• The man who founded Algebra.
• Born AD 780 Died AD 850
• He was a brilliant mathematician and
  astronomer. He introduced zero to the
  numbers 1-9. He wrote a book called
  Al’jabra which translate to the word
  algorithm. The number system now used
  0-9 is his doing.

• Arab or Persian Scientist.
• Born AD 965 Died AD 1039.
• His main scientific areas of expertise were
  Anatomy, Astronomy and Engineering.
  However he showed interest in
  mathematics and optics. He was a pioneer
  in Scientific methodology.

• Persian doctor
• Born AD 980 Died AD 1037
• He wrote over 100 books mainly on
  medicine. Most of his work included
  translations of the great Greek physicians.
  Pi Sheng

• Invented moveable printing type.
• Born AD 1020ish Died 1090ish
• He invented a method of sticking letters
  together in a wax, then using these to
  print. When he wanted the letters he
  melted the wax mixture releasing the
  letters for use.
  Roger Bacon

• Great medieval mind.
• Born AD 1214 Died AD 1294
• This brilliant medieval monk built
  instruments for experimenting such as the
  magnifying glass. He also described future
  machines such as the telescope, cars,
  motor boats and aeroplanes. He was
  thought to have discovered gunpowder,
  none of this was typical for a medieval

• Printer of the bible.
• Born AD 1395 Died AD 1468
• He developed oil based printing inks and
  an efficient printing press and a method of
  casting large numbers of letters from little
  moulds. This was used then to print his
  masterpiece the Gutenberg bible.
  Nicholas of Cusa

• Cardinal claims Earth goes around the
• Born AD 1401 Died AD 1464
• Nicholas was a Roman catholic cardinal
  who used experiments and calculations to
  show the Earth travels around the sun.
         Leonardo da Vinci
• The artist scientist
• Born AD 1452 Died AD 1519
• A great artist who had expertise in many
  other areas including, Anatomy,
  Mechanics and many others. He drew
  designs for a helicopter, parachute,
  hydraulic jacks, pulley systems and
  underwater breathing apparatus.
        Nicholas Copernicus
• Astronomer supreme.
• Born AD 1473 and Died AD 1543
• It was Copernicus who backed up the
  theories of Aristarchus and Nicholas of
  Cusa. He used calculations to show all the
  planets travel around the sun. His book
  the Revelations of heavenly spheres was
  put on an index of forbidden books by the
  Catholic Church.
  Gerardus Mercator

• Engraver who produced maps.
• Born AD 1512 Died AD 1594
• Mercator was a skilled engraver who
  began drawing maps in 1534. Mercator
  projected is lines of latitude and longitude
  to produce a flat version of a curved
  surface. He called this an Atlas from the
  Greek hero in mythology.
  Andreas Vesalius

• Modern anatomist
• Born AD 1514 Died AD 1564
• He realised that many of his predecessors
  had dissected animals to attain their
  knowledge. He was the first to solely use
  human cadavers. He published his
  amazing book “The structure of the human
  body at the age of 28”.
            William Gilbert
• The father of experimentation.
• Born AD 1544 Died AD 1603
• He was fascinated by magnets and many
  of his ideas were backed up by
  experimental work. He discovered static
  electricity when he rubbed two insulators
  together. He also coined the word
  “Electric” from the Greek word electron.
  Tycho Brahe

• Last astronomer without a telescope.
• Born AD 1546 Died AD 1601
• He lost his nose in a duel and replaced it
  with a silver one. Brahe set out to correct
  astronomical records of the time. His
  measurements were incredibly accurate
  considering he worked without a
   John Napier

• The Laird of Logarithms.
• Born AD 1550 Died AD 1617
• He invented the logarithm which allows
  long complicated calculations to be carried
  out with ease. Napier spent twenty years
  producing his logarithm tables and they
  allowed scientists to make complicated
  multiplication and division before the age
  of computers.
  John Harington

• Inventor of the flush toilet.
• Born AD 1561 Died AD 1612
• His claim to fame is that he invented, built
  and installed a flush toilet in Queen
  Elizabeth 1 palace at Richmond.
            Francis Bacon
• He made science fashionable.
• Born AD 1561 Died AD 1626
• He was Lord Chancellor of England in
  1618. He advocated science but it was his
  down fall. He caught a cold from which he
  died. The experiment involved preserving
  a chicken by stuffing it with snow.
             Galileo Galilei

• The first telescope study of the skies.
• Born AD 1564 Died AD 1642
• He studied the skies and came to the
  conclusion that the Earth travelled around
  the sun. This put him in direct conflict with
  the Catholic church. He also carried out
  important work in the field of dynamics,
  which is the study of objects in motion.
  Hans Lippershey

• Inventor of a telescope
• Born AD 1571 Died AD 1619
• A spectacle maker who placed two lenses
  in a tube to see far objects clearly. He sold
  his idea to the Dutch government who
  tried to keep it a secret. Word leaked out
  via French man called Jacques Bovedere
  who in turn told Galileo.
          Johannes Kepler

• The planets move in ellipses.
• Born AD 1571 Died AD 1630
• The first person to realise that the only
  movement that fitted the data of the
  planets is an ellipse. He also produced
  scale drawings for the reflecting telescope.
  Cornelis Drebbel

• The first submarine scientist.
• Born AD 1572 Died AD 1633
• Dutch inventor who built a diving boat
  which travelled about 4 metres under the
  surface. King James 1st went for short ride
  down the Thames.
  William Harvey

• Worked out the bodies circulatory system.
• Born AD 1578 Died AD 1657
• Harvey realised that the veins had valves
  and the heart pumped blood to the lungs
  for oxygenation. Then the blood returned
  to the heart before it was pumped around
  the body. The blood then returned to the
  heart via the veins.
           Rene Descartes
• Cartesian Co-ordinates
• Born AD 1596 Died AD 1650
• Descartes believed that everything can be
  described by mathematics. He used maths
  and co-ordinates to describe the positions
  of an object in space. This was the first
  time that Algebra and Geometry were
  used together.
  Pierre de Fermat

• Founder of probability.
• Born AD 1601 Died AD 1665
• Fermat was a brilliant mathematician who
  worked out the chance of any event
  occurring. He conducted a lot of this work
  with Blaise Pascal.
 Otto von Guericke

• He pumped air to form a vacuum.
• Born AD 1602 Died AD 1686
• He built the first ever air pump and
  proceeded to pump air out of various
  vessels. He showed that in his
  manufactured vacuums candles could not
  burn and bells could not be heard.
 Blaise Pascal

• Mathematician, made the first calculator.
• Born AD 1623 Died AD 1662
• Pascal with the help of his father built the
  first working calculator it contained cogs
  and wheels of different sizes. Seven of
  these survive today. He worked on
  probability with his friend Fermat.
  Francesco Redi

• Bred maggots.
• Born AD 1626 Died AD 1697
• This Italian doctor proved that maggots do
  not spontaneously generate. His
  predecessors believed certain animals
  came directly from the mud or meat they
  feed on.
             Robert Boyle
• Discovered Boyles law.
• Born AD 1627 Died AD 1691
• Boyle discovered that there is a
  relationship between a gases pressure,
  volume and temperature. He formulated
  this into an equation which is called Boyles
• The volume of a gas is inversely
  proportional to its pressure.
 Christian Huygens

• Developed the pendulum clock.
• Born AD 1629 Died AD 1695
• Apart from his work on the pendulum clock
  Huygens ground his own telescope
  lenses. He also suggested that light
  travels in waves.
 Anton van Leeuwenhoek

• Pioneer of the microscope.
• Born AD 1632 Died AD 1723
• In his life time he made over 300
  microscope lenses and produced some
  with 300 times magnification.
 Robert Hooke

• Discovered cells.
• Born AD 1635 Died AD 1703
• Inventor scientist who is also known for his
  marine barometer and his work with
  springs. Hookes law state that the
  extension of the spring is directly
  proportional to the force applied within its
  elastic limits.
              Isaac Newton

• Discovered gravity.
• Born AD 1642 Died AD 1727
• His theory of Universal Gravitation can be
  applied to apples on trees and the Sun
  and its planets. He also split white light up
  into its constituent colours using a simple
  prism. He was also a mathematician and
  an author of several books.
  Gottfried Wilhelm Liebniz

• Calculated calculus.
• Born AD 1646 Died AD 1716
• Independently discovered calculus around
  the same time as Newton. He also
  invented a calculating machine which
  could add, subtract, multiply and divide.
  Denis Papin

• The first pressure cooker.
• Born AD 1646 Died AD 1716
• He helped to invent the steam engine. He
  invented a boiler with a safety valve. He
  cooked a meal for King Charles II in his
  pressure cooker.
  Thomas Savery

• Built the first working steam pump.
• Born AD 1650 Died AD 1715
• His steam pump drain water out of the
  mines. The miners called it the miners
  friend because it allow them to work in
  safety without the risk of drowning.
           Edmond Halley

• Calculated the return of a comet.
• Born AD 1656 Died AD 1742
• Halley calculated that the great comet
  seen in the Bayeaux tapestry of the
  Norman conquest had returned every 76
  years and it did in 1682. He became the
  astronomer royal and died before his
  comet returned.
 Thomas Newcomen

• Inventor of early steam engine.
• Born AD 1663 Died 1729
• This Cornish ironmonger built a steam
  engine using atmospheric steam which
  was then cooled with water to create a
  vacuum. The air then rushed in to do the
 Jethro Tull

• Designed a seed drill.
• Born AD 1674 Died AD 1741.
• The seed drill planted the seed in straight
  lines. This allowed the hoe to remove the
  weeds from between the growing plants.
  Abraham Darby

• Manufacturer of cast iron objects.
• Born AD 1678 Died AD 1717.
• He made use of cast iron to mass produce
  pots and pans which were sold all over
  Britain. It was partly Darbys cast iron that
  helped to make Britain one of the first
  industrialised countries of the world.
 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

• Dutch thermometer maker.
• Born AD 1686 Died AD 1736.
• Using alcohol in a glass tube he froze salt
  water and called it zero. Then he boiled
  pure water and that measured 212
  degrees. Then he found that pure water
  froze at 32 degrees. From frozen water to
  boiling water he had 180 degrees on his
  Anders Celsius

• Swede with a different scale.
• Born AD 1701 Died 1744.
• He used frozen pure water as zero
  degrees and boiling water as 100 degrees.
  This simple scale is still in use today.
 Benjamin Franklin

• Played a dangerous game with lightning.
• Born AD 1706 Died 1790
• He thought that that lightning was giant
  electrical spark. He famously flew a kite in
  a storm to prove that lightning was a form
  of electricity.
   Carolus Linnaeus

• Invented a Latin two word naming system.
• Born AD 1707 Died 1778.
• He produced a naming system called “Systema
  Natura” for all living things which group species
  into genera. Then the genera into class and the
  classes into orders.
 Pierre Tresaguet
• French road builder.
• Born AD 1716 Died AD 1796
• He dug out a depth of 25 cms and laid
  large flat stones. Then small stones were
  poured on top and rolled smooth. These
  roads were far superior to any previously
  built. Water drained away and carts and
  carriages had a smoother journey.
 James Hargreaves

• Spinning machine inventor.
• Born AD 1720 Died 1778.
• Inventor of the spinning Jenny that could
  produce eight times the amount of yarn
  one person could spin in a day. The
  spinning jenny was one of the main
  causes of the industrial revolution. It
  caused work to leave the cottages and
  enter the big factories of towns.
 James Hutton

• Founder of the science of Geology.
• Born AD 1726 Died AD 1797.
• He theorised that rocks are formed from volcanic
  action and had always done so. This is basically
  the rock cycle that is taught today. However it
  was not popular with the church at the time
  because he suggested that it was a continual
  process and did not have a beginning.
 Henry Cavendish
• Discovered two gases make up water.
• Born AD 1731 Died 1810.
• He lived for science and was very shy. He
  discovered that water was made up of two
  gases, Hydrogen that he called
  inflammable air and Oxygen that he called
  Dephlogisticated air. He also calculated
  the mass of the Earth.
 Richard Arkwright

• Inventor of the spinning frame.
• Born AD 1732 Died AD 1792.
• Arkwright’s machine would replace hand
  spinning of cotton. The industrial
  revolution began and Arkwright is also
  famous for the first factory system for the
  manufacture of cloth.
 Joseph Priestley

• Famous for Oxygen and fizzy drinks.
• Born AD 1733 Died AD 1804.
• He collect the gas given off in fermentation
  and found it was Carbon dioxide. He then
  used the gas to make soda water. He went
  on to discover a gas he called
  dephlogisticated air which was latter called
 Franz Mesmer

• A doctor who cured patients with magnets.
• Born AD 1734 Died AD 1815.
• He believed that when the body is ill a fluid
  in the body could not move. He treated his
  patients with magnets and some got
  better. Later he stopped using magnets
  and waved his hands over the patients he
  called this animal magnetism.
 Joseph Lagrange

• He came up with the metric system.
• Born AD 1736 Died 1813.
• He came up with the metric system based on the
  metre and the gram. Thousand grams became
  the kilogram and a thousand metres became the
  Kilometre. For this the Emperor Napoleon made
  Lagrange a count.
 James Watt

• Inventor of an efficient steam engine.
• Born AD 1736 Died AD 1819.
• Watts brilliant improvement of the steam
  engine was two chambers. One chamber
  always hot for steam the other cool for
  condensing. This made a far more efficient
  steam engine.
 Frederick Herschel

• Discovered Uranus.
• Born AD 1738 Died AD 1822.
• He made his own telescope and
  discovered the first new planet since
  ancient times. He was also very interested
  in mathematics.
 Joseph and Jacques

• Hot air balloon inventors.
• Born AD 1740/5 Died AD 1799 /1810.
• They made a lightweight paper fabric bag
  and filled it with hot air. The first flight lifted
  them up about a 1000 metres. They
  stayed up for about ten minutes and
  drifted nearly 2.5 kilometres.
  Karl Scheele

• Discovered oxygen first.
• Born AD 1742 Died AD 1786.
• Discovered more chemicals in ashort
  space of time than any chemist before or
  since. He discovered oxygen 2 years
  before Joseph Priestley but did not
  publish. Amongst the chemicals he is
  accredited with are Manganese, Tungsten,
  Chlorine and Nitrogen.
 Nicholas Leblanc

• A French man gave us soap.
• Born AD 1742 Died AD 1806.
• He produced cheap soda ash and reacted
  it with lard to mass produce cheap soap.
  He won a prize for this but was never paid
  because the French revolution occurred.
 Antoine Lavoisier

• The father of modern chemistry.
• Born AD 1743 Died 1794.
• He did not discover oxygen but he did
  name it. He showed how it was involved in
  combustion. All of his experiments were
  carefully measured and recorded clearly.
  He died on the guillotine because they
  said there was no need for chemist in the
  French revolution.
  Joseph Banks
• Plant specialist.
• Born AD 1743 Died AD 1820.
• He was a member of the Royal Society
  and he collected many previously
  unknown species of plant from Australia.
  He became president of the Royal Society
  and sent many botanists around the world
  to collect specimens.
 Edmund Cartwright

• Invented the industrial weaving machine.
• Born AD 1743 Died AD 1823.
• Patented the first industrial loom powered
  by water. This gave the weaving industry
  the final part required by factories to mass
  produce cloth.
 Jean-Bapiste Lamarck

• The first sensible evolution theory.
• Born AD 1744 Died AD 1829.
• He believed that living things evolve into
  different species. He also categorised
  animals into vertebrates and invertebrates.
 Alessandro Volta

• Inventor of the battery.
• Born AD 1745 Died AD 1827.
• Volta was very interested in electricity. He
  produced the first working battery by
  placing alternate Zinc and Copper disc
  separated by cloth soaked in brine. The
  force which drives an electric current is
  named after him “The Volt”.
 Edward Jenner

• Conquered Smallpox.
• Born AD 1749 Died AD 1823.
• He produced a vaccine from cowpox to
  prevent a person from catching smallpox.
 Nicholas Appert

• Canned his food.
• Born AD 1750 Died AD 1841.
• He tried out many ways to preserve food.
  By trial and error he heated food to boiling
  point and then sealed it it in airtight
  containers and it did not go off. He opened
  the worlds first cannery producing food in
  sealed glass containers.
 Caroline Herschel

• First famous woman astronomer.
• Born AD 1750 Died AD 1848.
• Sister of William Herschel, she discovered
  and named eight comets and many star
 Joseph-Marie Jacquard

• Inventor of the loom.
• Born AD 1752 Died AD 1834.
• His loom was capable of weaving simple
  patterns in the cloth. This was not possible
  before this machine was invented.
 Samuel Crompton

• Invented Crompton’s mule.
• Born AD 1753 Died AD 1827.
• Crompton’s mule was a mixture of
  Arkwright’s frame and Hargreaves
  spinning jenny. It was far more reliable
  and so it could produce yarn faster and
  finer. This gave the final boost to the
  British textile industry.
 Benjamin Thompson

• Thermodynamics law.
• Born AD 1753 Died AD 1814.
• Conducted many experiments in
  thermodynamics and produce an equation
  to show the effects.
             S= K. Log W
  William Murdock

• Pioneer of gas lighting.
• Born AD 1754 Died AD 1839.
• He heated coal to give off a gas which
  could flow down pipes. A Birmingham
  factory got its gas lighting in 1803. Then
  London streets followed in 1807.
 John McAdam

• Scottish road builder.
• Born AD 1756 Died AD 1836.
• He built many roads using large flat stones
  at the base and covered with small
  squared stones on top weighing about 150
 Thomas Telford

• Famous bridge builder.
• Born AD 1757 Died AD 1834.
• This Scottish engineer built 1200 bridges
  including the Menai suspension bridge
  which joins Wales to Anglesey.
 Joseph Niepce

• Inventor and first photographer.
• Born AD 1765 Died AD 1833.
• He invented an engine that ran off
  Lycopodium powder from fireworks. In
  1826 he took 8 hours to expose a picture
  using his own pinhole camera.
 Robert Fulton

• Built the first successful steamship.
• Born AD 1765 Died AD 1815.
• He sailed the “Steamboat” from New York
  to Albany in 32 hours at a speed of nearly
  5 mph.
 Eli Whitney

• Mass Producer.
• Born AD 1765 Died AD 1825.
• Invented a machine to separate out cotton
  from its seed. But he is known for his
  mass production tools which made
  identical parts for muskets. He made
  10,000 in two years alone.
 Charles Macintosh

• Raincoat inventor
• Born AD 1766 Died AD 1843.
• He took coal naptha and dissolved india-
  rubber. He then used this to stick two
  layers of cloth together. The cloth was
  totally waterproof. He used the cloth to
  make a garment called the Mackintosh
 John Dalton

• He believed in atoms.
• Born AD 1766 Died AD 1844.
• He believed that everything is made up of
  atoms and different atoms have different
  weights. He drew up the first table of
  atomic weights of elements.
 Georges Cuvier

• He studied bones.
• Born AD 1769 Died AD 1832.
• Cuvier worked at the museum of natural
  history in Paris. He was the first person to
  study old bones scientifically.
 Richard Trevithick

• Produced the first railway engine.
• Born AD 1771 Died AD 1833.
• In 1797 he built a working model which he
  showed his friends. Four years latter he
  built a road carriage called “Puffing Devil”.
  In 1804 he rode one of his own steam
  engines on metal rails in a Welsh mine.
 Alois Senefelder

• Invented lithographic printing.
• Born AD 1771 Died AD 1834.
• He used a piece of limestone and wrote
  the text using a grease pencil. He then
  used acid to etch the limestone leaving
  raised text to print the pages of a book.
 Robert Brown

• The man who named the nucleus.
• Born AD 1773 Died AD 1858.
• This Scottish naturalist observed plant
  cells and he found they all contained a
  little nut in Latin Nucleus.
  Andre Ampere

• He named electrical current.
• Born AD 1775 Died AD 1836/
• Ampere was the first person to measure
  electrical current using a magnetic needle.
  The unit of electrical current is the Amp or
 Hans Oersted

• He believed in energy transducers.
• Born AD 1777 Died AD 1851
• He proved that electric current could
  produce a magnetic field. Using a
  compass and an electric field he caused
  movement (kinetic energy). This was the
  fore runner of the electric motor,
 Carl Friedrich Gauss

• The Prince of Mathematicians.
• Born AD 1777 Died AD 1855.
• He was a Mathematician and Scientist. He
  worked on a number theory, statistics,
  analysis, differential geometry, geodesy,
  electrostatics, astronomy and optics.
 Humphry Davy

• Invented the safety lamp.
• Born AD 1778 Died AD 1829.
• Apart from his greatest invention the
  safety lamp Humphry discovered several
  chemical elements. Amongst these was
  Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium,
  Strontium and Barium. He also discovered
  the effects of Nitrous oxide (laughing gas).
 Mary Somerville

• Science writer.
• Born AD 1780 Died AD 1872.
• She first became famous writing a book
  about Laplace. She became a member of
  the Royal Society and wrote her last book
  at the age of 89.
 George Stevenson

• Built the first useful steam train.
• Born AD 1781 Died AD 1848.
• The Active ran between Stockton and
  Darlington, it pulled 450 passengers at a
  speed of 15 mph. He latter built the Rocket
  which ran between Liverpool and
  Manchester at a speed of 36 mph.
  Friedrich Bessel

• Expanded the size of the Universe.
• Born AD 1784 Died AD 1846.
• His measurements of the stars were the most
  accurate to date. He produced a catalogue of
  over 50,000 stars. He measured the distance to
  61 Cygni and found it to be 6 light years.
  Previously Issac Newton thought the universe
  was only 2 light years across.
 Louis Daguerre

• Photography Pioneer.
• Born AD 1787 Died AD 1851.
• He invented the Daguerrotypes of
  photography plate. It was copper coated
  with silver nitrate. After exposure to light it
  was developed in mercury fumes and fixed
  in a solution of brine.
  Georg Ohm

• Wires resistance to currents.
• Born AD 1789 Died AD 1854.
• He made his own wires and tested the
  flow of current down different lengths and
  thicknesses. He stated that the flow of
  current is directly proportional to the
  voltage but inversely proportional to the
 Samuel Morse

• The code man
• Born AD 1791 Died AD 1872.
• He found an electric could cause an
  electromagnet to move a piece of soft iron
  attached to a pencil. The pencil wrote on a
  moving piece of paper. His first message
  was “ What God hath wrought”.
 Michael Faraday
• He invented the electric motor.
• Born AD 1791 Died AD 1867.
• Fired by Oersted’s experiment he mounted
  a copper wheel between the two poles of a
  magnet. When the wheel turned it
  produced a current (electric generator).
  The reverse of this is the electric motor.
 Charles Babbage

• An early computer.
• Born AD 1791 Died AD 1871.
• He built a calculating machine called a
  difference engine. It undertook
  calculations from a punched card input.
  Difference Engine 2 is in the Science
  museum, London.
 Joseph Henry

• He made stronger electromagnets.
• Born AD 1797 Died AD 1878.
• He experimented with electromagnets but the
  more wire used they tended to short out. Until he
  used silk wrapped around the wire to insulate it.
  He then produced stronger and stronger
  Mary Anning

• Fossil collector.
• Born AD 1799 Died AD 1847.
• She lived in Lyme Regis, Dorset and
  discovered her first big find aged 12. It
  was an Ichthyosaur which she sold for 400
  pounds. She carried on fossil hunting and
  discovered the first Plesiosaur. She died of
  breast cancer aged 47.
  Charles Goodyear

• Invented vulcanised rubber.
• Born AD 1800 Died AD 1860.
• He heated rubber with sulphur to form
  vulcanised rubber. The discovery is still
  used in car tyres today.
  William Fox Talbot

• Pioneer of Photography.
• Born AD 1800 Died AD 1877.
• He patented the calotype process. This is
  where paper was soaked in silver chloride
  then exposed and developed in Gallic
  Christian Doppler

• The Doppler effect.
• Born AD 1803 Died AD 1853.
• If a train whistled coming towards you then
  as it went away the pitch would sound
  higher coming towards you. Conversely
  the whistle pitch would sound lower
  moving away. Doppler found this was true
  for light as well as sound, Red shift occurs
  when a light source moves away.
 Richard Owen

• Dinosaur hunter.
• Born AD 1804 Died AD 1892.
• Owen coined the name dinosaur meaning
  “Terrible Lizard”. Being a surgeon he
  enjoyed cutting up specimens and using
  the knowledge to help classify them.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel

• Engineer who built things to last.
• Born AD 1806 Died AD 1859.
• He built the Royal Albert bridge to carry
  trains across the Tamar. He built the Great
  Western a steam ship that crossed the
  Atlantic ocean four days faster than its
 James Nasmyth

• Invented the steam hammer.
• Born AD 1808 Died AD 1890.
• The steam hammer was a key tool in
  shaping the future of the industrial
  revolution. Forging is the process of
  hammering hot metal into shape. The
  steam hammer made it possible to
  hammer larger and larger pieces into
 Louis Braille
• Raised dot reading system.
• Born AD 1809 Died AD 1852.
• Went blind at the age of three and latter
  went to a school for the blind in Paris.
  Where he learned to read using Babiers
  complicated 12 dot system. He invented a
  much simpler 6 dot system which is still
  used worldwide.
 Charles Robert Darwin

• The theory of Evolution.
• Born AD 1809 Died AD 1882.
• He travelled all around South America on
  the HMS Beagle. He visited the
  Galapagos islands and from his studies
  formulated the beginnings of his theory of
  evolution, which was in direct conflict with
  the teachings of the church.
 Elisha Otis

• The first safe lift.
• Born AD 1811 Died AD 1861.
• Otis designed a safety device in side of
  the shaft. If the hoist cable failed then
  spring loaded catches would jam the
  ratchets preventing the lift from falling.
 James Simpson
• He used chloroform.
• Born AD 1811 Died AD 1870.
• Ether was being used in the USA but it
  caused many problems for patients. So he
  and his assistants tried many different
  chemicals. When they tried chloroform
  they woke up under the table without side
  effects. So he started to use it on his
  patients during surgery.
 Robert Bunsen

• Built a burner.
• Born AD 1811 Died AD 1899.
• Gas flows up the tube drawing air in. The
  gas and air burn together in a narrow
  flame giving a steady heat which is ideal
  for experiments.
 Kirkpatrick Macmillan

• Invented the pedal bicycle.
• Born AD 1813 Died AD 1878.
• Macmillan made the rider turn pedals to
  turn the wheel. Before this riders scooted
  along kicking the road to move. His bicycle
  required the rider to move the pedal
  forward and back not round in circles.
 Henry Bessemer

• Iron into steel.
• Born AD 1813 Died AD 1898.
• Bessemer invented the early version of the
  blast furnace. He used iron, air and carbon
  to produce steel. He also invented a
  typesetting machine and methods for
  making gold paint and putting lead into
 Augusta Byron

• First computer programmer.
• Born AD 1815 Died Ad 1852.
• She was a fearless horsewoman and a
  brilliant mathematician. She worked with
  Babbage and designed a system to bet on
  horse races. She died of cancer and whilst
  still in debt from gambling.
 James Joule
• Measured energy.
• Born AD 1818 Died AD 1889.
• He is famous for his work on energy and
  its laws. Energy cannot be created or
  destroyed only changed from one form to
  another. 4.18 joules is equal to one
  Maria Mitchell
• Comet finder.
• Born AD 1818 Died AD 1889.
• She was the first woman after Caroline
  Herschel to find and name a comet (Miss
  Mitchells comet). She was the first
  professional woman astronomer of the
  Nikola Tesla

• The father of physics.
• Born AD 1819 Died AD 1943.
• He is most known as the scientist who
  gave his name to magnetic flux. He was
  involved in wireless communication. He
  also contributed to robotics, remote control
  and radar.
 William Morton

• Etherised his patients.
• Born AD 1819 Died AD 1868.
• He used Ether to put his patients to sleep
  during an operation. This was a great
  advance because previously they made
  the patient drink vast quantities of alcohol
  to stop the pain.
 Jean Foucault

• Pendulum scientist.
• Born AD 1819 Died AD 1868.
• Foucault proved that the Earth rotated he
  used a very long string on his pendulum.
  Most pendulums only go forward and back
  in a straight line but with a very long string
  is affected by the rotation of the Earth.
 Christopher Sholes

• Invented the typewriter.
• Born AD 1819 Died AD 1890.
• The first typewriter had many of the
  features of modern ones. The paper was
  on a roller, a lever operated the carriage
  return and it had a Qwerty key board.
 Linus Yale

• Invented the Yale lock.
• Born AD 1821 Died AD 1868.
• He invented a pin and tumbler lock. The
  key had protrusions where the tumblers
  were located. If all the tumblers operated
  then the lock opened.
 Gregor Mendel

• Founded the science of genetics.
• Born AD 1822 Died AD 1884.
• He found that a red flower crossed with a
  yellow flower do not make orange flowers.
  One of the flower types will be dominant
  and produce that colour flower.
 Louis Pasteur

• He used Pasteurisation to kill germs.
• Born AD 1822 Died AD 1895.
• He used heat to kill the germs in the
  brewing industry. We still use
  pasteurisation in the milk industry today.
 Etienne Lenoir

• First internal combustion engine.
• Born AD 1822 Died AD 1900.
• His machine had a battery to provide the
  spark to ignite the fuel. The fuel being coal
  gas and air mixture which produced the
  steam to turn the wheels. The main
  problem of this machine was its 4%
 William Thomson

• The Kelvin scale.
• Born AD 1824 Died AD 1907.
• Kelvin absolute zero to be minus 273.18
  degrees Celsius. So that value became 0
  degrees Kelvin and the freezing point of
  water became 273.18 degrees Kelvin.
  That made the boiling point of water
  373.18 degrees Kelvin.
 J.J. Balmer

• Atomic Spectroscopist.
• Born AD 1825 Died AD ?
• He discovered lines on an atomic
  spectrum of the sun that showed hydrogen
  was present.
 Henri Giffard

• First airship.
• Born AD 1825 Died AD 1882.
• He built a 44 metre long balloon filled with
  hydrogen. He used a rudder shaped like
  an upside down sail to steer the airship.
 Joseph Lister

• The Father of antiseptic surgery.
• Born AD 1827
• He always used carbolic to disinfect the
  operating tables. He used carbolic to
  sterilise the instruments and the patients
  body. He even used carbolic in the
  bandages and dressings.
 Joseph Swan

• Invented the Light bulb.
• Born AD 1828 Died AD 1914.
• He tried metal and carbon for the filaments
  of his bulbs. It was the oxygen in air which
  caused the problem. When a current was
  applied the filament over heated and burnt
  out. He solved this problem by using a
  vacuum pump to take out all the air.
  Hermann Muller

• Botanist.
• Born AD 1829 Died AD 1883.
• Worked with Charles Darwin providing
  important evidence for the theory of
 James Clerk Maxwell

• The field of force.
• Born AD 1831 Died AD 1879.
• Maxwell’s equations showed that
  electricity, magnetism and light are all
  manifestations of the same phenomenon:
  the electromagnetic field.
 Alfred Nobel

• Discovered Dynamite.
• Born AD 1833 Died AD 1896.
• He mixed nitroglycerine with a packing material
  to make a safer explosive. Dynamite that could
  be handled without the fear of it exploding in
  your hand. When he died he left his money to
  give five prizes each year (The Nobel Prizes).
 Ivan Dmitri Mendeleyev

• The Periodic table of Elements.
• Born AD 1834 Died AD 1907.
• He found that certain elements have
  similar properties to each other. He
  arranged the similar elements in size order
  (atomic mass). This produced a table
  where all elements with one electron in the
  outer shell are in group one. Those with
  two in group two and so on.
  Wilhelm Waldeyer

• Anatomist.
• Born AD 1836 Died AD 1921.
• He was famous for consolidating the
  neuron theory of organization of the
  nervous system and for naming the
 Ernst Mach

• The speed of sound.
• Born AD 1838 Died AD 1916.
• When an aircraft reaches the speed of
  sound it causes a pressure wave called a
  sonic boom. The aircraft is now travelling
  at Mach 1. If it reaches twice the speed of
  sound then the aircraft is said to be
  travelling at Mach 2.
 Ferdinand Zeppelin
• Built a rigid airship.
• Born AD 1838 Died AD 1917.
• The frame was a light metal the bags were
  filled with Hydrogen. A gondola was hung
  below to carry passengers and two motor
  provided drive and direction. The
  Hindenburg the largest Zeppelin ever built
  had a top speed of 84mph. However
  disaster struck the Hindenburg blew up
  killing 36 passengers.
 Hiram Maxim

• Invented the Machine gun.
• Born AD 1840 Died AD 1916.
• He invented the first fully automatic
  machine gun. It fired ten rounds a second
  from its water cooled barrel. He used the
  recoil from one shot to give the energy to
  load and fire the next. The maxim used
  cordite in its bullets a type of smokeless
  gun powder.
 John Dunlop

• Invented the first useful pneumatic tyre.
• Born AD 1840 Died AD 1921.
• He made a hollow tyre that had a a tube
  filled with air inside it. Originally the air
  was pumped into the tyres with a football
 James Dewar

• Invented the thermos flask.
• Born AD 1842 Died AD 1923.
• The flask contained two walls with a
  vacuum between. This prevented heat
  loss by conduction and convection. He
  then put a silvered layer to reflect heat
  back into the flask prevent most of the
  radiation loss. This kept cold objects cold
  and warm objects warm.
 Robert Koch

• Bacteria beater.
• Born AD 1843 Died AD 1910.
• Koch studied bacteria and found they
  cause many illnesses. He identified the
  bacteria that cause Tuberculosis. He went
  on to identify the causes of Cholera and
  Bubonic plague. Knowing the cause has
  helped others to provide a cure.
  Johann Miescher

• Biologist.
• Born AD 1844 Died AD 1895.
• He isolated phosphate rich chemicals from
  the nucleic acids found in the nucleus of
 Karl Benz

• The first practical petrol driven car.
• Born AD 1844 Died AD 1929.
• It was brilliant but a very inefficient
  machine it drank fuel.
 Ludwig Boltzmann

• Mechanics and Thermodynamics.
• Born AD 1844 Died 1906.
• Boltzmann's most important scientific
  contributions were in kinetic theory,
  including the Maxwell-Boltzmann
  distribution for molecular speeds in a gas.
 Wilhelm Rontgen

• Discovered X-rays.
• Born AD 1845 Died AD 1923.
• He was working on cathode rays and a
  piece of chemically coated paper near him
  started to glow. He had no idea what had
  caused it so he called the rays X-rays. At a
  public lecture he demonstrated a X-ray of
  a hand.
 Edouard Van Beneden

• Belgian Embryologist and Cytologist.
• Born AD 1846 Died AD 1910.
• He discovered how chromosome combine
  during reproduction (meiosis).
 George Westinghouse

• Switched to alternating current.
• Born AD 1846 Died AD 1914.
• He went into the generation of electricity
  business. Producing AC (alternating
  Current) with the advantage that high
  voltages can made by a transformer. This
  greatly reduces loss of power during
 Alexander Graham Bell

• Invented the Telephone.
• Born AD 1847 Died AD 1922.
• He was working with the deaf turning
  sound in electrical signals. Then he
  converted the electrical signals back into
  sound. He realised that he could do this
  down long wires he had invented the
 Thomas Edison

• The greatest inventor ever.
• Born AD 1847 Died AD 1931.
• He invented 1,093 items in his lifetime. He
  invented; Electrical vote recorder, light bulb,
  efficient electric generator, phonograph,
  commercial power distribution system. He said
  “Inventing was 1% inspiration and 99%
  Hugo de Vries

• Botanist and Geneticist.
• Born AD 1848 Died AD 1935.
• Suggested the concept of genes. He also
  rediscovered Mendel’s work. He
  developed a mutation theory of evolution.
 Otto Lilienthal

• The First glider pilot.
• Born AD 1848 Died AD 1896.
• He studied birds and designed and made
  powerless planes. He successfully flew
  over 2,000 test glides in his life.
 Henri Becquerel

• Discovered Radioactivity.
• Born AD 1852 Died AD 1908.
• He wrapped a photographic plate in brown
  paper and put it in the sunlight. On top of
  the wrapped plate he put a piece of
  fluorescent material. When he developed
  the plate light had not fogged the plate but
  the material had from unknown radiation.
 Paul Ehrlich
• Cured children of Diphtheria.
• Born AD 1854 Died AD 1915.
• Bacteriologist who developed immunology.
  He discovered living cells become immune
  to bacteria. So he used horses to produce
  the serum to the toxin. His so called magic
  bullet technique was used to make many
 Charles Parsons

• Invented the steam turbine.
• Born AD 1854 Died AD 1931.
• He found instead of using steam to make
  a piston go up and down. He used high
  pressure steam to make a wheel turn
  which could be used directly.
 George Eastman

• The Box Brownies.
• Born AD 1854 Died AD 1932.
• He popularised the expensive hobby of
  photography, making it available to the
  masses. His slogan was you press the
  button and we do the rest.
 King Camp Gillette

• Invented the safety razor.
• Born AD 1855 Died AD 1932.
• He invented a razor to replace the
  dangerous cut throat. He made a thin
  blade that fitted between two metal plates.
  The blade was disposable meaning
  replacement would need to be bought.
  Sigmund Freud

• Founded Psychoanalysis.
• Born AD 1856 Died AD 1939.
• Freud is best known for his theories of the
  unconscious mind and the defence
  mechanism of repression. He was also
  renowned for his work on sexual desire
  being the primary motivational energy of
  human life.
 Joseph Thomson

• Discovered electrons.
• Born AD 1856 Died AD 1940
• Thomson proved that followers of the
  particle theory were right. He showed that
  the cathode rays were streams of particles
  that he called corpuscles. Latter they were
  called electrons.
  Wilhelm Johannsen

• Plant physiologist.
• Born AD 1857 Died AD 1927.
• He conducted pure line research. He
  showed that in homozygous populations
  without genetic variation of traits. The
  seed size followed a normal distribution.
  This led him to coin the terms Phenotype
  and Genotype.
  Andrija Mohorovicic
• Studied Earthquake waves.
• Born AD 1857 Died AD 1936.
• He was a geologist and he studied the
  patterns of Earthquake waves. He
  presented ideas that the Earth structure is
  layered. He described the sharp
  separation between the outer and inner
  layers of the Earth.
 Heinrich Hertz

• Discovered Radio Waves.
• Born AD 1857 Died AD 1894.
• He measured the electromagnetic waves
  that he created from an electrical spark.
  He found the wavelength to be 66cm
  which was a million times more than the
  wavelength of light. These Hertzian waves
  became known as radio waves.
  Franz Boas

• Pioneer of modern Anthropology.
• Born AD 1858 Died 1942.
• He applied scientific method to the study
  of human cultures and societies.
 Rudolf Diesel

• Developed the Diesel engine.
• Born AD 1858 Died AD 1913.
• He experimented with different types of
  fuel for the internal combustion engine. He
  invented an engine that did not need a
  spark. Diesel engines are very efficient
  and they use heavier, safer fuel.
 Max Planck

• Founder of Modern Science.
• Born AD 1858 Died AD 1947.
• He was interested in Black Body radiation.
  Black bodies should in theory radiate all
  frequencies of light. But it did not, It
  radiates red, then orange, then
  white/violet. The energy is released in little
  bundles that he called Quanta. The size of
  the quanta is known as Planck’s Constant.
 Svante Arrhenius

• Discovered Global Warming.
• Born AD 1859 Died 1927.
• He was the first to suggest that the
  burning of fossil fuels would lead to build
  up of Carbon Dioxide in the air. This in
  turn would trap heat and cause global
  William Bateson
• British Geneticist.
• Born AD 1861 Died AD 1926.
• He was the first person to use the term
  Genetics for the study of heredity and
  biological inheritance. He popularised
  Mendel’s work following its rediscovery in
  Frederick Hopkins

• Biochemist isolated tryptophane.
• Born AD 1861 Died 1947.
• Investigated the concept of accessory food
  factors (Vitamins). He also gave an
  explanation of the role of lactic acid in
  muscular contraction. He also discovered
  glutathione and worked on oxidising
 Auguste & Louis Lumiere

• Cinema pioneers.
• Born AD 1862&4 Died AD 1948 & 64.
• The lumieres took Edison’s Kinetoscope
  and Reynauds still projector and made a
  moving projector. It operated at 16 frames
  per second.
 Leo Baekeland

• Made Plastic.
• Born AD 1863 Died AD 1944.
• He took a mixture of phenol and
  formaldehyde and under heat and
  pressure he made a plastic he called
 Henry Ford

• Made the Model T car.
• Born AD 1863 Died AD 1947.
• His model T was a cheap everyday car for
  the people. It was made by an assembly
  line not individual craftsmen. He famously
  said “you can have any colour provided its
  Carl Correns

• Botanist and Geneticist.
• Born AD 1864 Died AD 1933.
• Independent discovery of the principles of
  heredity and rediscovery of Mendel’s work.
 Thomas Morgan
• Embryologist and Geneticist.
• Born AD 1866 Died 1945.
• He studied the mutations which occurred
  in Drosophila. He showed that genes are
  carried on the chromosomes. Following on
  from Mendel he formed the basis of
  modern genetics
 Marie Curie

• Discovered Polonium and Radium.
• Born AD 1867 Died AD 1934.
• She extracted a mining ore called
  Pitchblende for uranium. The amount of
  radiation she found was much more than
  expected. However from 8 tons of
  pitchblende she only recovered 1ngram of
  Radium but it is 2 million times more
  radioactive. The polonium she discovered
  was named after her native Poland.
 Wilbur & Orville Wright

• They built the first aeroplane.
• Born AD1867 & 71 Died 1912 & 48.
• They designed a light but powerful engine
  fitted to a glider frame. Only 5 other
  people saw their first powered flight near
  Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. They flew 36.6
  metres in 12 seconds.
 Henrietta Leavitt

• Astronomer catalogued variable stars.
• Born AD 1868 Died AD 1921
• Famous lady astronomer for
  photographing and cataloguing Variable
  stars in the Magellanic Clouds.
  Robert Millikan

• Measured Charge.
• Born AD 1868 Died AD 1953.
• Isolated the Electron and measured
  elementary charge. He worked on the
  photoelectric effect determination of
  Plank’s constant. He also studied Cosmic
  Erich Seysenegg

• Agronomist.
• Born AD 1871 Died AD 1962.
• Independently rediscovered Mendel’s
  Walter Cannon

• Concepts of Homeostasis.
• Born AD 1871 Died AD 1945.
• He also investigated concept of fight and
  flight. His work included studies of the
  internal systems; glands, intestines,
  nerves and traumatic shock.
 Ernest Rutherford

• Looked inside the nucleus.
• Born AD 1871 Died AD 1937.
• Rutherford suggested that the nucleus
  contained a particle with a positive charge
  that equalled that of the electrons. The
  positive sub atomic particles he called the
 Guglielmo Marconi

• Pioneer of Radio.
• Born AD 1874 Died AD 1937.
• He used Hertzian waves to bombard a
  coherer containing loose metal filings. The
  waves could make electrical signals that
  could be converted into sound ( a radio
  Carl Jung

• Unique Psychologist.
• Born AD 1875 Died AD 1961.
• He spent much of his life studying Eastern
  and Western Philosophy, alchemy,
  Astrology and Sociology. His most notable
  ideas include; archetypes, collective
  unconscious, synchronicity. He put an
  emphasis on balance and harmony.
 Oswald Theodore Avery

• Molecular Biologist.
• Born AD 1877 Died AD 1955.
• He worked on DNA and found that the
  genes and chromosomes were made of
  this material.
 William Beebe

• Developed the Bathysphere.
• Born AD 1877 Died AD 1962.
• Ornithologist with an interest in deep sea
 Lise Meitner

• Helped to split the atom.
• Born AD 1878 Died AD 1968.
• She worked with Hahn and she was
  certain that the nuclei of the uranium atom
  had split into two she called the process
  nuclear fission.
  Albert Einstein
• The Theory of Relativity.
• Born AD 1879 Died AD 1955.
• He wrote light can travel through a totally
  empty space. If one object appears to be
  moving and another still which is moving?
  With nothing to compare it to it is all
  relative. In relativity theory even mass is a
  form of energy, the only fixed parameter is
  the speed of light. E= MC2.
  Otto Hahn

• Nuclear Fission.
• Born AD 1879 Died AD 1968.
• He bombarded uranium with neutrons and
  the product appeared to be barium. He
  communicated with his friend Meitner and
  she formulated that he had split the atom.
 Alfred Wegener
• Theory of continental drift.
• Born AD 1880 Died AD 1930.
• He hypothesised that the continents were
  slowly drifting apart. However solid
  evidence unavailable his ideas were not
  accepted until 1950.
 Alexander Fleming

• Discovered Penicillin.
• Born AD 1881 Died AD 1955.
• One day he noticed that a dish of bacteria
  had been left uncovered for days. It had
  started to go mouldy but around each
  mould was a ring of dead bacteria. The
  mould was Penicillin Notatum. Penicillin
  was to become the worlds first antibiotic.
 Max Born

• Physicist and Mathematician.
• Born AD 1882 Died AD 1970
• He was instrumental in the development of
  quantum mechanics. He also made
  contributions to solid-state physics and
  optics and supervised the work of a
  number of notable physicists.
 Hans Geiger

• Detected radioactivity.
• Born AD 1882 Died AD 1945.
• He built a cylinder containing gas with a
  window in the end. Particles enter through
  the window and produce little electronic
  pulses. The pulse is amplified to give a
  click. The more clicks per second the more
  radioactive a substance was.
  Robert Goddard

• First liquid-fuel rocket.
• Born AD 1882 Died AD 1945.
• Responsible for the fundamental theory of
  rocket flight. He worked on auto steering
  of rockets. He also pioneered multistage
 Victor Hess

• Discovered Cosmic Rays.
• Born AD 1883 Died AD 1964.
• He worked on atmospheric electricity,
  radioactivity & alpha emissions in Radium.
  Gained the Nobel Prize in Physics.
  John Keynes

• Economist.
• Born AD 1883 Died 1946.
• Pioneer of economic theories of large
  scale government planning within the free
  market system.
 Neils Bohr

• A quantum leap for atoms.
• Born AD 1885 Died AD 1962.
• He found that electrons can make a
  quantum leap from one level of orbit to
  another. This was a big step forward in the
  understanding of the atom and it won him
  the Nobel prize in 1922.
 William Kouwenhoven

• Developed the defibrillator.
• Born AD 1886 Died AD 1975.
• Electrical engineer who studied the
  electricity of the body. He worked on
  defibrillators and cardiopulmonary
 Clarence Birdseye

• Frozen food pioneer.
• Born AD 1886 Died AD 1956.
• He produced the most successful method
  to date of quick freezing his products. He
  passed the food between to large
  refrigerated metal plates. This managed to
  retain most of the flavour of the fish, fruit
  and vegetables he froze.
 Erwin Schrodinger

• Photon a wave or a particle.
• Born AD 1887 Died AD 1961.
• In Schrodinger’s atom the electrons are
  within a probability cloud and sometimes
  they act like waves and other times like
  particles. Schrodinger’s equation allowed
  scientist to know an electrons most likely
 John Logie Baird

• Television Pioneer.
• Born AD 1888 Died AD 1946.
• He built the first television in an old tea
  chest. He was able to transmit the signal
  of a Maltese cross in black and white to is
  makeshift receiver. The BBC took up his
  invention and the rest is history.
 Calvin Blackman Bridges

• Geneticist.
• Born AD 1889 Died AD 1938.
• He suggested that chromosomes contain
  packets of information called genes.
 Edwin Hubble
• Galaxy man.
• Born AD 1889 Died AD 1953.
• Hubble was able to calculate that there
  were hundreds of billions of extra-galactic
  nebulae. Hubble’s law states that further
  away a galaxy is the faster its moving
  away from its observer. Hubble gave
  credence to the expanding universe and
  hence the big bang theory.
 Igor Sikorsky

• First working helicopter.
• Born AD 1889 Died AD 1972.
• The safety of the helicopter relies on one
  moving joint at the centre of the blades. At
  12 he built a working model helicopter
  powered by rubber bands.
 Percy Shaw

• Cats’ eyes.
• Born AD 1890 Died AD 1976.
• When driving home on a foggy night he
  was prevented from having a nasty
  accident by a cars lights shining in a cats
  eyes. This set him thinking and he
  produced a combined lens and mirror set
  in a rubber base set in cast iron.
  Arthur Holmes

• Uranium-lead radiometric dating.
• Born AD 1890 Died AD 1965.
• This British Geologist devised a technique
  for measuring the age of a rock. He wrote
  a book called The age of the Earth which
  estimated it to be 1.6 billion years old.
  Alfred Sturtevant

• Geneticist.
• Born AD 1891 Died AD 1970.
• Sturtevant provided proof of genetic
  linkage. He also produced the first gene
 Frederick Banting

• Produced insulin for diabetics.
• Born AD 1891 Died AD 1941.
• He received the Nobel prize for medicine
  when he extracted insulin from the islet of
  Langerhans. He then gave the insulin to
  diabetics to keep them alive.
 James Chadwick

• Discovered the Neutron.
• Born AD 1891 Died AD 1974.
• He discovered that apart from the electron
  and proton another sub atomic particle
  was needed to balance the atom he called
  this the Neutron. Neutrons have mass but
  no overall charge (neutral).
  Louis de Broglie

• French physicist.
• Born AD 1892 Died AD 1987.
• Nobel Prize for Physics "for his discovery
  of the wave nature of electrons".
  Hermann Oberth

• Led the V2 research.
• Born AD 1894 Died AD ?
• Wrote books on rocketry, aeronautics,
  space flight and Interplanetary travel.
 George Lemaitre

• Suggested the Big Bang Theory.
• Born AD 1894 Died AD 1966.
• After Hubble showed evidence for an
  expanding universe. Lemaitre suggested
  this could only occur after an enormous
  explosion (Big Bang).
  Wallace Carothers

• Inventor of Nylon.
• Born AD 1896 Died AD 1937.
• Organic chemist who first developed the
  process for production of Nylon. He also
  did the groundwork for Neoprene.
  John Enders

• Virus culturing Microbiologist.
• Born AD 1897 Died AD 1985.
• He cultured the poliomyelitis virus in a test
  tube. He also isolated the measles virus
  and produced a live-virus vaccine.
  Otto Hahn

• Father of Nuclear Chemistry.
• Born AD 1897 Died AD 1968.
• Discovered Protactinium and several
  transuranium elements. He worked on
  beta emission and nuclear fission and
  gained the Nobel prize in chemistry.
 Sir John Cockcroft

• Transmuted Lithium into Helium.
• Born AD 1897 Died AD 1967.
• Built the first particle accelerator and used
  it to bombard Lithium. The Lithium was
  transmuted into Helium. He won a Nobel
  prize in Physics.
 Trofim Lysenko

• Bad biologist.
• Born AD 1898 Died AD 1976.
• He was director of the institute of genetics
  in USSR. He dredged up an old theory
  disproved by both Darwin and Mendel.
  Related to giraffes necks grew long
  because they eat from tall trees and using
  this he suggested that seeds of wheat can
  be made to produce seeds of rye?
  Hans Kreb

• Metabolic Cycles.
• Born AD 1900 Died AD 1981.
• He is best known for identifying the two
  important metabolic cycles called the urea
  and citric acid cycles. The latter is the key
  sequence of metabolic reactions that
  produce energy in cells. It is now often
  called the Krebs cycle.
 Laszlo Biro

• Invented the Biro.
• Born AD 1900 and Died AD 1985.
• He invented a pen that contained a small
  metal ball at the end. This controlled the
  flow of ink on to the paper.
 Charles Richter

• Made a scale for Earthquakes.
• Born AD 1900 Died AD 1985.
• Richter looked at the old Mercalli scale
  which gave useful advice to the public but
  was not very scientific. He came up with a
  scale that showed a Richter 2 Earthquake
  would be ten times bigger than a Richter
  1. The most powerful recorded to date is a
  Richter 9.
 Ernest Lawrence
• Invented the Cyclotron.
• Born AD 1901 Died AD 1958.
• Transmutation of elements and production
  of artificial radioactivity. Enabled the
  clinical use of neutrons in cancer therapy.
  Production of radioiodine for medical use.
  Involved in isolation of Uranium-235 used
  in atomic bombs.
  Enrico Fermi

• Developed nuclear reactors.
• Born AD 1901 Died AD 1954.
• He is also known for contributions to the
  development of quantum theory, nuclear
  and particle physics. Fermium is a
  synthetic element created in 1952 and
  named after him.
 Werner Heisenberg
• Uncertainty Principle.
• Born AD 1901 Died AD 1976.
• He said that we cannot envisage what a
  atom looks like they to small. But he said it
  is possible to describe the atom with
  mathematics. He invented Matrix
  mechanics of the atom. He further
  invented an uncertainty principle that
  allowed him to say where the electrons
  might be at any point in time.
 Linus Pauling
• Nature of the chemical bond.
• Born AD 1901 Died AD 1994.
• One of the first chemists to work in the
  field of quantum chemistry, molecular
  biology and orthomolecular medicine. The
  only man to be awarded two Nobel prizes
  without having to share with another
               Paul Dirac

• Predicted existence of Antimatter.
• Born AD 1902 Died AD 1984.
• The Dirac equation described the
  behaviour of Fermions and this led to the
  prediction of the existence of antimatter.
 George Beadle

• Geneticist.
• Born AD 1903 Died AD 1989.
• Discovered the role of genes, they
  regulate the biochemical pathways in cells.
  Walter Elsasser

• Earth’s Magnetic field theory.
• Born AD 1904 Died AD 1991.
• Dynamo theory of the Earth’s magnetic
  field. It explained the permanence and
  secular variation of field. He studied
  magnetohydrodynamics and atmospheric
  George Beadle

• American Geneticist.
• Born AD 1903 Died AD 1989.
• Discovered the role of genes in regulating
  biochemical events in cells, such as
  enzymatic reactions within biochemical
  Robert Oppenheimer

• Father of the Atomic Bomb.
• Born AD 1904 Died AD 1967.
• Director of the Manhattan project designed
  to develop an atomic bomb. Later after the
  war became chief advisor of the united
  states atomic energy commission.
  Carl Anderson

• Discovered the Positron.
• Born AD 1905 Died AD 1991.
• Gained Nobel prize for his work on the
   Fred Whipple

• Comets are “Dirty Snowballs”.
• Born AD 1906 Died AD 2004.
• Astronomer who researched comets,
  meteors, solar system and Stellar
  evolution. He also developed the theory
  that comets were made of ice and rock
  particles like a dirty snowball.
  William Ewing

• Geophysicist ice age theory.
• Born AD 1906 Died AD 1974.
• He worked on Earthquake seismology,
  paleoclimatology. Studies of sound
  propagation in oceans, ocean ridges, deep
  ocean marine life. He developed
  instruments for ocean floor monitoring.
 Chester Carlson

• Invented the Photocopier.
• Born AD 1906 Died AD 1968.
• He invented the Xerox photocopier
  (xerography means dry writing). He used
  static electricity from a drum to print on
 Philo T Farnsworth
• The electronic television.
• Born AD 1906 Died AD 1971.
• He was best known for inventing the first
  completely electronic television and the
  first completely electronic image pickup
  device( video camera tube). Latter in life
  he invented a small nuclear fusion device
  called the Fusor.
 Frank Whittle

• Invented Jet Engine.
• Born AD 1906 Died AD 1996.
• He forced air into the front of the engine
  then injected fuel and set it alight. The air
  expanded and rushed out of the back of
  the engine. Newtons 3rd Law states that
  every action has an equal and opposite
  reaction. The jet engine thrust the plane
 Kurt Godel

• Logician, Mathematician and Philosopher.
• Born AD 1906 Born AD 1978.
• One of the most significant logicians of all
  time. He is known best for his
  incompleteness theories.
  Albert Hoffman

• First to synthesize LSD.
• Born AD 1906 Died AD 2008.
• He is most famous for the first to
  synthesize, ingest and learn the
  psychedelic effects of LSD. He wrote a
  number of books including LSD my
  problem child.
 Harry Hess

• Mariana Trench man.
• Born AD 1906 Died AD 1969.
• He discovered the Mariana Trench
  deepest on the Earth. Also studied
  submarine geology and gravity anomalies.
 Rachel Carson

• Environmentalist who got DDT banned.
• Born AD 1907 Died AD 1964.
• Fish biologist who books about mans
  effect on the environment. Culminating in
  a book called the “Silent Spring” which
  reversed pesticide policy in America.
  Murray Barr

• Discovered Barr bodies in cells.
• Born AD 1908 Died AD 1995. He
  researched sex chromosome
  abnormalities and he developed diagnostic
  tests for sex chromosome-related
  John Wilson

• Geologist who studied plates.
• Born AD 1908 Died AD 1993.
• He popularised continental drift ideas and
  developed the theory of crustal plates and
  plate tectonics. He discovered transform
  faults and the geology of ocean basins.
 Willard Frank Libby
• Developed Carbon Dating.
• Born AD 1908 Died AD 1980.
• He used the properties of Carbon-14
  which has a long half life. Whilst living the
  organism takes in C-14 until it dies. Then it
  loses a small amount every year.
  Measuring the amount of C-14 in a piece
  of wood tells us how old it is.
            John Bardeen
• Invented the Transistor.
• Born AD 1908 Died AD 1991.
• Electricity does not pass as easily down
  semi-conductor as it does down a
  conductor. Transistors are made of semi-
  conductors and have remarkable
  properties. Without them there would be
  NO revolution in computers, radio or TV.
  Edward Tatum

• Geneticist.
• Born AD 1909 Died AD 1975.
• He showed that genes control individual
  steps in metabolism.
  Colin Munro Macleod

• Geneticist.
• Born AD 1909 Died AD 1972.
• He helped Avery and McCarty to discover
  that genes are made of DNA> They were
  never given a Nobel prize for their work.
  Jesse Greenstein

• Spectroscopic Astronomer.
• Born AD 1909 Died AD 2002.
• He conducted a spectral analysis of stars
  to find out their compositions. He worked
  on radio astronomy, origins of elements,
  Interstellar magnetic fields and Quasars as
  a source of radio waves.
 Maclyn McCarty

• Physician- Scientist.
• Born AD 1911 Died AD 2005.
• He studied infectious diseases, but he is
  best known for his part in the discovery
  that DNA rather than protein constitutes
  the chemical nature of genes.
  Melvin Calvin

• Organic Chemist.
• Born AD 1911 Died AD 1997.
• He traced the path of carbon in the
  process of photosynthesis. Gained the
  Nobel prize in chemistry for fundamental
  work in organic chemistry.
  Lorrin Riggs

• Electroretinogramist.
• Born AD 1912 Died AD ?
• He studied physiological nystagmus using
  the retinogram.
               Alan Turing
• Invented a computer.
• Born AD 1912 Died 1954.
• He was a brilliant Mathematician he
  devised the Turing machine demonstrated
  his theories. It was the foundation for latter
  digital computers. During the war he
  helped to crack the Germans enigma
 Wernher von Braun

• Rocket Scientist.
• Born AD 1912 Died AD 1977.
• He was a rocket enthusiast, Hitler made
  him director of Army rocket research. He
  helped to develop the V2. After the war he
  became an American citizen and worked
  for NASA on the giant Saturn rockets.
  Jonas Salk

• Polio Vaccine.
• Born AD 1914 Died 1995.
• American biologist and physician best
  known for the research and development
  of a killed –virus polio vaccine named the
  “Salk Vaccine”.
 James van Allen

• Discovered the Magnetosphere.
• Born AD 1914 Died AD 2006.
• He was in charge of a project that used
  some of von Braun captured rockets for a
  space experiment. He investigated cosmic
  rays ( high energy particles from outer
  space). He found space ships have be
  protected from the magnetosphere (Van
  Allen Belt)
  Charles Townes

• Made a Maser.
• Born AD 1915-
• A maser is Microwave Amplification
  Stimulated Emission Radiation. He did this
  by pumping energy into a container of
  ammonia gas. At the same time a weak
  beam of Microwaves shone and produced
  more and more microwaves.
  Maurice Wilkins

• X-ray diffraction of DNA.
• Born AD 1916 Died AD 2004.
• He measured the dimensions of DNA
  helix. He gained his Nobel prize in studies
  of light microscopy, developing the
  electron trap theory of phosphoescence.
 Francis Crick

• Unravelled DNA.
• Born AD 1916 Died AD 2004.
• He found that DNA was a double helix
  made up of Nucleic acid bases. These are
  Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Thymine.
  Andrew Huxley

• Physiology of Nerves.
• Born AD 1917-
• He explained the ionic mechanism of
  nerve impulses and studied muscle
  John Kendrew

• Protein molecular biologist.
• Born AD 1917 Died AD 1997.
• He was the first scientist to determine
  structure of the protein myoglobin. It was
  confirmed as an alpha-helical structure.
  Richard Feynman

• Feynman diagrams.
• Born AD 1918 Died AD 1988.
• He assisted on the development of the
  atomic bomb. He was a pioneer in the field
  quantum computing and introducing the
  concept of nanotechnology. Feynman
  popularised physics in the late 50’s and
  early 60’s.
 Frederick Sanger

• Sequenced proteins.
• Born AD 1918-
• The first to determine the sequence of
  proteins in insulin. He deduced a method
  for DNA sequencing.
  Arthur Kornberg

• Discovered DNA polymerase.
• Born AD 1918 Died AD 2007.
• He provided the enzymatic mechanism for
  the replication of DNA. He also studied
  Coenzyme synthesis, Nucleic acid
  synthesis and metabolic pathways.
 Owen Chamberlain

• Physicist following Dirac.
• Born AD 1920 Died AD 2006.
• Discovered the antiproton that was
  predicted by Paul Dirac. Gained the Nobel
  prize in physics.
  Isaac Asimov

• Popularised Science.
• Born AD 1920 Died AD 1992.
• He was a biochemist writer who produced
  hundreds of books and articles. He wrote
  science fiction and science fact explaining
  many technological advancements.
 Rosalind Franklin

• X-ray crystallography of DNA.
• Born AD 1920 Died AD 1958.
• Biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer
  that worked on the fine detail of DNA,
  Viruses, Coal and Graphite.
 Rosalyn Yalow

• Developed Radioimmunoassay.
• Born AD 1921-
• Won the Nobel prize for Medicine
  assaying Hormones, Vitamins and
  Enzymes by Radioimmunoassay.
  Chen Ning Yang

• Parity in weak interactions.
• Born AD 1922-
• His theory about parity was not conserved
  in weak interactions. He experimented and
  show his results as evidence. This gained
  him a Nobel prize in physics.
  Patrick Moore

• Presenter of the Sky at Night.
• Born AD 1923-
• Famous amateur astronomer who is now a
  legendary astronomy writer and
  Allan Cormack

• CAT scanner.
• Born AD 1924 Died AD 1998.
• Developed Computerised Aided
  Tomography (CAT scan). He conducted
  studies in medium energy nucleus-
  nucleon scattering.
  Joshua Lederberg

• Molecular biologist.
• Born AD 1925 Died AD 2008.
• He had interests in genetics, artificial
  intelligence and space exploration. He
  famously discovered that bacteria have a
  sexual phase where gene exchange takes
  place. This is why the bacteria can adapt
  and become resistant to antibiotics.
  Donald Glaser

• Invented the Bubble chamber.
• Born AD 1926-
• The Bubble chamber lead to the discovery
  of many new elementary particles. He
  worked in applying physics to molecular
  Sidney Brenner

• Molecular Biologist.
• Born AD 1927-
• He Identified messenger RNA and
  elucidated about the triplet nature of the
  code for protein translation.
 Theodore Maiman

• Made the first working Laser.
• Born AD 1927 Died AD 2007.
• He used a ruby crystal to make the laser
  and he was twice nominated for a Nobel
  John S Bell

• Particle physics theorist.
• Born AD 1928 Died AD 1990
• he worked almost exclusively on
  theoretical particle physics and on
  accelerator design, but found time to
  pursue a major avocation, investigating
  the fundamentals of quantum theory.
 James Watson

• Deduced double helix structure of DNA.
• Born AD 1928-
• Zoologist who worked with Francis Crick
  on DNA. Also researched into RNA and
  protein synthesis.
  Murray Gell-Mann

• Theory of elementary particles.
• Born AD 1929-
• He proposed a law for the conservation of
  strangeness of particles. This was a new
  classification system for the eightfold
  particles. He also developed the theory of
           Roger Penrose

• Theoretical physicist and mathematician.
• Born AD 1931-
• He produced mathematical proof of
  physical singularities (Big Bang). He
  proposed that rotating black holes lose
  energy at the event horizon.
  Walter Gilbert

• Pioneer molecular biologist.
• Born AD 1932-
• Pioneering work devising methods for the
  sequencing of Nucleic acids. He worked
  with Allan Maxam on a new DNA
  sequencing technique. He proposed the
  term RNA world hypothesis for the origin
  of life.
  Arno Penzias

• Big bang background.
• Born AD 1933-
• He discovered that the cosmic microwave
  background radiation was a relic of the big
 Steven Weinberg

• Cosmologist.
• Born AD 1933-
• Work in particle physics on the unification
  of weak and electromagnetic forces.
 Carlo Rubbia

• Discovery of sub atomic particles.
• Born AD 1934-
• He observed Charmed Baryons which
  transmit weak force of radioactive decay.
             Carl Sagan
• Exobiology pioneer.
• Born AD 1934 Died AD 1996.
• He promoted SETI (search for extra
  terrestrial life). He was involved in
  astronomy, astrochemistry and
  astrophysics. His famous television
  program The cosmos, a personal voyage
  popularised astronomy worldwide.
  Jane Goodall

• Ethologist and Primatologist.
• Born AD 1934-
• Studied Chimpanzees in the Gombe
  Stream Game Reserve, Tanzania, Africa.
  Discovered tool making and gang warfare
  and many other aspects of chimp
 David Baltimore

• Controversial Biologist
• Born AD 1938-
• He had a profound influence on the
  American National policy for the research
  into DNA and AIDS.
  Leon Kass

• Bioethicist.
• Born AD 1939-
• Leader in effort to stop human embryonic
  stem cell and cloning research.
 Fred Vine

• Geophysicist.
• Born AD 1939-
• One of the main contributors to the theory
  of Global Plate Tectonics.
 Ching-Wu Chu

• Superconductivity.
• Born AD 1941-
• Established superconductivity above 90
  degrees Kelvin. He also working on high
  pressure with low temperature, dielectrics
  and novel materials.
 Stephen Hawking
• Black holes and Hawking radiation.
• Born AD 1942.
• He is best known for his contributions to
  the field of cosmology and quantum
  gravity. He has produced theories on
  singularities and made predictions about
  black holes and the radiation they might
 Jocelyn Bell Burnell

• Queen of Pulsars.
• Born AD 1943.
• This astrophysicist discovered the first
  radio pulsar.
  Craig Venter

• Biologist.
• Born AD 1946-
• He founded The Institute for Genomic
  Research and was instrumental in
  mapping the human genome.
 Alain Aspect

• Faster than light communication.
• Born AD 1947-
• His work involved photons close to
  absolute zero travelled faster than the
  normally recognised speed of light.
  Francis J Collins

• Geneticist.
• Born AD 1950-
• He lead the Human Genome Project. He
  also discovered diseased genes.
 George Church

• Molecular Geneticist.
• Born AD 1954-
• He helped initiate the Human Genome
  project. He invented molecular
  multiplexing, tags and DNA array
  synthesizers. Now initiated the Personal
  Genome Project.
  Matt Ridley

• Zoologist and Scientific writer.
• Born AD 1958-
• He is the author of several popular science
  books including Genome and Nature by
  Helen Sharman

• The first British Astronaut.
• Born AD 1963-
• The first British astronaut to visit the Mir
  space station aboard a Soyuz TM-12
  space rocket. She has a degree in
  chemistry and worked as an engineer.
  Maynard Olson

• Geneticist.
• Born AD ?
• Specialised in Cystic fibrosis and was one
  of the architects of the world wide
  collaboration of the HGP.

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