Scientists through Time This is a product of the Science department of Dartford Technology College Imotep • The first recognised doctor, astrologer and architect. • Born 2630BC Died 2611BC • A scientist who became a god. He lived in ancient Egypt and was the chief minister to the pharaoh Djoser. Miletus of Thales • Philosopher and Scientist • Born 624BC Died 547BC • First of the seven wise men of Greece. Thought to be the founder of modern scientific thought. Anaximander • Founder of Astronomy. • Born 610BC Died 546BC. • The first person to realise that the surface of the Earth is curved. Pythagoras • Mathematician and Philosopher. • Born 580BC Died 500BC. • Discovered how to work out the lengths of the sides of a right angled triangle. Alcmaeon • Anatomist. • Born 570BC Died 502BC. • The first known dissector of the human body. Xenophanes of Colophon • Founder of Palaeontology. • Born 560BC Died 478BC • Discovered remains of life embedded in rocks, he suggested that mountains were once covered by the sea. Hippocrates • Father of Medicine. • Born 460BC Died 377BC • He believed in cleanliness, moderation in food and drink. Clean air, nature and medicine from plants. Thought to be the first to extract willow bark for pain relief. Democritus • Invented atoms. • Born 460BC 370BC. • He argued that all matter was made of small particles which were indivisible called "Atomon" or atoms. Aristotle • The great Thinker. • Born 384 Died 322BC • He wrote over 150 books on many scientific ideas. He studied everything in great detail and recorded his work. Theophrastus • Founder of Botany. • Born 372BC Died 287BC • He wrote about the 500+ plants that he classified into four groups, trees, shrubs, under-shrubs and herbs. Herophilus of Calcedon • Father of Anatomy. • Born 372BC Died 280BC. • He preformed over 600 public corps dissections and described his findings in nine books. Aristarchus • First Solar Astronomer. • Born 310BC Died 230BC. • He was the first man to correctly describe the path of the Earth around the Sun. Pytheas • Known as the first maritime explorer • Born 300BC Died ? • He sailed the Mediterranean and out through the straits of Gibraltar. He explored the Cornish coast and the western coast of France. He suggested the tides were related to the phases of the moon. Euclid • Master Mathematician • Born 300 BC Died ? • Euclid wrote the most successful book on mathematics of all time called the “Elements”. Archimedes • The Greek who went Eureka! • Born 287BC Died 212 BC • A great Greek thinker who calculated pi as 3.14159. He discovered the principles of floating and sinking. He was involved in working out how much gold was present in King Hieron II crown. He also famously designed war machines that could destroy invading ships. Ctesibius of Alexandria • Inventor extraordinaire . • Born 270BC Died ? • He invented many things including an air- powered catapult, a water organ and improved the water clock by adding gears. Erasistratus • Brain and circulation dissector. • Born 250BC Died ? • This doctor dissected the brain and guessed the surface had something to do with intelligence. He also came close to understanding the circulation of blood about two thousand years before Harvey. Hipparchus • Ancient Greek astronomer who founded trigonometry. • Born 190BC Died 120 BC • He discovered the Earth’s wobble at the equinox’s and invented many instruments for measuring parallax and angles of the stars. Strabo • The first Geographer • Born 63BC Died AD 24 • He is famous for his geography, the only book of its kind to survive from the world of the ancient Romans. Strabo realised that the then known world was only a small part of the total surface of the Earth. He theorised about other continents as yet unknown. Hero of Alexandria • Invented a steam engine. • Born AD 30ish Died AD 70ish • This inventor designed coin operated machines, water organs and the aeolipile. The aeolipile was a boiler that when heated rotated because steam jets came from the boiler. He understood air could be compress 1500 years before Boyle. Ts’ai Lun • Inventor of paper. • Born AD 50 Died AD 121 • He invented paper in AD 105 from tough wood fibres which he made into a pulp. The pulp was laid on a screen and allowed to dry in to a crisp sheet of paper. Ptolemy (Cladius Ptolemaeus) • Mixed Astronomy with Geography. • Born AD 100 Died AD 170 • Ptolemy’s system of geography and astronomy ruled European ideas through the middle ages. He thought the Earth was at the middle of the universe. Using his mathematical skills founded in astronomy he produced scale maps of Asia and Africa. Galen • The Humours doctor. • Born AD 129 Died AD 216 • He wrote about 300 books about the balance of the Humours phlegm, blood, bile and melancholy. His weird treatments caused many premature deaths. However Galen was a good observer and made important discoveries about muscles, kidneys and the spinal cord. Al’Khwarizmi • The man who founded Algebra. • Born AD 780 Died AD 850 • He was a brilliant mathematician and astronomer. He introduced zero to the numbers 1-9. He wrote a book called Al’jabra which translate to the word algorithm. The number system now used 0-9 is his doing. Alhazen • Arab or Persian Scientist. • Born AD 965 Died AD 1039. • His main scientific areas of expertise were Anatomy, Astronomy and Engineering. However he showed interest in mathematics and optics. He was a pioneer in Scientific methodology. Avicenna • Persian doctor • Born AD 980 Died AD 1037 • He wrote over 100 books mainly on medicine. Most of his work included translations of the great Greek physicians. Pi Sheng • Invented moveable printing type. • Born AD 1020ish Died 1090ish • He invented a method of sticking letters together in a wax, then using these to print. When he wanted the letters he melted the wax mixture releasing the letters for use. Roger Bacon • Great medieval mind. • Born AD 1214 Died AD 1294 • This brilliant medieval monk built instruments for experimenting such as the magnifying glass. He also described future machines such as the telescope, cars, motor boats and aeroplanes. He was thought to have discovered gunpowder, none of this was typical for a medieval monk. Gutenburg • Printer of the bible. • Born AD 1395 Died AD 1468 • He developed oil based printing inks and an efficient printing press and a method of casting large numbers of letters from little moulds. This was used then to print his masterpiece the Gutenberg bible. Nicholas of Cusa • Cardinal claims Earth goes around the sun. • Born AD 1401 Died AD 1464 • Nicholas was a Roman catholic cardinal who used experiments and calculations to show the Earth travels around the sun. Leonardo da Vinci • The artist scientist • Born AD 1452 Died AD 1519 • A great artist who had expertise in many other areas including, Anatomy, Mechanics and many others. He drew designs for a helicopter, parachute, hydraulic jacks, pulley systems and underwater breathing apparatus. Nicholas Copernicus • Astronomer supreme. • Born AD 1473 and Died AD 1543 • It was Copernicus who backed up the theories of Aristarchus and Nicholas of Cusa. He used calculations to show all the planets travel around the sun. His book the Revelations of heavenly spheres was put on an index of forbidden books by the Catholic Church. Gerardus Mercator • Engraver who produced maps. • Born AD 1512 Died AD 1594 • Mercator was a skilled engraver who began drawing maps in 1534. Mercator projected is lines of latitude and longitude to produce a flat version of a curved surface. He called this an Atlas from the Greek hero in mythology. Andreas Vesalius • Modern anatomist • Born AD 1514 Died AD 1564 • He realised that many of his predecessors had dissected animals to attain their knowledge. He was the first to solely use human cadavers. He published his amazing book “The structure of the human body at the age of 28”. William Gilbert • The father of experimentation. • Born AD 1544 Died AD 1603 • He was fascinated by magnets and many of his ideas were backed up by experimental work. He discovered static electricity when he rubbed two insulators together. He also coined the word “Electric” from the Greek word electron. Tycho Brahe • Last astronomer without a telescope. • Born AD 1546 Died AD 1601 • He lost his nose in a duel and replaced it with a silver one. Brahe set out to correct astronomical records of the time. His measurements were incredibly accurate considering he worked without a telescope. John Napier • The Laird of Logarithms. • Born AD 1550 Died AD 1617 • He invented the logarithm which allows long complicated calculations to be carried out with ease. Napier spent twenty years producing his logarithm tables and they allowed scientists to make complicated multiplication and division before the age of computers. John Harington • Inventor of the flush toilet. • Born AD 1561 Died AD 1612 • His claim to fame is that he invented, built and installed a flush toilet in Queen Elizabeth 1 palace at Richmond. Francis Bacon • He made science fashionable. • Born AD 1561 Died AD 1626 • He was Lord Chancellor of England in 1618. He advocated science but it was his down fall. He caught a cold from which he died. The experiment involved preserving a chicken by stuffing it with snow. Galileo Galilei • The first telescope study of the skies. • Born AD 1564 Died AD 1642 • He studied the skies and came to the conclusion that the Earth travelled around the sun. This put him in direct conflict with the Catholic church. He also carried out important work in the field of dynamics, which is the study of objects in motion. Hans Lippershey • Inventor of a telescope • Born AD 1571 Died AD 1619 • A spectacle maker who placed two lenses in a tube to see far objects clearly. He sold his idea to the Dutch government who tried to keep it a secret. Word leaked out via French man called Jacques Bovedere who in turn told Galileo. Johannes Kepler • The planets move in ellipses. • Born AD 1571 Died AD 1630 • The first person to realise that the only movement that fitted the data of the planets is an ellipse. He also produced scale drawings for the reflecting telescope. Cornelis Drebbel • The first submarine scientist. • Born AD 1572 Died AD 1633 • Dutch inventor who built a diving boat which travelled about 4 metres under the surface. King James 1st went for short ride down the Thames. William Harvey • Worked out the bodies circulatory system. • Born AD 1578 Died AD 1657 • Harvey realised that the veins had valves and the heart pumped blood to the lungs for oxygenation. Then the blood returned to the heart before it was pumped around the body. The blood then returned to the heart via the veins. Rene Descartes • Cartesian Co-ordinates • Born AD 1596 Died AD 1650 • Descartes believed that everything can be described by mathematics. He used maths and co-ordinates to describe the positions of an object in space. This was the first time that Algebra and Geometry were used together. Pierre de Fermat • Founder of probability. • Born AD 1601 Died AD 1665 • Fermat was a brilliant mathematician who worked out the chance of any event occurring. He conducted a lot of this work with Blaise Pascal. Otto von Guericke • He pumped air to form a vacuum. • Born AD 1602 Died AD 1686 • He built the first ever air pump and proceeded to pump air out of various vessels. He showed that in his manufactured vacuums candles could not burn and bells could not be heard. Blaise Pascal • Mathematician, made the first calculator. • Born AD 1623 Died AD 1662 • Pascal with the help of his father built the first working calculator it contained cogs and wheels of different sizes. Seven of these survive today. He worked on probability with his friend Fermat. Francesco Redi • Bred maggots. • Born AD 1626 Died AD 1697 • This Italian doctor proved that maggots do not spontaneously generate. His predecessors believed certain animals came directly from the mud or meat they feed on. Robert Boyle • Discovered Boyles law. • Born AD 1627 Died AD 1691 • Boyle discovered that there is a relationship between a gases pressure, volume and temperature. He formulated this into an equation which is called Boyles law. • The volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. Christian Huygens • Developed the pendulum clock. • Born AD 1629 Died AD 1695 • Apart from his work on the pendulum clock Huygens ground his own telescope lenses. He also suggested that light travels in waves. Anton van Leeuwenhoek • Pioneer of the microscope. • Born AD 1632 Died AD 1723 • In his life time he made over 300 microscope lenses and produced some with 300 times magnification. Robert Hooke • Discovered cells. • Born AD 1635 Died AD 1703 • Inventor scientist who is also known for his marine barometer and his work with springs. Hookes law state that the extension of the spring is directly proportional to the force applied within its elastic limits. Isaac Newton • Discovered gravity. • Born AD 1642 Died AD 1727 • His theory of Universal Gravitation can be applied to apples on trees and the Sun and its planets. He also split white light up into its constituent colours using a simple prism. He was also a mathematician and an author of several books. Gottfried Wilhelm Liebniz • Calculated calculus. • Born AD 1646 Died AD 1716 • Independently discovered calculus around the same time as Newton. He also invented a calculating machine which could add, subtract, multiply and divide. Denis Papin • The first pressure cooker. • Born AD 1646 Died AD 1716 • He helped to invent the steam engine. He invented a boiler with a safety valve. He cooked a meal for King Charles II in his pressure cooker. Thomas Savery • Built the first working steam pump. • Born AD 1650 Died AD 1715 • His steam pump drain water out of the mines. The miners called it the miners friend because it allow them to work in safety without the risk of drowning. Edmond Halley • Calculated the return of a comet. • Born AD 1656 Died AD 1742 • Halley calculated that the great comet seen in the Bayeaux tapestry of the Norman conquest had returned every 76 years and it did in 1682. He became the astronomer royal and died before his comet returned. Thomas Newcomen • Inventor of early steam engine. • Born AD 1663 Died 1729 • This Cornish ironmonger built a steam engine using atmospheric steam which was then cooled with water to create a vacuum. The air then rushed in to do the work. Jethro Tull • Designed a seed drill. • Born AD 1674 Died AD 1741. • The seed drill planted the seed in straight lines. This allowed the hoe to remove the weeds from between the growing plants. Abraham Darby • Manufacturer of cast iron objects. • Born AD 1678 Died AD 1717. • He made use of cast iron to mass produce pots and pans which were sold all over Britain. It was partly Darbys cast iron that helped to make Britain one of the first industrialised countries of the world. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit • Dutch thermometer maker. • Born AD 1686 Died AD 1736. • Using alcohol in a glass tube he froze salt water and called it zero. Then he boiled pure water and that measured 212 degrees. Then he found that pure water froze at 32 degrees. From frozen water to boiling water he had 180 degrees on his scale. Anders Celsius • Swede with a different scale. • Born AD 1701 Died 1744. • He used frozen pure water as zero degrees and boiling water as 100 degrees. This simple scale is still in use today. Benjamin Franklin • Played a dangerous game with lightning. • Born AD 1706 Died 1790 • He thought that that lightning was giant electrical spark. He famously flew a kite in a storm to prove that lightning was a form of electricity. Carolus Linnaeus • Invented a Latin two word naming system. • Born AD 1707 Died 1778. • He produced a naming system called “Systema Natura” for all living things which group species into genera. Then the genera into class and the classes into orders. Pierre Tresaguet • French road builder. • Born AD 1716 Died AD 1796 • He dug out a depth of 25 cms and laid large flat stones. Then small stones were poured on top and rolled smooth. These roads were far superior to any previously built. Water drained away and carts and carriages had a smoother journey. James Hargreaves • Spinning machine inventor. • Born AD 1720 Died 1778. • Inventor of the spinning Jenny that could produce eight times the amount of yarn one person could spin in a day. The spinning jenny was one of the main causes of the industrial revolution. It caused work to leave the cottages and enter the big factories of towns. James Hutton • Founder of the science of Geology. • Born AD 1726 Died AD 1797. • He theorised that rocks are formed from volcanic action and had always done so. This is basically the rock cycle that is taught today. However it was not popular with the church at the time because he suggested that it was a continual process and did not have a beginning. Henry Cavendish • Discovered two gases make up water. • Born AD 1731 Died 1810. • He lived for science and was very shy. He discovered that water was made up of two gases, Hydrogen that he called inflammable air and Oxygen that he called Dephlogisticated air. He also calculated the mass of the Earth. Richard Arkwright • Inventor of the spinning frame. • Born AD 1732 Died AD 1792. • Arkwright’s machine would replace hand spinning of cotton. The industrial revolution began and Arkwright is also famous for the first factory system for the manufacture of cloth. Joseph Priestley • Famous for Oxygen and fizzy drinks. • Born AD 1733 Died AD 1804. • He collect the gas given off in fermentation and found it was Carbon dioxide. He then used the gas to make soda water. He went on to discover a gas he called dephlogisticated air which was latter called oxygen. Franz Mesmer • A doctor who cured patients with magnets. • Born AD 1734 Died AD 1815. • He believed that when the body is ill a fluid in the body could not move. He treated his patients with magnets and some got better. Later he stopped using magnets and waved his hands over the patients he called this animal magnetism. Joseph Lagrange • He came up with the metric system. • Born AD 1736 Died 1813. • He came up with the metric system based on the metre and the gram. Thousand grams became the kilogram and a thousand metres became the Kilometre. For this the Emperor Napoleon made Lagrange a count. James Watt • Inventor of an efficient steam engine. • Born AD 1736 Died AD 1819. • Watts brilliant improvement of the steam engine was two chambers. One chamber always hot for steam the other cool for condensing. This made a far more efficient steam engine. Frederick Herschel • Discovered Uranus. • Born AD 1738 Died AD 1822. • He made his own telescope and discovered the first new planet since ancient times. He was also very interested in mathematics. Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier • Hot air balloon inventors. • Born AD 1740/5 Died AD 1799 /1810. • They made a lightweight paper fabric bag and filled it with hot air. The first flight lifted them up about a 1000 metres. They stayed up for about ten minutes and drifted nearly 2.5 kilometres. Karl Scheele • Discovered oxygen first. • Born AD 1742 Died AD 1786. • Discovered more chemicals in ashort space of time than any chemist before or since. He discovered oxygen 2 years before Joseph Priestley but did not publish. Amongst the chemicals he is accredited with are Manganese, Tungsten, Chlorine and Nitrogen. Nicholas Leblanc • A French man gave us soap. • Born AD 1742 Died AD 1806. • He produced cheap soda ash and reacted it with lard to mass produce cheap soap. He won a prize for this but was never paid because the French revolution occurred. Antoine Lavoisier • The father of modern chemistry. • Born AD 1743 Died 1794. • He did not discover oxygen but he did name it. He showed how it was involved in combustion. All of his experiments were carefully measured and recorded clearly. He died on the guillotine because they said there was no need for chemist in the French revolution. Joseph Banks • Plant specialist. • Born AD 1743 Died AD 1820. • He was a member of the Royal Society and he collected many previously unknown species of plant from Australia. He became president of the Royal Society and sent many botanists around the world to collect specimens. Edmund Cartwright • Invented the industrial weaving machine. • Born AD 1743 Died AD 1823. • Patented the first industrial loom powered by water. This gave the weaving industry the final part required by factories to mass produce cloth. Jean-Bapiste Lamarck • The first sensible evolution theory. • Born AD 1744 Died AD 1829. • He believed that living things evolve into different species. He also categorised animals into vertebrates and invertebrates. Alessandro Volta • Inventor of the battery. • Born AD 1745 Died AD 1827. • Volta was very interested in electricity. He produced the first working battery by placing alternate Zinc and Copper disc separated by cloth soaked in brine. The force which drives an electric current is named after him “The Volt”. Edward Jenner • Conquered Smallpox. • Born AD 1749 Died AD 1823. • He produced a vaccine from cowpox to prevent a person from catching smallpox. Nicholas Appert • Canned his food. • Born AD 1750 Died AD 1841. • He tried out many ways to preserve food. By trial and error he heated food to boiling point and then sealed it it in airtight containers and it did not go off. He opened the worlds first cannery producing food in sealed glass containers. Caroline Herschel • First famous woman astronomer. • Born AD 1750 Died AD 1848. • Sister of William Herschel, she discovered and named eight comets and many star clusters. Joseph-Marie Jacquard • Inventor of the loom. • Born AD 1752 Died AD 1834. • His loom was capable of weaving simple patterns in the cloth. This was not possible before this machine was invented. Samuel Crompton • Invented Crompton’s mule. • Born AD 1753 Died AD 1827. • Crompton’s mule was a mixture of Arkwright’s frame and Hargreaves spinning jenny. It was far more reliable and so it could produce yarn faster and finer. This gave the final boost to the British textile industry. Benjamin Thompson • Thermodynamics law. • Born AD 1753 Died AD 1814. • Conducted many experiments in thermodynamics and produce an equation to show the effects. S= K. Log W William Murdock • Pioneer of gas lighting. • Born AD 1754 Died AD 1839. • He heated coal to give off a gas which could flow down pipes. A Birmingham factory got its gas lighting in 1803. Then London streets followed in 1807. John McAdam • Scottish road builder. • Born AD 1756 Died AD 1836. • He built many roads using large flat stones at the base and covered with small squared stones on top weighing about 150 grams. Thomas Telford • Famous bridge builder. • Born AD 1757 Died AD 1834. • This Scottish engineer built 1200 bridges including the Menai suspension bridge which joins Wales to Anglesey. Joseph Niepce • Inventor and first photographer. • Born AD 1765 Died AD 1833. • He invented an engine that ran off Lycopodium powder from fireworks. In 1826 he took 8 hours to expose a picture using his own pinhole camera. Robert Fulton • Built the first successful steamship. • Born AD 1765 Died AD 1815. • He sailed the “Steamboat” from New York to Albany in 32 hours at a speed of nearly 5 mph. Eli Whitney • Mass Producer. • Born AD 1765 Died AD 1825. • Invented a machine to separate out cotton from its seed. But he is known for his mass production tools which made identical parts for muskets. He made 10,000 in two years alone. Charles Macintosh • Raincoat inventor • Born AD 1766 Died AD 1843. • He took coal naptha and dissolved india- rubber. He then used this to stick two layers of cloth together. The cloth was totally waterproof. He used the cloth to make a garment called the Mackintosh (raincoat). John Dalton • He believed in atoms. • Born AD 1766 Died AD 1844. • He believed that everything is made up of atoms and different atoms have different weights. He drew up the first table of atomic weights of elements. Georges Cuvier • He studied bones. • Born AD 1769 Died AD 1832. • Cuvier worked at the museum of natural history in Paris. He was the first person to study old bones scientifically. Richard Trevithick • Produced the first railway engine. • Born AD 1771 Died AD 1833. • In 1797 he built a working model which he showed his friends. Four years latter he built a road carriage called “Puffing Devil”. In 1804 he rode one of his own steam engines on metal rails in a Welsh mine. Alois Senefelder • Invented lithographic printing. • Born AD 1771 Died AD 1834. • He used a piece of limestone and wrote the text using a grease pencil. He then used acid to etch the limestone leaving raised text to print the pages of a book. Robert Brown • The man who named the nucleus. • Born AD 1773 Died AD 1858. • This Scottish naturalist observed plant cells and he found they all contained a little nut in Latin Nucleus. Andre Ampere • He named electrical current. • Born AD 1775 Died AD 1836/ • Ampere was the first person to measure electrical current using a magnetic needle. The unit of electrical current is the Amp or Ampere. Hans Oersted • He believed in energy transducers. • Born AD 1777 Died AD 1851 • He proved that electric current could produce a magnetic field. Using a compass and an electric field he caused movement (kinetic energy). This was the fore runner of the electric motor, Carl Friedrich Gauss • The Prince of Mathematicians. • Born AD 1777 Died AD 1855. • He was a Mathematician and Scientist. He worked on a number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electrostatics, astronomy and optics. Humphry Davy • Invented the safety lamp. • Born AD 1778 Died AD 1829. • Apart from his greatest invention the safety lamp Humphry discovered several chemical elements. Amongst these was Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Strontium and Barium. He also discovered the effects of Nitrous oxide (laughing gas). Mary Somerville • Science writer. • Born AD 1780 Died AD 1872. • She first became famous writing a book about Laplace. She became a member of the Royal Society and wrote her last book at the age of 89. George Stevenson • Built the first useful steam train. • Born AD 1781 Died AD 1848. • The Active ran between Stockton and Darlington, it pulled 450 passengers at a speed of 15 mph. He latter built the Rocket which ran between Liverpool and Manchester at a speed of 36 mph. Friedrich Bessel • Expanded the size of the Universe. • Born AD 1784 Died AD 1846. • His measurements of the stars were the most accurate to date. He produced a catalogue of over 50,000 stars. He measured the distance to 61 Cygni and found it to be 6 light years. Previously Issac Newton thought the universe was only 2 light years across. Louis Daguerre • Photography Pioneer. • Born AD 1787 Died AD 1851. • He invented the Daguerrotypes of photography plate. It was copper coated with silver nitrate. After exposure to light it was developed in mercury fumes and fixed in a solution of brine. Georg Ohm • Wires resistance to currents. • Born AD 1789 Died AD 1854. • He made his own wires and tested the flow of current down different lengths and thicknesses. He stated that the flow of current is directly proportional to the voltage but inversely proportional to the resistance. Samuel Morse • The code man • Born AD 1791 Died AD 1872. • He found an electric could cause an electromagnet to move a piece of soft iron attached to a pencil. The pencil wrote on a moving piece of paper. His first message was “ What God hath wrought”. Michael Faraday • He invented the electric motor. • Born AD 1791 Died AD 1867. • Fired by Oersted’s experiment he mounted a copper wheel between the two poles of a magnet. When the wheel turned it produced a current (electric generator). The reverse of this is the electric motor. Charles Babbage • An early computer. • Born AD 1791 Died AD 1871. • He built a calculating machine called a difference engine. It undertook calculations from a punched card input. Difference Engine 2 is in the Science museum, London. Joseph Henry • He made stronger electromagnets. • Born AD 1797 Died AD 1878. • He experimented with electromagnets but the more wire used they tended to short out. Until he used silk wrapped around the wire to insulate it. He then produced stronger and stronger electromagnets. Mary Anning • Fossil collector. • Born AD 1799 Died AD 1847. • She lived in Lyme Regis, Dorset and discovered her first big find aged 12. It was an Ichthyosaur which she sold for 400 pounds. She carried on fossil hunting and discovered the first Plesiosaur. She died of breast cancer aged 47. Charles Goodyear • Invented vulcanised rubber. • Born AD 1800 Died AD 1860. • He heated rubber with sulphur to form vulcanised rubber. The discovery is still used in car tyres today. William Fox Talbot • Pioneer of Photography. • Born AD 1800 Died AD 1877. • He patented the calotype process. This is where paper was soaked in silver chloride then exposed and developed in Gallic acid. Christian Doppler • The Doppler effect. • Born AD 1803 Died AD 1853. • If a train whistled coming towards you then as it went away the pitch would sound higher coming towards you. Conversely the whistle pitch would sound lower moving away. Doppler found this was true for light as well as sound, Red shift occurs when a light source moves away. Richard Owen • Dinosaur hunter. • Born AD 1804 Died AD 1892. • Owen coined the name dinosaur meaning “Terrible Lizard”. Being a surgeon he enjoyed cutting up specimens and using the knowledge to help classify them. Isambard Kingdom Brunel • Engineer who built things to last. • Born AD 1806 Died AD 1859. • He built the Royal Albert bridge to carry trains across the Tamar. He built the Great Western a steam ship that crossed the Atlantic ocean four days faster than its rival. James Nasmyth • Invented the steam hammer. • Born AD 1808 Died AD 1890. • The steam hammer was a key tool in shaping the future of the industrial revolution. Forging is the process of hammering hot metal into shape. The steam hammer made it possible to hammer larger and larger pieces into shape. Louis Braille • Raised dot reading system. • Born AD 1809 Died AD 1852. • Went blind at the age of three and latter went to a school for the blind in Paris. Where he learned to read using Babiers complicated 12 dot system. He invented a much simpler 6 dot system which is still used worldwide. Charles Robert Darwin • The theory of Evolution. • Born AD 1809 Died AD 1882. • He travelled all around South America on the HMS Beagle. He visited the Galapagos islands and from his studies formulated the beginnings of his theory of evolution, which was in direct conflict with the teachings of the church. Elisha Otis • The first safe lift. • Born AD 1811 Died AD 1861. • Otis designed a safety device in side of the shaft. If the hoist cable failed then spring loaded catches would jam the ratchets preventing the lift from falling. James Simpson • He used chloroform. • Born AD 1811 Died AD 1870. • Ether was being used in the USA but it caused many problems for patients. So he and his assistants tried many different chemicals. When they tried chloroform they woke up under the table without side effects. So he started to use it on his patients during surgery. Robert Bunsen • Built a burner. • Born AD 1811 Died AD 1899. • Gas flows up the tube drawing air in. The gas and air burn together in a narrow flame giving a steady heat which is ideal for experiments. Kirkpatrick Macmillan • Invented the pedal bicycle. • Born AD 1813 Died AD 1878. • Macmillan made the rider turn pedals to turn the wheel. Before this riders scooted along kicking the road to move. His bicycle required the rider to move the pedal forward and back not round in circles. Henry Bessemer • Iron into steel. • Born AD 1813 Died AD 1898. • Bessemer invented the early version of the blast furnace. He used iron, air and carbon to produce steel. He also invented a typesetting machine and methods for making gold paint and putting lead into pencils. Augusta Byron • First computer programmer. • Born AD 1815 Died Ad 1852. • She was a fearless horsewoman and a brilliant mathematician. She worked with Babbage and designed a system to bet on horse races. She died of cancer and whilst still in debt from gambling. James Joule • Measured energy. • Born AD 1818 Died AD 1889. • He is famous for his work on energy and its laws. Energy cannot be created or destroyed only changed from one form to another. 4.18 joules is equal to one calorie. Maria Mitchell • Comet finder. • Born AD 1818 Died AD 1889. • She was the first woman after Caroline Herschel to find and name a comet (Miss Mitchells comet). She was the first professional woman astronomer of the USA. Nikola Tesla • The father of physics. • Born AD 1819 Died AD 1943. • He is most known as the scientist who gave his name to magnetic flux. He was involved in wireless communication. He also contributed to robotics, remote control and radar. William Morton • Etherised his patients. • Born AD 1819 Died AD 1868. • He used Ether to put his patients to sleep during an operation. This was a great advance because previously they made the patient drink vast quantities of alcohol to stop the pain. Jean Foucault • Pendulum scientist. • Born AD 1819 Died AD 1868. • Foucault proved that the Earth rotated he used a very long string on his pendulum. Most pendulums only go forward and back in a straight line but with a very long string is affected by the rotation of the Earth. Christopher Sholes • Invented the typewriter. • Born AD 1819 Died AD 1890. • The first typewriter had many of the features of modern ones. The paper was on a roller, a lever operated the carriage return and it had a Qwerty key board. Linus Yale • Invented the Yale lock. • Born AD 1821 Died AD 1868. • He invented a pin and tumbler lock. The key had protrusions where the tumblers were located. If all the tumblers operated then the lock opened. Gregor Mendel • Founded the science of genetics. • Born AD 1822 Died AD 1884. • He found that a red flower crossed with a yellow flower do not make orange flowers. One of the flower types will be dominant and produce that colour flower. Louis Pasteur • He used Pasteurisation to kill germs. • Born AD 1822 Died AD 1895. • He used heat to kill the germs in the brewing industry. We still use pasteurisation in the milk industry today. Etienne Lenoir • First internal combustion engine. • Born AD 1822 Died AD 1900. • His machine had a battery to provide the spark to ignite the fuel. The fuel being coal gas and air mixture which produced the steam to turn the wheels. The main problem of this machine was its 4% efficiency. William Thomson • The Kelvin scale. • Born AD 1824 Died AD 1907. • Kelvin absolute zero to be minus 273.18 degrees Celsius. So that value became 0 degrees Kelvin and the freezing point of water became 273.18 degrees Kelvin. That made the boiling point of water 373.18 degrees Kelvin. J.J. Balmer • Atomic Spectroscopist. • Born AD 1825 Died AD ? • He discovered lines on an atomic spectrum of the sun that showed hydrogen was present. Henri Giffard • First airship. • Born AD 1825 Died AD 1882. • He built a 44 metre long balloon filled with hydrogen. He used a rudder shaped like an upside down sail to steer the airship. Joseph Lister • The Father of antiseptic surgery. • Born AD 1827 • He always used carbolic to disinfect the operating tables. He used carbolic to sterilise the instruments and the patients body. He even used carbolic in the bandages and dressings. Joseph Swan • Invented the Light bulb. • Born AD 1828 Died AD 1914. • He tried metal and carbon for the filaments of his bulbs. It was the oxygen in air which caused the problem. When a current was applied the filament over heated and burnt out. He solved this problem by using a vacuum pump to take out all the air. Hermann Muller • Botanist. • Born AD 1829 Died AD 1883. • Worked with Charles Darwin providing important evidence for the theory of evolution. James Clerk Maxwell • The field of force. • Born AD 1831 Died AD 1879. • Maxwell’s equations showed that electricity, magnetism and light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon: the electromagnetic field. Alfred Nobel • Discovered Dynamite. • Born AD 1833 Died AD 1896. • He mixed nitroglycerine with a packing material to make a safer explosive. Dynamite that could be handled without the fear of it exploding in your hand. When he died he left his money to give five prizes each year (The Nobel Prizes). Ivan Dmitri Mendeleyev • The Periodic table of Elements. • Born AD 1834 Died AD 1907. • He found that certain elements have similar properties to each other. He arranged the similar elements in size order (atomic mass). This produced a table where all elements with one electron in the outer shell are in group one. Those with two in group two and so on. Wilhelm Waldeyer • Anatomist. • Born AD 1836 Died AD 1921. • He was famous for consolidating the neuron theory of organization of the nervous system and for naming the chromosome. Ernst Mach • The speed of sound. • Born AD 1838 Died AD 1916. • When an aircraft reaches the speed of sound it causes a pressure wave called a sonic boom. The aircraft is now travelling at Mach 1. If it reaches twice the speed of sound then the aircraft is said to be travelling at Mach 2. Ferdinand Zeppelin • Built a rigid airship. • Born AD 1838 Died AD 1917. • The frame was a light metal the bags were filled with Hydrogen. A gondola was hung below to carry passengers and two motor provided drive and direction. The Hindenburg the largest Zeppelin ever built had a top speed of 84mph. However disaster struck the Hindenburg blew up killing 36 passengers. Hiram Maxim • Invented the Machine gun. • Born AD 1840 Died AD 1916. • He invented the first fully automatic machine gun. It fired ten rounds a second from its water cooled barrel. He used the recoil from one shot to give the energy to load and fire the next. The maxim used cordite in its bullets a type of smokeless gun powder. John Dunlop • Invented the first useful pneumatic tyre. • Born AD 1840 Died AD 1921. • He made a hollow tyre that had a a tube filled with air inside it. Originally the air was pumped into the tyres with a football pump. James Dewar • Invented the thermos flask. • Born AD 1842 Died AD 1923. • The flask contained two walls with a vacuum between. This prevented heat loss by conduction and convection. He then put a silvered layer to reflect heat back into the flask prevent most of the radiation loss. This kept cold objects cold and warm objects warm. Robert Koch • Bacteria beater. • Born AD 1843 Died AD 1910. • Koch studied bacteria and found they cause many illnesses. He identified the bacteria that cause Tuberculosis. He went on to identify the causes of Cholera and Bubonic plague. Knowing the cause has helped others to provide a cure. Johann Miescher • Biologist. • Born AD 1844 Died AD 1895. • He isolated phosphate rich chemicals from the nucleic acids found in the nucleus of cells. Karl Benz • The first practical petrol driven car. • Born AD 1844 Died AD 1929. • It was brilliant but a very inefficient machine it drank fuel. Ludwig Boltzmann • Mechanics and Thermodynamics. • Born AD 1844 Died 1906. • Boltzmann's most important scientific contributions were in kinetic theory, including the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for molecular speeds in a gas. Wilhelm Rontgen • Discovered X-rays. • Born AD 1845 Died AD 1923. • He was working on cathode rays and a piece of chemically coated paper near him started to glow. He had no idea what had caused it so he called the rays X-rays. At a public lecture he demonstrated a X-ray of a hand. Edouard Van Beneden • Belgian Embryologist and Cytologist. • Born AD 1846 Died AD 1910. • He discovered how chromosome combine during reproduction (meiosis). George Westinghouse • Switched to alternating current. • Born AD 1846 Died AD 1914. • He went into the generation of electricity business. Producing AC (alternating Current) with the advantage that high voltages can made by a transformer. This greatly reduces loss of power during transmission. Alexander Graham Bell • Invented the Telephone. • Born AD 1847 Died AD 1922. • He was working with the deaf turning sound in electrical signals. Then he converted the electrical signals back into sound. He realised that he could do this down long wires he had invented the telephone. Thomas Edison • The greatest inventor ever. • Born AD 1847 Died AD 1931. • He invented 1,093 items in his lifetime. He invented; Electrical vote recorder, light bulb, efficient electric generator, phonograph, commercial power distribution system. He said “Inventing was 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration”. Hugo de Vries • Botanist and Geneticist. • Born AD 1848 Died AD 1935. • Suggested the concept of genes. He also rediscovered Mendel’s work. He developed a mutation theory of evolution. Otto Lilienthal • The First glider pilot. • Born AD 1848 Died AD 1896. • He studied birds and designed and made powerless planes. He successfully flew over 2,000 test glides in his life. Henri Becquerel • Discovered Radioactivity. • Born AD 1852 Died AD 1908. • He wrapped a photographic plate in brown paper and put it in the sunlight. On top of the wrapped plate he put a piece of fluorescent material. When he developed the plate light had not fogged the plate but the material had from unknown radiation. Paul Ehrlich • Cured children of Diphtheria. • Born AD 1854 Died AD 1915. • Bacteriologist who developed immunology. He discovered living cells become immune to bacteria. So he used horses to produce the serum to the toxin. His so called magic bullet technique was used to make many serums. Charles Parsons • Invented the steam turbine. • Born AD 1854 Died AD 1931. • He found instead of using steam to make a piston go up and down. He used high pressure steam to make a wheel turn which could be used directly. George Eastman • The Box Brownies. • Born AD 1854 Died AD 1932. • He popularised the expensive hobby of photography, making it available to the masses. His slogan was you press the button and we do the rest. King Camp Gillette • Invented the safety razor. • Born AD 1855 Died AD 1932. • He invented a razor to replace the dangerous cut throat. He made a thin blade that fitted between two metal plates. The blade was disposable meaning replacement would need to be bought. Sigmund Freud • Founded Psychoanalysis. • Born AD 1856 Died AD 1939. • Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the defence mechanism of repression. He was also renowned for his work on sexual desire being the primary motivational energy of human life. Joseph Thomson • Discovered electrons. • Born AD 1856 Died AD 1940 • Thomson proved that followers of the particle theory were right. He showed that the cathode rays were streams of particles that he called corpuscles. Latter they were called electrons. Wilhelm Johannsen • Plant physiologist. • Born AD 1857 Died AD 1927. • He conducted pure line research. He showed that in homozygous populations without genetic variation of traits. The seed size followed a normal distribution. This led him to coin the terms Phenotype and Genotype. Andrija Mohorovicic • Studied Earthquake waves. • Born AD 1857 Died AD 1936. • He was a geologist and he studied the patterns of Earthquake waves. He presented ideas that the Earth structure is layered. He described the sharp separation between the outer and inner layers of the Earth. Heinrich Hertz • Discovered Radio Waves. • Born AD 1857 Died AD 1894. • He measured the electromagnetic waves that he created from an electrical spark. He found the wavelength to be 66cm which was a million times more than the wavelength of light. These Hertzian waves became known as radio waves. Franz Boas • Pioneer of modern Anthropology. • Born AD 1858 Died 1942. • He applied scientific method to the study of human cultures and societies. Rudolf Diesel • Developed the Diesel engine. • Born AD 1858 Died AD 1913. • He experimented with different types of fuel for the internal combustion engine. He invented an engine that did not need a spark. Diesel engines are very efficient and they use heavier, safer fuel. Max Planck • Founder of Modern Science. • Born AD 1858 Died AD 1947. • He was interested in Black Body radiation. Black bodies should in theory radiate all frequencies of light. But it did not, It radiates red, then orange, then white/violet. The energy is released in little bundles that he called Quanta. The size of the quanta is known as Planck’s Constant. Svante Arrhenius • Discovered Global Warming. • Born AD 1859 Died 1927. • He was the first to suggest that the burning of fossil fuels would lead to build up of Carbon Dioxide in the air. This in turn would trap heat and cause global warming. William Bateson • British Geneticist. • Born AD 1861 Died AD 1926. • He was the first person to use the term Genetics for the study of heredity and biological inheritance. He popularised Mendel’s work following its rediscovery in 1900. Frederick Hopkins • Biochemist isolated tryptophane. • Born AD 1861 Died 1947. • Investigated the concept of accessory food factors (Vitamins). He also gave an explanation of the role of lactic acid in muscular contraction. He also discovered glutathione and worked on oxidising enzymes. Auguste & Louis Lumiere • Cinema pioneers. • Born AD 1862&4 Died AD 1948 & 64. • The lumieres took Edison’s Kinetoscope and Reynauds still projector and made a moving projector. It operated at 16 frames per second. Leo Baekeland • Made Plastic. • Born AD 1863 Died AD 1944. • He took a mixture of phenol and formaldehyde and under heat and pressure he made a plastic he called Bakelite. Henry Ford • Made the Model T car. • Born AD 1863 Died AD 1947. • His model T was a cheap everyday car for the people. It was made by an assembly line not individual craftsmen. He famously said “you can have any colour provided its black”. Carl Correns • Botanist and Geneticist. • Born AD 1864 Died AD 1933. • Independent discovery of the principles of heredity and rediscovery of Mendel’s work. Thomas Morgan • Embryologist and Geneticist. • Born AD 1866 Died 1945. • He studied the mutations which occurred in Drosophila. He showed that genes are carried on the chromosomes. Following on from Mendel he formed the basis of modern genetics Marie Curie • Discovered Polonium and Radium. • Born AD 1867 Died AD 1934. • She extracted a mining ore called Pitchblende for uranium. The amount of radiation she found was much more than expected. However from 8 tons of pitchblende she only recovered 1ngram of Radium but it is 2 million times more radioactive. The polonium she discovered was named after her native Poland. Wilbur & Orville Wright • They built the first aeroplane. • Born AD1867 & 71 Died 1912 & 48. • They designed a light but powerful engine fitted to a glider frame. Only 5 other people saw their first powered flight near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. They flew 36.6 metres in 12 seconds. Henrietta Leavitt • Astronomer catalogued variable stars. • Born AD 1868 Died AD 1921 • Famous lady astronomer for photographing and cataloguing Variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Robert Millikan • Measured Charge. • Born AD 1868 Died AD 1953. • Isolated the Electron and measured elementary charge. He worked on the photoelectric effect determination of Plank’s constant. He also studied Cosmic rays. Erich Seysenegg • Agronomist. • Born AD 1871 Died AD 1962. • Independently rediscovered Mendel’s work. Walter Cannon • Concepts of Homeostasis. • Born AD 1871 Died AD 1945. • He also investigated concept of fight and flight. His work included studies of the internal systems; glands, intestines, nerves and traumatic shock. Ernest Rutherford • Looked inside the nucleus. • Born AD 1871 Died AD 1937. • Rutherford suggested that the nucleus contained a particle with a positive charge that equalled that of the electrons. The positive sub atomic particles he called the Proton. Guglielmo Marconi • Pioneer of Radio. • Born AD 1874 Died AD 1937. • He used Hertzian waves to bombard a coherer containing loose metal filings. The waves could make electrical signals that could be converted into sound ( a radio message). Carl Jung • Unique Psychologist. • Born AD 1875 Died AD 1961. • He spent much of his life studying Eastern and Western Philosophy, alchemy, Astrology and Sociology. His most notable ideas include; archetypes, collective unconscious, synchronicity. He put an emphasis on balance and harmony. Oswald Theodore Avery • Molecular Biologist. • Born AD 1877 Died AD 1955. • He worked on DNA and found that the genes and chromosomes were made of this material. William Beebe • Developed the Bathysphere. • Born AD 1877 Died AD 1962. • Ornithologist with an interest in deep sea exploration. Lise Meitner • Helped to split the atom. • Born AD 1878 Died AD 1968. • She worked with Hahn and she was certain that the nuclei of the uranium atom had split into two she called the process nuclear fission. Albert Einstein • The Theory of Relativity. • Born AD 1879 Died AD 1955. • He wrote light can travel through a totally empty space. If one object appears to be moving and another still which is moving? With nothing to compare it to it is all relative. In relativity theory even mass is a form of energy, the only fixed parameter is the speed of light. E= MC2. Otto Hahn • Nuclear Fission. • Born AD 1879 Died AD 1968. • He bombarded uranium with neutrons and the product appeared to be barium. He communicated with his friend Meitner and she formulated that he had split the atom. Alfred Wegener • Theory of continental drift. • Born AD 1880 Died AD 1930. • He hypothesised that the continents were slowly drifting apart. However solid evidence unavailable his ideas were not accepted until 1950. Alexander Fleming • Discovered Penicillin. • Born AD 1881 Died AD 1955. • One day he noticed that a dish of bacteria had been left uncovered for days. It had started to go mouldy but around each mould was a ring of dead bacteria. The mould was Penicillin Notatum. Penicillin was to become the worlds first antibiotic. Max Born • Physicist and Mathematician. • Born AD 1882 Died AD 1970 • He was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists. Hans Geiger • Detected radioactivity. • Born AD 1882 Died AD 1945. • He built a cylinder containing gas with a window in the end. Particles enter through the window and produce little electronic pulses. The pulse is amplified to give a click. The more clicks per second the more radioactive a substance was. Robert Goddard • First liquid-fuel rocket. • Born AD 1882 Died AD 1945. • Responsible for the fundamental theory of rocket flight. He worked on auto steering of rockets. He also pioneered multistage rockets. Victor Hess • Discovered Cosmic Rays. • Born AD 1883 Died AD 1964. • He worked on atmospheric electricity, radioactivity & alpha emissions in Radium. Gained the Nobel Prize in Physics. John Keynes • Economist. • Born AD 1883 Died 1946. • Pioneer of economic theories of large scale government planning within the free market system. Neils Bohr • A quantum leap for atoms. • Born AD 1885 Died AD 1962. • He found that electrons can make a quantum leap from one level of orbit to another. This was a big step forward in the understanding of the atom and it won him the Nobel prize in 1922. William Kouwenhoven • Developed the defibrillator. • Born AD 1886 Died AD 1975. • Electrical engineer who studied the electricity of the body. He worked on defibrillators and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Clarence Birdseye • Frozen food pioneer. • Born AD 1886 Died AD 1956. • He produced the most successful method to date of quick freezing his products. He passed the food between to large refrigerated metal plates. This managed to retain most of the flavour of the fish, fruit and vegetables he froze. Erwin Schrodinger • Photon a wave or a particle. • Born AD 1887 Died AD 1961. • In Schrodinger’s atom the electrons are within a probability cloud and sometimes they act like waves and other times like particles. Schrodinger’s equation allowed scientist to know an electrons most likely position. John Logie Baird • Television Pioneer. • Born AD 1888 Died AD 1946. • He built the first television in an old tea chest. He was able to transmit the signal of a Maltese cross in black and white to is makeshift receiver. The BBC took up his invention and the rest is history. Calvin Blackman Bridges • Geneticist. • Born AD 1889 Died AD 1938. • He suggested that chromosomes contain packets of information called genes. Edwin Hubble • Galaxy man. • Born AD 1889 Died AD 1953. • Hubble was able to calculate that there were hundreds of billions of extra-galactic nebulae. Hubble’s law states that further away a galaxy is the faster its moving away from its observer. Hubble gave credence to the expanding universe and hence the big bang theory. Igor Sikorsky • First working helicopter. • Born AD 1889 Died AD 1972. • The safety of the helicopter relies on one moving joint at the centre of the blades. At 12 he built a working model helicopter powered by rubber bands. Percy Shaw • Cats’ eyes. • Born AD 1890 Died AD 1976. • When driving home on a foggy night he was prevented from having a nasty accident by a cars lights shining in a cats eyes. This set him thinking and he produced a combined lens and mirror set in a rubber base set in cast iron. Arthur Holmes • Uranium-lead radiometric dating. • Born AD 1890 Died AD 1965. • This British Geologist devised a technique for measuring the age of a rock. He wrote a book called The age of the Earth which estimated it to be 1.6 billion years old. Alfred Sturtevant • Geneticist. • Born AD 1891 Died AD 1970. • Sturtevant provided proof of genetic linkage. He also produced the first gene map. Frederick Banting • Produced insulin for diabetics. • Born AD 1891 Died AD 1941. • He received the Nobel prize for medicine when he extracted insulin from the islet of Langerhans. He then gave the insulin to diabetics to keep them alive. James Chadwick • Discovered the Neutron. • Born AD 1891 Died AD 1974. • He discovered that apart from the electron and proton another sub atomic particle was needed to balance the atom he called this the Neutron. Neutrons have mass but no overall charge (neutral). Louis de Broglie • French physicist. • Born AD 1892 Died AD 1987. • Nobel Prize for Physics "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons". Hermann Oberth • Led the V2 research. • Born AD 1894 Died AD ? • Wrote books on rocketry, aeronautics, space flight and Interplanetary travel. George Lemaitre • Suggested the Big Bang Theory. • Born AD 1894 Died AD 1966. • After Hubble showed evidence for an expanding universe. Lemaitre suggested this could only occur after an enormous explosion (Big Bang). Wallace Carothers • Inventor of Nylon. • Born AD 1896 Died AD 1937. • Organic chemist who first developed the process for production of Nylon. He also did the groundwork for Neoprene. John Enders • Virus culturing Microbiologist. • Born AD 1897 Died AD 1985. • He cultured the poliomyelitis virus in a test tube. He also isolated the measles virus and produced a live-virus vaccine. Otto Hahn • Father of Nuclear Chemistry. • Born AD 1897 Died AD 1968. • Discovered Protactinium and several transuranium elements. He worked on beta emission and nuclear fission and gained the Nobel prize in chemistry. Sir John Cockcroft • Transmuted Lithium into Helium. • Born AD 1897 Died AD 1967. • Built the first particle accelerator and used it to bombard Lithium. The Lithium was transmuted into Helium. He won a Nobel prize in Physics. Trofim Lysenko • Bad biologist. • Born AD 1898 Died AD 1976. • He was director of the institute of genetics in USSR. He dredged up an old theory disproved by both Darwin and Mendel. Related to giraffes necks grew long because they eat from tall trees and using this he suggested that seeds of wheat can be made to produce seeds of rye? Hans Kreb • Metabolic Cycles. • Born AD 1900 Died AD 1981. • He is best known for identifying the two important metabolic cycles called the urea and citric acid cycles. The latter is the key sequence of metabolic reactions that produce energy in cells. It is now often called the Krebs cycle. Laszlo Biro • Invented the Biro. • Born AD 1900 and Died AD 1985. • He invented a pen that contained a small metal ball at the end. This controlled the flow of ink on to the paper. Charles Richter • Made a scale for Earthquakes. • Born AD 1900 Died AD 1985. • Richter looked at the old Mercalli scale which gave useful advice to the public but was not very scientific. He came up with a scale that showed a Richter 2 Earthquake would be ten times bigger than a Richter 1. The most powerful recorded to date is a Richter 9. Ernest Lawrence • Invented the Cyclotron. • Born AD 1901 Died AD 1958. • Transmutation of elements and production of artificial radioactivity. Enabled the clinical use of neutrons in cancer therapy. Production of radioiodine for medical use. Involved in isolation of Uranium-235 used in atomic bombs. Enrico Fermi • Developed nuclear reactors. • Born AD 1901 Died AD 1954. • He is also known for contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics. Fermium is a synthetic element created in 1952 and named after him. Werner Heisenberg • Uncertainty Principle. • Born AD 1901 Died AD 1976. • He said that we cannot envisage what a atom looks like they to small. But he said it is possible to describe the atom with mathematics. He invented Matrix mechanics of the atom. He further invented an uncertainty principle that allowed him to say where the electrons might be at any point in time. Linus Pauling • Nature of the chemical bond. • Born AD 1901 Died AD 1994. • One of the first chemists to work in the field of quantum chemistry, molecular biology and orthomolecular medicine. The only man to be awarded two Nobel prizes without having to share with another recipient. Paul Dirac • Predicted existence of Antimatter. • Born AD 1902 Died AD 1984. • The Dirac equation described the behaviour of Fermions and this led to the prediction of the existence of antimatter. George Beadle • Geneticist. • Born AD 1903 Died AD 1989. • Discovered the role of genes, they regulate the biochemical pathways in cells. Walter Elsasser • Earth’s Magnetic field theory. • Born AD 1904 Died AD 1991. • Dynamo theory of the Earth’s magnetic field. It explained the permanence and secular variation of field. He studied magnetohydrodynamics and atmospheric circulation. George Beadle • American Geneticist. • Born AD 1903 Died AD 1989. • Discovered the role of genes in regulating biochemical events in cells, such as enzymatic reactions within biochemical pathways. Robert Oppenheimer • Father of the Atomic Bomb. • Born AD 1904 Died AD 1967. • Director of the Manhattan project designed to develop an atomic bomb. Later after the war became chief advisor of the united states atomic energy commission. Carl Anderson • Discovered the Positron. • Born AD 1905 Died AD 1991. • Gained Nobel prize for his work on the Positron. Fred Whipple • Comets are “Dirty Snowballs”. • Born AD 1906 Died AD 2004. • Astronomer who researched comets, meteors, solar system and Stellar evolution. He also developed the theory that comets were made of ice and rock particles like a dirty snowball. William Ewing • Geophysicist ice age theory. • Born AD 1906 Died AD 1974. • He worked on Earthquake seismology, paleoclimatology. Studies of sound propagation in oceans, ocean ridges, deep ocean marine life. He developed instruments for ocean floor monitoring. Chester Carlson • Invented the Photocopier. • Born AD 1906 Died AD 1968. • He invented the Xerox photocopier (xerography means dry writing). He used static electricity from a drum to print on paper. Philo T Farnsworth • The electronic television. • Born AD 1906 Died AD 1971. • He was best known for inventing the first completely electronic television and the first completely electronic image pickup device( video camera tube). Latter in life he invented a small nuclear fusion device called the Fusor. Frank Whittle • Invented Jet Engine. • Born AD 1906 Died AD 1996. • He forced air into the front of the engine then injected fuel and set it alight. The air expanded and rushed out of the back of the engine. Newtons 3rd Law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The jet engine thrust the plane forward. Kurt Godel • Logician, Mathematician and Philosopher. • Born AD 1906 Born AD 1978. • One of the most significant logicians of all time. He is known best for his incompleteness theories. Albert Hoffman • First to synthesize LSD. • Born AD 1906 Died AD 2008. • He is most famous for the first to synthesize, ingest and learn the psychedelic effects of LSD. He wrote a number of books including LSD my problem child. Harry Hess • Mariana Trench man. • Born AD 1906 Died AD 1969. • He discovered the Mariana Trench deepest on the Earth. Also studied submarine geology and gravity anomalies. Rachel Carson • Environmentalist who got DDT banned. • Born AD 1907 Died AD 1964. • Fish biologist who books about mans effect on the environment. Culminating in a book called the “Silent Spring” which reversed pesticide policy in America. Murray Barr • Discovered Barr bodies in cells. • Born AD 1908 Died AD 1995. He researched sex chromosome abnormalities and he developed diagnostic tests for sex chromosome-related disorders. John Wilson • Geologist who studied plates. • Born AD 1908 Died AD 1993. • He popularised continental drift ideas and developed the theory of crustal plates and plate tectonics. He discovered transform faults and the geology of ocean basins. Willard Frank Libby • Developed Carbon Dating. • Born AD 1908 Died AD 1980. • He used the properties of Carbon-14 which has a long half life. Whilst living the organism takes in C-14 until it dies. Then it loses a small amount every year. Measuring the amount of C-14 in a piece of wood tells us how old it is. John Bardeen • Invented the Transistor. • Born AD 1908 Died AD 1991. • Electricity does not pass as easily down semi-conductor as it does down a conductor. Transistors are made of semi- conductors and have remarkable properties. Without them there would be NO revolution in computers, radio or TV. Edward Tatum • Geneticist. • Born AD 1909 Died AD 1975. • He showed that genes control individual steps in metabolism. Colin Munro Macleod • Geneticist. • Born AD 1909 Died AD 1972. • He helped Avery and McCarty to discover that genes are made of DNA> They were never given a Nobel prize for their work. Jesse Greenstein • Spectroscopic Astronomer. • Born AD 1909 Died AD 2002. • He conducted a spectral analysis of stars to find out their compositions. He worked on radio astronomy, origins of elements, Interstellar magnetic fields and Quasars as a source of radio waves. Maclyn McCarty • Physician- Scientist. • Born AD 1911 Died AD 2005. • He studied infectious diseases, but he is best known for his part in the discovery that DNA rather than protein constitutes the chemical nature of genes. Melvin Calvin • Organic Chemist. • Born AD 1911 Died AD 1997. • He traced the path of carbon in the process of photosynthesis. Gained the Nobel prize in chemistry for fundamental work in organic chemistry. Lorrin Riggs • Electroretinogramist. • Born AD 1912 Died AD ? • He studied physiological nystagmus using the retinogram. Alan Turing • Invented a computer. • Born AD 1912 Died 1954. • He was a brilliant Mathematician he devised the Turing machine demonstrated his theories. It was the foundation for latter digital computers. During the war he helped to crack the Germans enigma code. Wernher von Braun • Rocket Scientist. • Born AD 1912 Died AD 1977. • He was a rocket enthusiast, Hitler made him director of Army rocket research. He helped to develop the V2. After the war he became an American citizen and worked for NASA on the giant Saturn rockets. Jonas Salk • Polio Vaccine. • Born AD 1914 Died 1995. • American biologist and physician best known for the research and development of a killed –virus polio vaccine named the “Salk Vaccine”. James van Allen • Discovered the Magnetosphere. • Born AD 1914 Died AD 2006. • He was in charge of a project that used some of von Braun captured rockets for a space experiment. He investigated cosmic rays ( high energy particles from outer space). He found space ships have be protected from the magnetosphere (Van Allen Belt) Charles Townes • Made a Maser. • Born AD 1915- • A maser is Microwave Amplification Stimulated Emission Radiation. He did this by pumping energy into a container of ammonia gas. At the same time a weak beam of Microwaves shone and produced more and more microwaves. Maurice Wilkins • X-ray diffraction of DNA. • Born AD 1916 Died AD 2004. • He measured the dimensions of DNA helix. He gained his Nobel prize in studies of light microscopy, developing the electron trap theory of phosphoescence. Francis Crick • Unravelled DNA. • Born AD 1916 Died AD 2004. • He found that DNA was a double helix made up of Nucleic acid bases. These are Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Thymine. Andrew Huxley • Physiology of Nerves. • Born AD 1917- • He explained the ionic mechanism of nerve impulses and studied muscle contraction. John Kendrew • Protein molecular biologist. • Born AD 1917 Died AD 1997. • He was the first scientist to determine structure of the protein myoglobin. It was confirmed as an alpha-helical structure. Richard Feynman • Feynman diagrams. • Born AD 1918 Died AD 1988. • He assisted on the development of the atomic bomb. He was a pioneer in the field quantum computing and introducing the concept of nanotechnology. Feynman popularised physics in the late 50’s and early 60’s. Frederick Sanger • Sequenced proteins. • Born AD 1918- • The first to determine the sequence of proteins in insulin. He deduced a method for DNA sequencing. Arthur Kornberg • Discovered DNA polymerase. • Born AD 1918 Died AD 2007. • He provided the enzymatic mechanism for the replication of DNA. He also studied Coenzyme synthesis, Nucleic acid synthesis and metabolic pathways. Owen Chamberlain • Physicist following Dirac. • Born AD 1920 Died AD 2006. • Discovered the antiproton that was predicted by Paul Dirac. Gained the Nobel prize in physics. Isaac Asimov • Popularised Science. • Born AD 1920 Died AD 1992. • He was a biochemist writer who produced hundreds of books and articles. He wrote science fiction and science fact explaining many technological advancements. Rosalind Franklin • X-ray crystallography of DNA. • Born AD 1920 Died AD 1958. • Biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer that worked on the fine detail of DNA, Viruses, Coal and Graphite. Rosalyn Yalow • Developed Radioimmunoassay. • Born AD 1921- • Won the Nobel prize for Medicine assaying Hormones, Vitamins and Enzymes by Radioimmunoassay. Chen Ning Yang • Parity in weak interactions. • Born AD 1922- • His theory about parity was not conserved in weak interactions. He experimented and show his results as evidence. This gained him a Nobel prize in physics. Patrick Moore • Presenter of the Sky at Night. • Born AD 1923- • Famous amateur astronomer who is now a legendary astronomy writer and broadcaster. Allan Cormack • CAT scanner. • Born AD 1924 Died AD 1998. • Developed Computerised Aided Tomography (CAT scan). He conducted studies in medium energy nucleus- nucleon scattering. Joshua Lederberg • Molecular biologist. • Born AD 1925 Died AD 2008. • He had interests in genetics, artificial intelligence and space exploration. He famously discovered that bacteria have a sexual phase where gene exchange takes place. This is why the bacteria can adapt and become resistant to antibiotics. Donald Glaser • Invented the Bubble chamber. • Born AD 1926- • The Bubble chamber lead to the discovery of many new elementary particles. He worked in applying physics to molecular biology. Sidney Brenner • Molecular Biologist. • Born AD 1927- • He Identified messenger RNA and elucidated about the triplet nature of the code for protein translation. Theodore Maiman • Made the first working Laser. • Born AD 1927 Died AD 2007. • He used a ruby crystal to make the laser and he was twice nominated for a Nobel prize. John S Bell • Particle physics theorist. • Born AD 1928 Died AD 1990 • he worked almost exclusively on theoretical particle physics and on accelerator design, but found time to pursue a major avocation, investigating the fundamentals of quantum theory. James Watson • Deduced double helix structure of DNA. • Born AD 1928- • Zoologist who worked with Francis Crick on DNA. Also researched into RNA and protein synthesis. Murray Gell-Mann • Theory of elementary particles. • Born AD 1929- • He proposed a law for the conservation of strangeness of particles. This was a new classification system for the eightfold particles. He also developed the theory of quarks. Roger Penrose • Theoretical physicist and mathematician. • Born AD 1931- • He produced mathematical proof of physical singularities (Big Bang). He proposed that rotating black holes lose energy at the event horizon. Walter Gilbert • Pioneer molecular biologist. • Born AD 1932- • Pioneering work devising methods for the sequencing of Nucleic acids. He worked with Allan Maxam on a new DNA sequencing technique. He proposed the term RNA world hypothesis for the origin of life. Arno Penzias • Big bang background. • Born AD 1933- • He discovered that the cosmic microwave background radiation was a relic of the big bang. Steven Weinberg • Cosmologist. • Born AD 1933- • Work in particle physics on the unification of weak and electromagnetic forces. Carlo Rubbia • Discovery of sub atomic particles. • Born AD 1934- • He observed Charmed Baryons which transmit weak force of radioactive decay. Carl Sagan • Exobiology pioneer. • Born AD 1934 Died AD 1996. • He promoted SETI (search for extra terrestrial life). He was involved in astronomy, astrochemistry and astrophysics. His famous television program The cosmos, a personal voyage popularised astronomy worldwide. Jane Goodall • Ethologist and Primatologist. • Born AD 1934- • Studied Chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Game Reserve, Tanzania, Africa. Discovered tool making and gang warfare and many other aspects of chimp behaviour. David Baltimore • Controversial Biologist • Born AD 1938- • He had a profound influence on the American National policy for the research into DNA and AIDS. Leon Kass • Bioethicist. • Born AD 1939- • Leader in effort to stop human embryonic stem cell and cloning research. Fred Vine • Geophysicist. • Born AD 1939- • One of the main contributors to the theory of Global Plate Tectonics. Ching-Wu Chu • Superconductivity. • Born AD 1941- • Established superconductivity above 90 degrees Kelvin. He also working on high pressure with low temperature, dielectrics and novel materials. Stephen Hawking • Black holes and Hawking radiation. • Born AD 1942. • He is best known for his contributions to the field of cosmology and quantum gravity. He has produced theories on singularities and made predictions about black holes and the radiation they might emit. Jocelyn Bell Burnell • Queen of Pulsars. • Born AD 1943. • This astrophysicist discovered the first radio pulsar. Craig Venter • Biologist. • Born AD 1946- • He founded The Institute for Genomic Research and was instrumental in mapping the human genome. Alain Aspect • Faster than light communication. • Born AD 1947- • His work involved photons close to absolute zero travelled faster than the normally recognised speed of light. Francis J Collins • Geneticist. • Born AD 1950- • He lead the Human Genome Project. He also discovered diseased genes. George Church • Molecular Geneticist. • Born AD 1954- • He helped initiate the Human Genome project. He invented molecular multiplexing, tags and DNA array synthesizers. Now initiated the Personal Genome Project. Matt Ridley • Zoologist and Scientific writer. • Born AD 1958- • He is the author of several popular science books including Genome and Nature by Nurture. Helen Sharman • The first British Astronaut. • Born AD 1963- • The first British astronaut to visit the Mir space station aboard a Soyuz TM-12 space rocket. She has a degree in chemistry and worked as an engineer. Maynard Olson • Geneticist. • Born AD ? • Specialised in Cystic fibrosis and was one of the architects of the world wide collaboration of the HGP.
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