CELL ANALOGY PROJECT – 3 CLASS DAYS
                            California State Standards: Cell Biology

The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that
occur in specialized areas of the organism's cells. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. Students know cells are enclosed within semi permeable membranes that regulate their interaction
with their surroundings.
c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals),
and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.
e. Students know the role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi apparatus (body) in the secretion
of proteins.
f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the
synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.
g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to
cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide.
j. * Students know how eukaryotic cells are given shape and internal organization by a cytoskeleton or
cell wall or both.
                                      Cell City Analogy Storyline

In a far away city called Grant City, the main export and production product is the steel widget.
Everyone in the town has something to do with steel widget making and the entire town is designed to
build and export widgets. The town hall has the instructions for widget making, widgets come in all
shapes and sizes and any citizen of Grant can get the instructions and begin making their own widgets.
Widgets are generally produced in small shops around the city; these small shops can be built by the
carpenter's union (whose headquarters are in town hall). After the widget is constructed, they are
placed on special carts which can deliver the widget anywhere in the city. In order for a widget to be
exported, the carts take the widget to the postal office, where the widgets are packaged and labeled for
export. Sometimes widgets don't turn out right, and the "rejects" are sent to the scrap yard where they
are broken down for parts or destroyed altogether. The town powers the widget shops and carts from a
hydraulic dam that is in the city. The entire city is enclosed by a large wooden fence, only the postal
trucks (and citizens with proper passports) are allowed outside the city.

       Use the storyline above, match the parts of the city (underlined) with the cell parts.

1. Mitochondria                                __________________________________________

2. Ribosomes                                   __________________________________________
3. Nucleus                                     __________________________________________
4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)                  __________________________________________

5. Golgi Apparatus (body)
6. Protein                                     __________________________________________
7. Cell Membrane                               __________________________________________

8. Lysosomes                                   __________________________________________

9. Nucleolus                                   __________________________________________
Activity: Create your own analogy of the cell using a different model.

                                   ANALOGY OF THE ANIMAL CELL

Objective: Students will develop an analogy on the cell based on an idea, club, team, group, etc. that
they are familiar with. Students will design a poster using their analogy as it relates to the structure and
function of an animal cell.

  - nucleus                   - ribosomes                 - nuclear membrane
 - rough ER                    - Golgi body               - lysosomes
 - smooth ER                   - mitochondria            - cell membrane
 - protein channels             - centrioles
 - vacuole

   1. Students will work in groups of three
   2. Poster dimensions: (18” x 24”) BUTCHER BLOCK PAPER
   3. Include a picture/diagram of your analogy ( can be obtained from any source or hand-drawn)
   4. Include a HAND-DRAWN picture of the organelle next to the analogy. Be CREATIVE!
   5. Briefly describe the function of your analogy and how it relates to the function of a specific
      organelle in the animal cell. The analogy should be explained in DETAIL next to the picture (2 –
      4 sentences- see example below)
   6. Each organelle can only be used once and all organelles listed above must be used in your
   7. Complete the attached questions on a separate piece of paper. ALL group members MUST turn
      in their own questions and answers.

“The lysosomes are like the garbage cans in an amusement park because the lysosomes get rid of
waste in the cell, and the garbage cans are the places where waste is deposited in an amusement

Grading will be based on the following criteria:
    Completeness
    Creativity
    Accuracy of your analogy
    Followed specific directions

DIRECTIONS: Read CH. 7 CP, CH. 4 Honors, Structure and Function of the Cell and answer the
questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Use complete sentences. You may use
diagrams or pictures to supplement your answers, but a diagram or picture alone without appropriate
discussion is inadequate.


1. Describe the structure, composition, and function of the cell membrane.

2. Describe three differences between plant and animal cells.

3. List the three ideas of the cell theory?

4. Describe two differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

5. What are the major roles of the nucleus, and what parts of the nucleus carry out these roles?

6. Explain how the nucleolus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus function together
in protein synthesis.

7. There are many kinds of ______________________________________ in cell membranes; they
help to move material into and out of the cell.

8. Means "Water Fearing" __________________________________________

9. The nucleus is surrounded by a double layer membrane called the __________________________

10. During cell division, _____________________________strands coil and condense into thick

structures called _______________________________.

11. The site where ribosomes are synthesized (made): ___________________________________

12. Each chloroplast encloses a system of flattened, membranous sacs called

13. Type of ER that has ribosomes attached to it:

14. Maintains the three-dimensional structure of animal cells:

15. Small holes in the nuclear envelope: ___________________________________.

16. The organelle that organizes the synthesis of proteins: ___________________________________

17. Long whip-like structures used for movement: _________________________________________

18. The two major components of the cytoskeleton are: ________________________and
19. Organelle in plants that stores starch or fats: ___________________________________________.

20. Protein skeleton that maintains the shape of the nucleus: _________________________________.

21. Most nuclei also contain a small spherical area called the ______________________________.

22. Organelle that converts sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into sugars: _____________________
(found only in plant cells)

23. _______________________________assist in the movement of chromosomes during cell division.

24. Organisms whose cells always contain a nucleus or nuclei are called _______________________.

25. __________________________are small structures that carry out specific functions in the cell.

26. The space between the cell membrane and the nucleus is the _____________________________.

27. Organisms whose cells never contain a nucleus are called

28. Cell membranes consist of two phospholipid layers called a _____________________________.

29. The gelatin-like aqueous fluid that organelles are bathed in: _______________________________.

30. The site of processing and packaging substances produced by the cell: _____________________.

31. Means "Water Loving" ________________________________________.

32. Means “water fearing” _______________________________.

33. Cells are limited in size by the ratio between their surface area and their _____________________.

34. Short hair-like projections found on cells, often numerous: _______________________________.

35. Site of digestion in cells, rare in plant cells: ______________________________

36. Organelle involved in the synthesis of steroids in glands and the breakdown of toxic waste:


37. The ________________________________________is the control center of the cell.

38. Inside the nuclear envelope the DNA in the form of fine strands is called


39. Not all substances can cross the cell membrane, for this reason, the cell membrane is said to be


40. Organelle that provides structure and support in plant cells: _______________________________
Group Names: _________________________________                      ____________________________________
_____________________________________________                      _____________________________________

                         EXCELLENT (3 pts.)                     GOOD (2 pts.)                     POOR (1 point)
   Organelle           Correctly identified             Picture not hand-drawn or        NO organelle identified/NO picture
                       Hand Drawn                         organelle is incorrectly
                        Clear and 100% accurate           Connection between the          Connection to a specific organelle is
   Connection       connection between the function     analogy and the organelle is                not identified
                    of the organelle and the analogy.      difficult to understand
     Analogy         Analogy is logical/makes sense.    Analogy is difficult to follow.    No analogy used for the organelle
                     IDEA clearly represented with        Unsure what the group is
                             picture/diagram                 trying to represent.
    Creativity         Well thought out ideas, well     Visually appealing. Random        The project would not be acceptable
                      organized, visually appealing,       ideas, disorganized, or         as complete. Disorganized, lacks
                             effort is evident                   incomplete                     creativity, lacks effort.

   Organelle                             Function (briefly)                                Excellent       Good          Poor
                                                                                                                      

  1. Nucleus

  2. Cell membrane

  3. Mitochondria

  4. Golgi Body

  5. Smooth E.R.

  6. Rough E.R.

  7. Lysosome

  8. Protein

  9. Ribosome

  10. Vacuole

 ***Corrected by and class period on the back/bottom of the peer assessment. Write a two – four
 sentence overall review of the project to justify your scoring. Tape final assessment on the back of
  the project***

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