The Elements _amp; Principles of Art by ewghwehws


									The Elements &
Principles of Art
     The Elements:
The basic components
used by the artist when
producing works of ART.
Those elements are
and SPACE.
(Hint: remember CFL and TVS)
COLOUR: An Element of art
  with three properties:
      (1) Hue or Tint
      (2) Intensity
      (3) Value
 Hue - The name of
any colour as found
 in its pure state in
  the spectrum or

                        Chagall, Marc
                        I and The Village
                        Oil on canvas
Intensity: the
  purity and
 strength of a
  color, e.g.,
 Bright red or
    dull red     Cezanne, Paul
                 Mont Sainte-Victoire
                 Oil on canvas
    Value in
 colour: the
 lightness or
darkness of a

                Harris, Lawren
                Lighthouse, Father Point
                Oil on canvas
Value: An element
of art that refers to
   luminance or
 luminosity — the
    lightness or
   darkness of a
                            Hiroshige, Ando

       colour.              Plum Estate, Kameido
                            From "One Hundred
                            Famous Views of Edo"
                            Woodblock print

 A value scale employing a smoothly nuanced
 gradation of values.
Line - A mark with length and
 An element of art which refers to the
 continuous mark made on some surface by a
 moving point. Types of line include: vertical,
 horizontal, diagonal, straight or ruled, curved,
 bent, angular, thin, thick or wide, interrupted
 (dotted, dashed, broken, etc.), blurred or
 fuzzy, controlled, freehand, parallel, hatching,
 meandering, and spiraling. It may be two-
 dimensional (as with pencil on paper) three-
 dimensional (as with wire) or implied (the
 edge of a shape or form).
 How many types of
 line can you see in this

Van Gogh, Vincent
Village Street and Stairs
with Figures
Oil on canvas
Shape - is an enclosed space defined and
 determined by other art elements such
   as line, colour, value, and texture.
   In painting and drawing, shapes
   may take on the appearance of
   solid 3-D object even though they
   are limited to two dimensions —
   length and width. This 2-D
   character of shape distinguishes it
   from form which has depth as well
   as length and width.
Mondrian, Piet
Composition with Large Blue Plane,   Klee, Paul
Red, Black, Yellow, and Gray         Dream City
1921                                 1921
                                     Watercolor and oil
Oil on canvas
Form also refers to an element of
art that is 3-D (height, width, and
   depth) and encloses volume.
   For example, a triangle, which is 2-D, is
   a shape, but a pyramid, which is three-
   dimensional, is a form. Cubes, spheres,
   ovoids, pyramids, cones, and cylinders
   are examples of various forms.
King Menkaure and a Queen
Fourth Dynasty, reign of Menkaure
Graywacke with faint remains of paint
Height: 139 cm (54 3/4 in)
Width: 57 cm (22 1/2 in)
Depth: 54 cm (21 1/4 in)

                  Greek Column with
                  Ionic capital
 Texture - An element of art,
texture is the surface quality
  or "feel" of an object, its
  smoothness, roughness,
        softness, etc.
Textures may be actual or simulated.
Actual textures can be felt with the
fingers, while simulated textures are
suggested by an artist in the painting of
different areas of a picture — often in
representing drapery, metals, rocks,
hair, etc.
                            Thomson, Tom
                            The West Wind
                            Oil on canvas
Oppenheim, Meret
Object (Swiss, 1913-1985)
Space - refers to the distance
  or area between, around,
   above, below, or within
 It can be described as 2-D or 3-D; as flat,
 shallow, or deep; as open or closed; as positive
 or negative
                                         Piero della Francesca
                                         Montefeltro Altarpiece
                                         Oil on panel

                                                                  Green Stripe (Madame Matisse)
                                                                  Oil and tempera on canvas

                                             Violet shapes occupy positive spaces,
                                             but a negative space between them forms a square.
3-D space represented on a 2-D surface
  Principles of art - Certain
  qualities inherent in the
 choice and arrangement of
    elements of art in the
production of a work of art.
Artists “design" their works
   to varying degrees by
controlling and ordering the
       elements of art.
    In other words, the
Principles are the blueprint
   artist uses to put the
elements (building blocks)
 There are varying lists of what the
    principles are, but these are
                     Variety (Contrast)
                     Dominance (Emphasis)
(ok, to help remember I made up this ridiculous sentence:
                U V Rays Damage Mostly Blondes)
The quality of wholeness or oneness that is
achieved through the effective use of the
elements and principles of design. A totality
that combines all of its parts into one
complete, cohesive whole.
How has the artist created a sense of unity in
               this painting?

                                            A Sunday
                                            Afternoon on
                                            the Island of La
                                            Grande Jatte
                                            Oil on canvas
A principle of design that refers to a way of
combining elements in involved ways to
achieve intricate and complex relationships.
Variety is often obtained through the use of
diversity and change by artists who wish to
increase the visual interest of their work. An
artwork which makes use of many different
hues, values, lines, textures, and shapes
would reflect the artist's desire for variety.
In what ways does
   this painting
represent variety?

Matisse, Henri
Interior with an
Egyptian Curtain
Oil on canvas
A visual tempo or beat. The principle of
design that refers to a regular repetition of
elements of art to produce the look and feel
of movement. It is often achieved through the
careful placement of repeated components
which invite the viewer's eye to jump rapidly
or glide smoothly from one to the next.
What elements
contribute to a
sense of rhythm in
this sculpture?
Gaudi, Antonio
Park Güell
Alchemic salamander
Dominance (Emphasis)
Any forcefulness that gives importance or
weight to some feature or features of an
artwork…often, emphasized elements are
used to direct and focus attention on the most
important parts of a composition — its focal
What is the focal
  point of this
 piece? How is
your eye drawn

Kahlo, Frida
Oil on canvas
The arrangement of the parts of an image
to create a sense of motion by using lines,
shapes, forms, and textures that cause the
eye to move over the work.
 What elements
create a sense of
movement in this

Degas, Edgar
Ecole de danse
Oil on canvas
The way the elements of art are arranged to
create a feeling of stability in a work; a
pleasing or harmonious arrangement or
proportion of parts or areas in a design or
        Balance can be symmetrical, or formal; or it can be
         asymmetrical, or informal. It can also be radial.
    Can you tell which
    is which?

                                       Leonardo da Vinci
                                       The Last Supper
                                       after cleaning
                                       Tempera on plaster

James Abbott McNeill Whistler          Rose Window
Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1:   Notre Dame Cathedral
Portrait of the Artist’s Mother        1345
1871, oil on canvas          
 Information taken from

photos from unless
 otherwise indicated

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