THE NAPOLEONIC ERA

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					THE NAPOLEONIC
      ERA
               NAPOLEON
 Born in Corsica to minor nobility.
 Not a great student, but had a great
  memory.
    – Could remember maps, cannons,
      weaknesses, etc.
   Became one of youngest generals ever.
    – Soldiers grew to idolize him => success.
   Hated mob violence.
    – After killing hundreds he once quoted “ I
      put down the rebels with a whiff of
      grapeshot”
        NAPOLEON’S WIVES
JOSEPHINE – 1st wife.
 - she was broke & married Napoleon for money.
       (Napoleon had no $)
 - he married an aristocrat for the prestige.
 - distrust and failure to give birth to a son
     led to divorce.
   Marie-Louise
                                                              Josephine
                             Marie-Louise – Austrian princess.
                              - niece of Marie Antoinette.
                              - gave birth to Napoleon’s son.


                                 NOTE – Napoleon still went to Josephine
                                        for advice.
     NAPOLEON’S CAMPAIGNS
ITALY
Italy was under Austrian rule and wanted the old glory
 days of the Roman Empire back. Napoleon promised
the Italians freedom if they helped defeat the Austrians.

After defeating Austria, Napoleon set up new French controlled Republics.
       - broke his promise of Italian freedom:
       - Fr. stole the Italian valuables.
       - paid his soldiers with Italian $.
       - Napoleon became rich from Italian goods.




Napoleon’s Italian Lire                               Napoleon crossing the Alps
    NAPOLEON’S CAMPAIGNS
       EGYPT
REASONS TO TAKE EGYPT
  – French army was having great success.
  – Cut Britain off from trade (India).
  – French gov’t happy to have Napoleon “out of
    the way.”
 RESULTS
      - beat Egypt, but lost to the British.
      - Napoleon abandoned his army &
              escaped back to France.
      - hid the truth & his popularity
              soared in France.
      NAPOLEON’S CAMPAIGNS
    HAITI
   – French colony taken over by the
      English in 1793.
   – Slaves worked to produce sugar, coffee,
     cocoa, & cotton.
   – Hard conditions – 10 yr. lifespan.
   – Napoleon wanted to take it back from British.
   – Haitian leaders had to decide to fight for or
     against the French.
         Would you trust Napoleon?????
            – Lied in Italy!?!?
            – Declaration of the Rights of Man = freedom.

RESULTS – Haitians trusted Napoleon.                        Toussaint L’Ouverture
                                                            Led the slave revolt & eventually
     - Napoleon won & did not free slaves.                  Would gain Haitian independence
          NAPOLEON’S REFORMS
 Rid France of the Directory and became
  “First Consul”.
 Napoleonic Code – unified French laws.
 Created Freedoms => equality, property,
  choice of work, etc.
     – Women lost right under the code.
 Public works => roads, harbours, museums,
  schools.
 Low food prices.
 Tariffs to protect French goods.

    PROBLEM – Did not create a strong French economy.
        - most of France’s wealth was stolen from other countries.
      NAPOLEON THE EMPEROR
 1804 Napoleon crowned himself
  ‘Emperor of France’ => dictatorship.
 Established a secret police force.
 Censorship (media, laws, education)



    MADAME DE STAEL – one of the few
    people who criticized Napoleon and got
    away with it. She was too popular for
    Napoleon to just throw aside. Eventually,
    he did manage to run her out of France.
  NAPOLEON AND EUROPE
                                      Napoleon placed family in
                                      charge of Italy, Naples,
                                      Spain, Sweden, Germany,
                                      & Holland. Russia, Austria,
                                      & Prussia kept their rulers
                                      but became Napoleon’s
                                      allies. In all of Europe,
                                      only Britain remained
                                      independent.



Napoleon knew that his power came from military victories.
       By 1812, he had control of most of Europe.
 PROBLEM – Napoleon could never defeat Britain who
   was willing to help anyone who opposed the French.
                France vs. Britain
 In 1805, Napoleon tried to invade Britain,
  but Lord Nelson captured his entire navy.
 Napoleon imposed the “Continental System.”
    – Forbade anyone to trade with Britain.                Lord Nelson
   PROBLEM – France had no navy to enforce.
    – Backfired =>Britain imposed trade block against France.
    – Britain prevented USA ships from going to France.
    – One reason for War of 1812.
                                               The Continental System




              The British Navy
NAPOLEON AND EUROPE
THE RISE OF NATIONALISM
 (The belief that one’s own country is the best)
      THE RISE OF NATIONALISM
         (The belief that one’s own country is the best)
   FRANCE                           Nationalism can also be used to
    – Loved the ideas of the          split nations. (Quebec???)
      revolution.                    SPAIN – resented the fact that the
    – Declaration of the Rights       French ruled over them.
                                      – Viewed Napoleon as a tyrant.
      of Independence.
                                      – Britain would help the Spanish.
    – Shared common language,
      culture, & history.            RUSSIA – once an ally, Russia no
                                      longer trusted Napoleon.
    – Napoleon used
                                      – Broke Continental System.
      Nationalism to unify his
                                      – Napoleon declared war.
      people.
                                      – Employed the ‘run and burn’
                                        strategy.
                                      – Proved to be the ‘beginning of the
                                        end’ for Napoleon
     ABDICATION AND EXILE
   Nationalism prevailed and Napoleon’s forces
    were defeated.
     – Napoleon exiled to Elba.
     – Louis XVI’s brother, Louis XVIII => = king.                         Louis XVIII
     – Louis XVIII was not popular (Divine Right).


   The Hundred Days – Napoleon returned to regain
    control.
     – Supported by the Bonapartists.
     – Managed to enlist over 300 000 soldiers to fight the                  Napoleon
       British.

   The Battle of Waterloo
     – Lasted an entire day and 50 000 soldiers died.
     – Napoleon gambled everything and lost. Duke of Wellington defeated
       Napoleon and his career was over.
                                                                           Duke of Wellington
     Napoleon was exiled to Saint Helena – Died in 1821.
         CONGRESS OF VIENNA
   Britain, Russia, Austria, & Prussia divided up Napoleon’s
    Empire.
    – France kept its original borders.
    – Britain took all France’s overseas colonies.Belgium and Holland =
      a new Kingdom.             Congress of Vienna Map of 1815
    – Italy was given
      back to Austria.

 Tried to establish a
“Balance of Power.”


 Would lead to
   WWI.

				
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