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THE NAPOLEONIC ERA NAPOLEON Born in Corsica to minor nobility. Not a great student, but had a great memory. – Could remember maps, cannons, weaknesses, etc. Became one of youngest generals ever. – Soldiers grew to idolize him => success. Hated mob violence. – After killing hundreds he once quoted “ I put down the rebels with a whiff of grapeshot” NAPOLEON’S WIVES JOSEPHINE – 1st wife. - she was broke & married Napoleon for money. (Napoleon had no $) - he married an aristocrat for the prestige. - distrust and failure to give birth to a son led to divorce. Marie-Louise Josephine Marie-Louise – Austrian princess. - niece of Marie Antoinette. - gave birth to Napoleon’s son. NOTE – Napoleon still went to Josephine for advice. NAPOLEON’S CAMPAIGNS ITALY Italy was under Austrian rule and wanted the old glory days of the Roman Empire back. Napoleon promised the Italians freedom if they helped defeat the Austrians. After defeating Austria, Napoleon set up new French controlled Republics. - broke his promise of Italian freedom: - Fr. stole the Italian valuables. - paid his soldiers with Italian $. - Napoleon became rich from Italian goods. Napoleon’s Italian Lire Napoleon crossing the Alps NAPOLEON’S CAMPAIGNS EGYPT REASONS TO TAKE EGYPT – French army was having great success. – Cut Britain off from trade (India). – French gov’t happy to have Napoleon “out of the way.” RESULTS - beat Egypt, but lost to the British. - Napoleon abandoned his army & escaped back to France. - hid the truth & his popularity soared in France. NAPOLEON’S CAMPAIGNS HAITI – French colony taken over by the English in 1793. – Slaves worked to produce sugar, coffee, cocoa, & cotton. – Hard conditions – 10 yr. lifespan. – Napoleon wanted to take it back from British. – Haitian leaders had to decide to fight for or against the French. Would you trust Napoleon????? – Lied in Italy!?!? – Declaration of the Rights of Man = freedom. RESULTS – Haitians trusted Napoleon. Toussaint L’Ouverture Led the slave revolt & eventually - Napoleon won & did not free slaves. Would gain Haitian independence NAPOLEON’S REFORMS Rid France of the Directory and became “First Consul”. Napoleonic Code – unified French laws. Created Freedoms => equality, property, choice of work, etc. – Women lost right under the code. Public works => roads, harbours, museums, schools. Low food prices. Tariffs to protect French goods. PROBLEM – Did not create a strong French economy. - most of France’s wealth was stolen from other countries. NAPOLEON THE EMPEROR 1804 Napoleon crowned himself ‘Emperor of France’ => dictatorship. Established a secret police force. Censorship (media, laws, education) MADAME DE STAEL – one of the few people who criticized Napoleon and got away with it. She was too popular for Napoleon to just throw aside. Eventually, he did manage to run her out of France. NAPOLEON AND EUROPE Napoleon placed family in charge of Italy, Naples, Spain, Sweden, Germany, & Holland. Russia, Austria, & Prussia kept their rulers but became Napoleon’s allies. In all of Europe, only Britain remained independent. Napoleon knew that his power came from military victories. By 1812, he had control of most of Europe. PROBLEM – Napoleon could never defeat Britain who was willing to help anyone who opposed the French. France vs. Britain In 1805, Napoleon tried to invade Britain, but Lord Nelson captured his entire navy. Napoleon imposed the “Continental System.” – Forbade anyone to trade with Britain. Lord Nelson PROBLEM – France had no navy to enforce. – Backfired =>Britain imposed trade block against France. – Britain prevented USA ships from going to France. – One reason for War of 1812. The Continental System The British Navy NAPOLEON AND EUROPE THE RISE OF NATIONALISM (The belief that one’s own country is the best) THE RISE OF NATIONALISM (The belief that one’s own country is the best) FRANCE Nationalism can also be used to – Loved the ideas of the split nations. (Quebec???) revolution. SPAIN – resented the fact that the – Declaration of the Rights French ruled over them. – Viewed Napoleon as a tyrant. of Independence. – Britain would help the Spanish. – Shared common language, culture, & history. RUSSIA – once an ally, Russia no longer trusted Napoleon. – Napoleon used – Broke Continental System. Nationalism to unify his – Napoleon declared war. people. – Employed the ‘run and burn’ strategy. – Proved to be the ‘beginning of the end’ for Napoleon ABDICATION AND EXILE Nationalism prevailed and Napoleon’s forces were defeated. – Napoleon exiled to Elba. – Louis XVI’s brother, Louis XVIII => = king. Louis XVIII – Louis XVIII was not popular (Divine Right). The Hundred Days – Napoleon returned to regain control. – Supported by the Bonapartists. – Managed to enlist over 300 000 soldiers to fight the Napoleon British. The Battle of Waterloo – Lasted an entire day and 50 000 soldiers died. – Napoleon gambled everything and lost. Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon and his career was over. Duke of Wellington Napoleon was exiled to Saint Helena – Died in 1821. CONGRESS OF VIENNA Britain, Russia, Austria, & Prussia divided up Napoleon’s Empire. – France kept its original borders. – Britain took all France’s overseas colonies.Belgium and Holland = a new Kingdom. Congress of Vienna Map of 1815 – Italy was given back to Austria. Tried to establish a “Balance of Power.” Would lead to WWI.
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