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					        CTA        FARMERS VOI
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in "spain-zaragoza water -expo " video conference


Message from the Chairman
Message from the CEO

KENFAP staff capacity building in Israel

                                                                   Cover Story
                                                           Rising global food prices
KENFAP Champion Farmers ' Interests at
the Prime Minister's round table,

Rising global food prices brings opportun -
ities for improving food sovereignty and
economic development in africa

Every drop of water counts: KENFAP
Participates in "Spain-Zaragoza water
                                                           KENFAP engaged the Government
-Expo" video conference                                    in Coffee Marketing Policy

KENFAP engaged the government in
coffee marketing policy yields benefits to
smallholder coffee farmers

Youth empowerment programmes
between NAJK and KENFAP

GENDER                                                     Youth empowerment Programmes
Women as key producers                                iq

Farmers concerns on climate change



                                 .                                    FARMERS VOICE
           EDT TÔR1Afe
Welcome to the twelfth edition of the Farmer's Voice Magazine.
The issue on rising global food prices has been discussed in
many international, regional and national forums. All actors
involved in ensuring food sovereignty globally, are looking for
ways to address the issue. Farmers have not been engaged to
grasp and understand the causes of the raising food prices for
them to put in adaptive measures to cope with these changes.
This issue of the farmers' voice magazine therefore highlights on
the causes, threats and the opportunities there of, on the rising
global food prices to enable the farmers to put in measures to
adjust to the food crisis and improve economic development in
the country.
                                                                             Editorial Committee
The federation continues to ensure timely intervention in
the resolution of issues affecting or those likely to affect the
                                                                                    Lucy Mwangi
agricultural sector. In light of this, KENFAP delivered the                        Peter Mwangi
National Farmers Resolutions to the government through the
                                                                                 George Odhiambo
National Business Agenda held on 5th August. This was then
followed by a courtesy call to the Minister for Agriculture, on the               Rogier Huijmans
14th of August. This issue highlights the details of the forum                     Anita Msabeni
and informs on the various commitments by the government to
support the agricultural sector and the farming community in
                                                                                  Daphne Muchai
general.                                                                          Edward Kateiya
                                                                                  Janet Ngombalu
Use of Innovative technology and ICT for agricultural
development has being promoted as one of the avenues to ensure
farmers continue to be informed and engaged in development                        Contributors:
and benefit from agricultural activities. The zaragoza Video
Conference exhibition was held in Nairobi in August, which                       Fabian Kaburu M.
involved representatives from various Africa Countries, to show                      Isaya Sijali
case various way to conserve and manage water at all levels.
This issues of the magazine, shows how ICT is used to support
in management and conservation of water as demonstrated in                        Compiled by:
the workshop.                                                                     Janet Ngombalu
The Farmers Voice magazine ensures that youth and women
are engaged in redressing issues on environment, H1V/AIDs                             Editor
and Gender. This issue highlights on a joint initiative by the
                                                                                  Janet Ngombalu
youth involved in agriculture from Kenya and the Netherlands,
share experiences and work together to ensure involvement of
youth agricultural activities. On the other hand, women are the                Design and layout
main agricultural producers and play a role in ensuring food
security. This issue shows how women continue to get involved                 Dimar Communications.
in agricultural production despite the obstacles facing the
                                                                                Funding partner
Farmers are raising concerns on climate change, as they bare the       Technical Centre for Agricultural and
brunt of the effects of climate change on agricultural production.            Rural Cooperation (CTA)
Farmers continue to engage in agriculture but production has
been on the decline for the past several years. Kenya is mainly
an agro-based economy, so with adverse effects on agriculture                       Publisher
attributed to climate change, many stakeholders are demanding
                                                                      Kenya National Federation of Agricultural
information to assist in adaptation and mitigation to climate
change. Read more on the issues on "Our Environment, to learn                        Producers
more on how we all need to be involved in curbing issues of               P.O. Box 43148, 00100, Nairobi
climate change.

We look forward to providing informed, balanced information                         Printed by
sharing on the agriculture arena.
                                                                              Dimar Communications.
Janet Ngombalu

 '                                                               4t'litaERS IN KENYA
         espite Agriculture being a dominant sector in             Access to credit Access to financing is a serious
         Kenya, contributing 25% of GDP directly and

D        another 27% indirectly through linkages with
         manufacturing and service sectors, and 45% of
government revenue and 75% of industrial raw materials
                                                                   problem for farmers in Kenya. The poorer regions are
                                                                   found to have very few banks. Where credit facilities are
                                                                   available from the few banks, lack of collateral and bankable
                                                                   projects seem to be major bottlenecks to accessing financial
in addition to creating employment opportunities to                capital. Demand for micro finance is very high, but formal
about 77% of the population (GoK 2003; MOALD 2002),                financial institutions perceive smallholder farmers to be
many key factors hinder growth of                                                   highly risky and are unwilling to absorb
the agricultural sector.The following                                               high transaction costs associated with
challenges that inter-play with each                                                processing and managing loans.
other thereby contributing to the
current poor state of the agriculture                                              Land tenure systems Land plays a
sector must be addressed.                                                          vital role in the development of agriculture
                                                                                   sector as a determinant of investment
LOW productivity The production                                                    activities. Access and ownership systems
of food crops has been on the decline                                              determine the level of development of the
due to a number of factors including                                               sector. In Kenya land ownership is skewed
land subdivision, poor soils, unreliable                                           leading to high level of inequality and
weather, high post-harvest losses, low                                             Land reforms have always been political in
level of input use, globalization and                                              nature Farmers as key stakeholder should
liberalization of the sector that has led to                                       be involved in development of legal and
increased level of imports of food items.                                          regulatory framework aimed at attracting
                                                                                   more investment to the sector.
Poor infrastructure Agricultural
development entails development of                 Mr. Nduati Kariuki,
rural areas. The infrastructural network                                           Subsidies in developed countries
                                                   National Chairman               Farmers in developed countries receive
including rural access roads, rural
electricity, irrigation facilities, health                                         subsidies which lowers their production
facilities, telephone systems, market centers, storage          costs hence there products are able to compete fairly in the
and processing facilities etc enhances performance              export market whereas produce from the country is usually
of agricultural production and marketing activities.            more expensive due to high costs of production and this
Unfortunately infrastructure in many agricultural               has made it impossible for kenya to compete favorably in
producing regions is poorly developed making some areas         the international market.
completely in accessible and these leads to a lot of waste
of produce and also increases production cost which             Conclusion
impacts negatively to the farmers profits.                      The above areas can effectively be addressed through
                                                                partnership between the public and private sector. Farmers
                                                                in the region constitute a great portion of the private sector.
Poor marketing systems Marketing of farm
produce is mainly skewed as farmers are reduced to price        They require partnership to: -
'takers' and not 'givers'. Due to lack of clear government      • Support increased investment in agriculture
policies on marketing it is the middlemen/brokers               • Ensure improved market access to developed country
who determine how much to pay the farmers who lack                 markets and the creation of predictable, transparent
information on marketing driven by supply and demand               and fair trade rules within the overall framework of a
hence the farmer ends up losing whereas the middlemen              level playing field
reaps the benefits. Where the government buys from the          • Promote agro-processing industries with local entrepren
farmers the payments are usually delayed.                          Burs in order to add value to agricultural produce and
                                                                   overcome some of the obstacles to market access posed
Limited ICT usage Currently agriculture sector                     by export of fresh agricultural products such as pest
has the lowest level of ICT investment compared to                 risk assessments which are costly and can take many
manufacturing and service sectors leading to high levels of        years to accomplish.
exploitation of the producers and low level of participation     • Enhance research and technology in order to access
in decision-making.Farmers are also not able to access the         new and improved technologies and harnessing water
latest information on new technologies e.g crop varieties,         resources through irrigation to ensure all year round
 pest and disease control and also market information and          crop production.
 this has led farmers to miss on some important information      • Increase use of Information, Communication and Tech
 as they are not able to keep pace with the ever changing          nology in agriculture
 production requirements.                                        • Modernize and upgrade rural and regional infrastruc
                                                                   ture to facilitate quicker and cost effective delivery of
 Value addition and post harvest losses our                        inputs as well as transportation of produce to local,
 farmers are disadvantaged in that most of our produce is          national, regional and international markets
 sold as raw without adding value to it at low prices and this   • Streamlining logistics to reduce costs and improve
 has reduced the income from agricultural produce. There is         competitiveness
 a lot of post harvest loss because farmers produce a lot at     • Build Capacity in terms of development of skills and
 the same time and demand shrinks, where farmers are not            expertise; understanding developed country markets
 able to sell and lack the skills to store there produce either     and how to do business in these markets
 through value adding then they incur a lot of losses.           • Support entrepreneurial development in the agricuitur
                                                                    al sector; forging partnerships and linkages at the
                                                                    marketing and investment levels between players in the
 Input acquisition          Farmers do not have easy access
                                                                    region and those in developing country markets
 to inputs such as improved seeds, farm machinery, agro
 chemicals, and fertilizers as the prices of major farm          • Strengthen producer's organizations i.e institutional
 inputs are usually high and consequently increase the cost         and organizations development.
 of production and lowers farm income.

                                                                          EXECUTIVE MESSAGES

          eware oh you, the developing world! The       time realized the power of grouping and negotiating
          super prefects are at it again.     A few     as a block. They have finally started to exercise
          decades ago, the tool of power and control    their rights, the right to sovereignty, the right to
          was the support, support especially to        co-existence and respect for the opinion, vote and
some of you who seek for budgetary                                      position.    They have realized the
support from the mighty two (the                                        power of regional groupings and
World Bank, and IMF). The theory                                        that of believing in the performance
turned practice of super control came                                   of their markets. Yes, the power to
in through the operationalization of                                    do it themselves.
the globalization concept and the
ensuing imposition of the structural                                    Lets focus a bit at the recent
adjustment programmes.           As if                                  developments       and    implications
destroying our institutional fabric                                     to both those developing and the
was not enough, the super prefects                                      developed.      Climate change for
demanded for strict adherence of                                        instance affects everyone.         But
the international trade obligations,                                    the worst hit will be hundreds of
under yet another of their domains                                      millions of smallholder farmers.
-- The World Trade Organizations.                                       fishers and forest dependent people
Then followed the control; you                                          who are already vulnerable and
                                           Dr. John Mutunga,
cannot get a loan unless you fulfill                                    food insecure (FAO 2008). Indeed,
so many conditions. By the way, I
                                                     CEO                by affecting the availability of land
am addressing acquisition of a loan                                     water and biodiversity and the price
whose repayment formula is crafted in such a way        of food, the rising demand for bio-fuels produced
that poor countries will never complete paying. Am      from food crops has great impact on the poor. Such
also made to believe that even if a country wants       a scenario definitely calls for resource mobilization
to pay off the amount its owing at once, the rules      to put together and realize mechanisms to counter
governing the loan portfolio do not permit that.        effects of climate change. I am talking of the need
Then one wonders whether the intention is to help       for consolidation and effective management of such
or to sustain in bondage.                               resources.

Developing countries have been subjected to all           At the international arena, some efforts are underway
sorts of difficulties, which sometimes leave some         to cause the rich to contribute to the process. As it
of us wondering whether the intention is really           is common knowledge, the rich have and are richly
to grow their economies or sustain them under             contributing to the climate change mothering all the
duress. Through the difficulties and as is natural,       effects. However, instead of approaching the aspect
they have learnt to cope. Cope to such an extent          of availing such resources as response to obligations
that some have actually entered the intermediate          they pretend to do a favour to the poor. Well, the
stage of countries in transition. One cannot help         poor suffer, this time around not because of their
imagining such economies are headed for greater           state but because the rich have so decided and
performance, grown out of conditioning and                obligated to. It is time to demand for compensation
requisite acclimatization. The bitter realization by      by the poor. We have contributed very little to the
the power brokers that, despite the unprecedented         depletion of the ozone layer, that has mothered the
delays and forced adoptions, some economies               extreme weather fluctuations. Those who have been
have actually grown. That patriots have upheld to         at the lead in causing the destruction ought to pay.
supporting their course to prosperity oblivious of the    We therefore owe no one any apology to demand
determined containment. That the power is slowly          that climate change causes should be tagged to
and surely dying out, the hold is slowly slipping off,    compensatory payments towards containing the
that the "odd" formula has somehow worked out             situation. We are not speaking for donor assistance
for the better; is a very unfortunate casting. One        here, but demanding compensation for deliberate
leading scientist recently said that due realization is   wrongs.
slowly downing onto the controllers and the means
to maintain the grip is fading fast and that the          The other lethal dimension is that the rich know it
exercise of controls will no longer work.                 too well that they ought to be obligated. From their
                                                          devil's workshops emerge formulae addressing the
Need I give examples of lost control or gained            compensatory modalities. That all such resources
prominence on either side of the divide. Look at          ought to be consolidated and passed on to the big
the continuously failed WTO negotiations!! I tend         two - the super prefects. Then I ask, shall we have
to believe that most developing countries have over       climate change adaptations and mitigation measures

given the universal non-discriminate attention, or           condemned to the details, I dare you re-examine the
shall we revert to the control and manipulation?.            five principles of the aid effectiveness in terms of
I might not be very sure of the former but the               the hidden meaning without exploring their stated
latter is most likely as a preferred state of affairs.       interpretations, I will list down the five as follows
And why do I say that?. May you be informed
that efforts are underway to entrust the supper              •   Ownership: Developing countries will exercise
controller with the resource management portfolio                effective leadership over their development poli
which I call re-empowering in our most understood                cies and strategies, and will coordinate develop
terms. We demand for decentralization of resources               ment actions.
towards redressing effects of climate change. We             •   Alignment: Donor countries will base their over
demand for freedom to engage bilaterally and/or                  all support on recipient countries' national deve
multilaterally as a matter of choice on options and              lopment strategies, institutions, and producers:
not in fulfillment of any sort of .condition. For the        •   Harmonization: Donor countries will work so
World Bank and IMF to control such resources, we                 that their actions are more harmonized, trans-
will be asking for more problems than solutions, in              parent and collectively effective;
the developing world perspective.                            •   Managing for Results; All countries will mana
                                                                 age resources and improve decision-making for
                                                                 results; and
                                                             •   Mutual Accountability: Donor and developing
                                                                 countries pledge that they will be mutually
                                                                 accountable for development results.

                                                             My interpretation and I hope you can also see it
                                                             that way is that the principles could be used to
                                                             lock up support to developing countries once more.
                                                             That makes one wonder whether the genesis and
                                                             progressive popularization of the declaration is not
                                                             aimed at something sinister. We, the purported
                                                             recipients ought to be careful, else we are trapped
                                                             in the manipulation circles once again. You are
                                                             wondering how? Supposing the super prefects are
                                                             given the oversight role of ensuring adherence to the
                                                             principles, how long will it be taking for countries
    Dr. Mutunga (Chairing the session), Prof.                especially those requiring budget support from
     Yano, the Director of the South Centre
                                                             donor funding, to get things sorted out? What are
   and Mr. Aksel (the coordinator) during an                 the likely controls that may arise to ensure that
   International MaB Annul General Meeting                   effectiveness serves the donors as opposed to the
                                                             recipients, who actually, at the moment is required
On the other hand, in september 2008, about 800              to meet conditions. Simply put, are the conditions
delegates met in Accra - Ghana to discuss the three          moderating the giver on an equal stance as the
year old Paris declaration on Aid effectiveness. The         given? Why then, even with the signed declaration.
third high level forum (HLF-3) concerned itself with         do we have the domestic (to the donor) conditions
monitoring of the extent of implementation of the            imposed on the recipients? Are we not seeing a
Paris Declaration. To this end I will speak from the         clear possibility of garnering much more control
civil society platform. An almost equal number of            and manipulation through harmonized rules and
CSO representatives met earlier in the same West             regulations? Doesn't the process tie up even those
African country capital to develop a position to the         `good' partners - such as the Nordic/Scandinavian
HLF-3. A longer term consultative process had                countries most of who have actually released their
been on and only refinement of such a position was           0.7% of their budget to the Official Development
undertaken. The large number of CSO met, not to              Assistance Kitty? Are we not looking for a sure way
effectively mirror the government delegates but to           of exercising control? Lets be more careful now,
refine their paper to the HLF-3 because only about           than ever before. Have a careful day!
one tenth of them managed to survive the vetting
process for participation in the high level forum.
                                                             Dr. John K. Mutunga is an Environmental
The gist of the mater is not the numerical                   Scientist, heading the National Federation of
representation, nor the value of the entire                  Agricultural Producers. At the international
undertaking. It is the focus of the HLC-3 and the            level. Dr. Mutunga represents Eastern and
possible effects of an unfavourable outcome. I dare          Southern Africa as a member of the International
regard some outcome unfavourable on the basis of             Coordinating Committee of the More and Better
their short and longer-term effects. As the devil is         Aid for Agriculture Network.


By Paul Ndonga

     n March 2008, four (4) KENFAP staff
     members attended an International

I    Course on Enterprise Promotion,
     Empowerment      and     Sustainable
Human Development in Rural Africa
organized by MASHAV, the Centre for
International Cooperation of the Israel
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem,
and held at Negev Institute for Strategies
of Peace and Development (NISPED) at
Beer Sheva Southern Israel for about a
month. This course was enabled courtesy
of the collaboration between KENFAP
and Swedish Cooperative Centre (SCC),
Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi.
                                             KENFAP staff visited the hanging grape garden at Netafim
                                             Green House farm in Israel .
The Institute serves as:
• The International Centre for
Cooperative Studies
• The International Centre for the Promotion of           which require similar support systems and a similar
  Small and Medium Enterprises                            enabling environment. The course drew on the Israel
• The Arab Jewish Centre for Equality, Empowerment        rural development experience as well as examples
  and Cooperation                                         of international best practice and analyzed systems
                                                          developed in terms of their adaptability to the
                                                                                  countries of the participants.

    One of the highest achievements                                              The field visits show cased
                                                                                 some of the complex farms
    in Israel is that Poverty has been                                           and processing plants, e.g.
                                                                                 Carrot,   Potatoes,    Seeds,
    eliminated in the Rural Areas through                                        Dairy and Cultural Museums
                                                                                 and the Holy Sites of the Old
    their social collaborative cooperatives                                      and New Testaments of the
    called Kibbutz.                                                              Bible.

                                                                                  One      of    the    highest
                                                                                  achievements in Israel is
The course covered various areas of Agricultural          that Poverty has been eliminated in the Rural Areas
development,    e.g.   Collaborative Cooperatives,        through their social collaborative cooperatives called
Contribution of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises       Kibbutz. This achievement demonstrates what role
(SMEs), Leadership and Entrepreneurship in                resource commitment and effective leadership,
Cooperative context, Training, Consultation and           competence governance and an engaged society can
Information Services for Coops/SMEs, Promoting            play in the strategy to eradicate poverty, mostly in
Entrepreneurship among Rural Women, Role of               the rural areas. The approach being practiced in
Cooperatives and SMEs in developing rural regions,        Israel has galvanized the food production and may
Managing Local, Regional and Specialized Small            be practiced in Kenya where farmers/government is
Business Development Centres (SBDCs), Community           still fighting poverty.
Development etc.

The course addressed the human empowerment                Paul Ndonga is KENFAP's Programmes
and enterprise development in Rural Africa through        Assistant/Personnel and Welfare
promotion of a number of business models all of

By Edward Kateiya                                          NBA was launched and the meeting was attended
                                                           by the Prime Minister, 2 Deputy Prime ministers
KENFAP delivered National Farmers' Resolutions             16 Government Ministers, Assistant Ministers,
passed on 14th December 2007 to the government of          19 Permanent Secretaries, Heads of Government
Kenya through National Business Agenda. National           Parastatals, Commissioner of police and top Private
business agenda (NBA) is an advocacy platform              sector Executives among other dignitaries.
coordinated under Kenya private sector Alliance
(KEPSA). It consolidates private sector issues into        The Ministries represented at the half day event were:
one major Agenda cutting across all sectors of the         Office of the Prime Minister, Ministry of Finance,
economy in Kenya. This entails business member             Ministry of Local Government, Ministry of Energy,
organization (BMOs) identifying key priority areas,        Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Lands, Ministry of
and work together with Government to find practical        Labor and Human Resource Development, Ministry
solutions to the identified issues.                        of National Cohesion, Justice and Constitutional
                                                           Affairs, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Internal
The engagement involves quarterly Prime Minister's         Security and Provincial Administration, Ministry
Round Table meeting between Key Ministries and             of Transport, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of
twice a year with the President of the Republic of         Information and Communication, Ministry of East
Kenya. The Prime Minister Round Table is a forum           African Community, Ministry of Nairobi Metropolitan
organized to facilitate private sector engagement          Development, Ministry of Roads, Ministry of Trade,
with the government to provide an enabling Business        Ministry of State for Public Service and the Ministry
Environment to enhance economic growth and                 of Industrialization
development of the country by removing bottlenecks
hindering business.                                        The BMOs Identified Key priority issues affecting
                                                           business in Kenya and proposed for joint commit
The engagement is a joint effort driven by public          with the government for practical solutions.
and private sector partnership geared to develop a
strong and accountable commitment by Government            These issues include;
Ministers and Private Sector Leaders to work for a         •   Provision of improved and adequate physical
common goal to deliver results for Kenyans.                    Infrastructure;
                                                           •   Fighting crime and insecurity;
NBA has five main goals which include;                     •   Achieving meaningful and less burdensome
• Improving business environment;                              business regulation;
• Accelerating public sector institutional transfor-       •   Ensuring that labour market regulations incen-
  mation;                                                      tivise creation and expansion of employment;
• Facilitating growth through trade expansion;                 Expanding external trade through improved
• Improving productivity and competitiveness of                facilitation and market access;
  enterprises and;                                             Creation of tax regime and tax administration
• Supporting entrepreneurship and development                  conducive to business growth;
  of micro and small enterprises.                              Transformation of micro and small sector for
                                                               sustained growth;
In addressing the above issues, these goals are                Revitalisation and transformation of agriculture;
focused on the key challenges currently facing                 Protection of intellectual property rights and
the Business Community in Kenya and proposed                   dealing with counterfeits and piracy;
actions to create a more conducive environment for             Unleash ICT potential to drive innovation and
greater investment and wealth creation. NBA has                growth and building efficient public service.
harmonized the main political parties' manifestos
and National Development Plan Vision 2030.                 KENFAP was represented by seventeen members;
                                                           Nduati Kariuki- the National Chairman-KENFAP
The Private sector unveiled the National Business          (at Prime Minister's Table), chaired and led
Agenda (NBA) at the first Prime Minister's Round           discussions (at Ministry for Agriculture) Dr. J.K
table meeting with the Private sector held on              Mutunga-chaired and George Odhiambo taking
Tuesday, August 5th at the Grand Regency Hotel.            records and (at ministry of Lands) Major Dennis

                                                                                            COVER STORY

Ochwada Chaired, Edward Kateiya and Prisca                 •     Prioritize development of the enterprise road
Githuka--Taking records tables; Mr. Mutemi Mutia                 within the industrial area;
(at the Ministry of Trade); Mrs. Wairimu Kariuki           •     Establish fresh produce markets in conjunction
(Ministry of Local government table); Mrs.Ann                    with the private sector;
Kilele (Ministry of Finance); Mr. Clement Kariuki          •     Reduction in number of weighbridges and road
(Ministry for Energy-Table); Mr. Francis Muthomi                 blocks along the northern corridor;
(Ministry for Roads); Mr. Mithika (Ministry for            •     Publication in the gazette of licenses to be
Environment); Mrs Grace Ngambi (Ministry of                      charged by the local authorities to avoid harass-
Labour); Charles Gitau (Ministry for Tourism); Lucy              ment of business persons by city council askaris;
Mwangi-GM (Ministry of state for public service)           •     Address the cost of seeds, fertilizer and agro-
and Nancy wangombe (Technical Secretariat at                     chemicals to reduce cost of production;
Prime Minister's table).                                   •     A national skills survey on needs to be conducted
                                                                 and employers to support university students
In the respective ministries round tables deep dives,            attachment programmes;
KENFAP engaged the government to commit to                 •     Change excise duty on plastics to "green levy" for
provide adequate and good quality infrastructure                 environment protection
arguing that farmers in Kenya have taken up
Agriculture as their sole source of livelihood;            In response to KENFAP specific lobby issues
                                                           embedded in the NBA, the government committed to
•   Review the policy and harmonize legal and insti-       provide agricultural credit to support more farmers
    tutional reforms;                                      to access cheap loans by strengthening agricultural
•   Develop strong farmers' institutions and               finance corporation (AFC); support value addition
    associations;                                          and marketing of agricultural produce through
•   Enforce legislation that encourages banks and          development of fresh produce markets in rural and
    financial institutions to lend agriculture;            urban areas starting with Nairobi. The government
•   Increase funding to agricultural finance corpora-      further committed to reduce the cost of production
    tion (AFC);                                            Agricultural inputs by 40 % subsidy on fertilizers
•   Abolish or restructure HCDA levy;                      and seek investment to establish a local fertilizer
•   Subsidize and streamline importation of fertilizer;    production unit in the country, removed levy
•   Expand area under irrigation by 300,000 hectares;      on horticultural produce by Horticultural Crops
•   Put in place measures that ensure food security,       Development Authority (HCDA), pledge to strengthen
    safeguard and sustained remunerative benefits          regulatory authorities such as Kenya Plant Health
    to all producers especially the small scale farmers;   Inspectorate service (KEPHIS) to eliminate fake farm
•   Availing farm inputs, streamline distribution          inputs in the market and also committed to fast
    channels, Construct proper markets in cities and       track completion of Draft National land policy to
    towns to enable farmers to sell their produce and      address the issue of land question in the country.
    Set up a one stop investment centre or innovation
    fund to finance the sector;                            Following the Round table meeting, the Prime
•   Support in Exploring emerging markets -flower          Minister issued a statement at a press conference
    markets (i.e. USA, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and        two days later at which he informed the public the
    the UAE) and Interesting youth in agriculture to       deliberations the government had held with private
    tap the energy and unlock enormous productive          sector and the commitments of government.
    potential through SMEs and value addition.
•    Fast track completion of the Draft National Land      In pursuance to the commitments made during the
     Policy, automate land information management          PM round table, KENFAP paid a courtesy call on
     system and expedite formulation of National Land      the Minister of Agriculture on 14th August 2008 to
     Use Policy to cap subdivision of land into uneco-     concrete commitments to action.
     nomically units.
                                                               NBA is a strong and effective lobby and advocacy
During the meeting the following issues were                   strategy intended to drive commitment by policy
generally agreed on deep dives at the Ministerial              makers to action. The tool embrace monitoring and
round tables which included;                                   evaluation of performance to ensure commitment
                                                               by government and private sector works to spur
• Installation of Close Circuit Television (cctvs) in          economic growth unlike in the past where such
  the Nairobi Central Business District (CBD),                 discussions have been made and no action taken to
• Industrial area and in the residential areas;                actualize them.
• Privatization of weigh bridges;
• Develop the public sector stakeholder partnership
  policy (PSSP) to institutionalize the engagement             Edward Kateiya Is KENFAP Manager
  between private sector and government;
                                                               Policy And Research
• Reduce energy outages in the CBD;

 Opportunities For Improving Food Sovereignty
    and Economic Development In Africa

By Rogier Huymans                                         to abandon production of food. At the same time,
                                                          world population growth will require ever more
                                                          food, while improvements in the living standards
Introduction                                              of millions of people in China and India will create
         frica and the rest of the world have
                                                          a sharp rise in demand for meat - a trend that is
         witnessed a dramatic rise in agricultural

A        commodity prices this year. Driven by
         strong demand for biofuels due to concerns
over climate change, the prices of wheat, rice, maize
                                                          helping to push the cereal prices as a results as
                                                          livestock needs to be fed. Climate-related disasters
                                                          will also play a role in making food prices more
                                                          volatile, increasing the risk of speculation. Added
have reached record high.
                                                          this, Asia seems to be approaching the upper limits
                                                          of its productivity potential and its drive to extend
This development is especially worrying for Africa,
                                                          the space given over to agriculture.
which is home to more than one-quarter of the
850 million people suffering chronic malnutrition.
                                                          On global scale, the contemporary world food regime
In order to mitigate endemic food crises, Africa
                                                          does not favor African small scale agriculture. This
needs to draw its agricultural potential and turn
                                                          regime is based on large scale and industrious
these price hikes into an opportunity for economic
                                                          food production systems driven by Western food
                                                          demands and protected by high consumer safety
                                                          standards. Moreover, many farmers in Europe and
Causes of global rise in food prices                      the United States are heavenly subsidized, making
While the exceptional price rises of the past year have   global competition unequal. Nowadays around 125
been partly fueled by temporary factors (including        billion is pumped into farming systems in developed
abnormal climactic conditions in Australia), a            countries compared to 4 million provided to assist
number structural phenomena affecting both supply         agriculture in developing countries. Big industrious
and demand give reason to believe that higher prices      companies nowadays control the global food market.
will continue in the coming decades.                      African farmers are simply not able to compete.
                                                                    According the food industry expert Harriet
                                                                    Friedman the global trends are worrying:
                                                                    "the contemporary world food regime does
                                                                    not focus on feeding the world population
                                                                    anymore, they are focused on feeding the
                                                                    big industrious companies " .

                                                                  Threats to Africa's growing
                                                                  This new scenario threatens to pose serious
                                                                  food security problems for those poor
                                                                  countries that are heavenly dependent on
                                                                  agricultural imports. Studies show that a 1
                                                                  percent price rise for staple food products
                                                                  leads to a drop of around 0,5 percent in
                                                                  calorie intake for the world poorest.

                                                                  These bleak prospects have a special
                                                                   resonance for Africa, whose population is
                                                                   expected to double over the next forty years
                                                          and whose urban population is projected to triple
On the supply side, rising oil prices mean increased      in the space of just two decades. The continent is
costs for supply of fertilizers and seeds, machine        already a net importer of food - a trade gap that can
operations and transport. On the demand side, the         only become wider if prices remain high. Indeed, the
strong growth in demand fro agro-fuels looks set to       recent price hikes threaten to undermine the efforts
continue, encouraging major agricultural producers        to halve the number of men and women in the
                                                                                          COVER STORY

world suffering from malnutrition by 2015, which is        and suffers from seriously inadequate agronomic
millennium development goal number one.                    research, the scope for increasing productivity
                                                           remains considerable.
In Kenya as well as in other African countries,
demonstration against rising costs of living recently      But growth in African agricultural production
took place. With food prices continued to rise, this       will only come about if serious adjustments are
could pose a serious threat to the restored, yet fragile   made. It is the international community's duty to
political stability. Moreover people 's diet change        support these efforts so that the rural areas can
considerably. Many people spend more on cheap              feed the continent's urban population in the future.
and calorie rich staples and less on more expensive        FAO director Jacques Diouf recently stated that
food rich in protein and vitamins such as meat, fish,      international assistance should rise tenfold to feed
dairy, fruit and vegetables. Some studies estimate         the growing population. Moreover, African leaders
that agricultural production on the continent needs        should show serious commitment in putting efforts
to increase more than fivefold between now and             and resources in revitalizing their agricultural
2050 if Africa is to match global per capita mean          sector.
consumption level.
                                                                  Central to success will be improved links
                                                                  between towns and rural communities, so
                                                                  that farmers have better access to local and
                                                                  national markets, market information, inputs
                                                                  and finance. Also physical infrastructure
                                                                  as well as infrastructure for ICT must be
                                                                  improved. There must be support for food-
                                                                  based agriculture with. specific tools for credit
                                                                  and insurances, so that increases in output
                                                                  can be reproduced at all farming levels. And
                                                                  there must be help so that African agriculture
                                                                  can adapt itself to climate change, choosing
                                                                  technical solutions that are environmental
                                                                  friendly and economic in their use of natural

                                                           The development of African agriculture should
Could the global food crisis also                          become a priority. Improved competitiveness
bring opportunities to Africa?                             must be followed up by more investment to boost
But while these record high price rises pose serious       productivity, a feature that has been badly lacking
threats to food security, they may well present            for too long. As the latest World Bank report observes,
an opportunity for African agriculture, which has          agriculture can represent a real chance for African
suffered in the past from a constant erosion of            development. The current wave of food prices rises
agricultural commodity prices on world markets.            offers such an opportunity.
With imported products becoming increasingly
expensive, the price of home grown African products        KENFAP jumps in this opportunity by actively
will become more competitive. The continent's              improving farmers and farmer groups in product
towns will have to look closer to local, national and      value chains. A lot has been achieved. Several
regional markets for their supplies. By lowering           challenges lie ahead of us. Apart from training and
its dependency on imports, Africa could focus              capacity building of farmers, the same farmers can
on the production of food to feed its own growing          be linked to information through ICT, linked to
population. But could Africa's rural areas be able to      markets by contract farming through supply of raw
supply this growing demand?                                or value added products, provided better food storage
                                                           and food transport methods and provided cheaper
                                                           seeds, fertilizers and animal feed by establishing its
Africa's untapped agricultural                             own distribution channels. Thus, the current wave
potential                                                  of food prices offers many opportunities for KENFAP
The African agricultural sector has a greater              and maybe more particular for their commercial
potential for development than any other of the            branch KENFAP Services Ltd.!
world's farming systems. The continent possesses
plentiful water resources, and, like Latin America,
it has the added advantage of having substantial           RogierHuijmans is KENFAP's Programme
supplies of land and labor. Since African agriculture      Officer, Agro - Production
is still very lightly mechanized, uses little fertilizer
By Edward Kateiya, Fabian
Kaburu M. and Isaya Sijali,

   'U very `drop' of water counts
          and should be conserved
          everywhere, at all times and by
          all to ensure efficient water use.
This is the message shared during the
Virtual Pavilion for the Spain -zarogoza
water expo video conference which was
conducted in Spain and connected
to various countries including Egypt
(Cairo), Ethiopia (Addis Ababa), Kenya
(Nairobi), Tanzania (Dar es Salaam),
Mali (Bamako), Palestine and Yemen.
The video conference brought together
many concepts and beliefs that exist
round water and its management.

In Kenya, the video conference was
connected     to   Kenya     Development                                 Drip Irrigation Emitter
Learning Centre (KDLN) based in
Kenya Institute of Administration (K1A) - lower
                                                                             • Check for toilet leaks by adding food colouring to
Kabete in Nairobi. The conference was attended
                                                                               the tank. If you have a leak, the colour will appear
by 32 participants representing stakeholders
                                                                               in the bowl within 30 minutes. (Flush immediately
and interest groups. KENFAP was represented by
                                                                               to avoid stains.)
Edward Kateiya; while the other two contributors of
                                                                             • If the toilets' handles frequently sticks in the flush
this article are Fabian Kaburu M. and Isaya Sijali
                                                                               position letting water run constantly, replace or
; Research Scientists at Irrigation and Drainage
                                                                               adjust it.
Research Programme ; Kenya Agricultural Research
                                                                             • Leaky toilets usually can be fixed inexpensively by
Institute (KAKI). Kenyans' attitude towards water
                                                                               replacing the flapper.
use is wanting; since many harbour a wrong notion
                                                                             • Install a toilet displacement device to cut down on
that water is a limitless natural resource .We need
                                                                               the amount of water needed for each flush.
to change this perception by inculcating behavioural
                                                                               (Contrary to popular opinion a brick should not be
tenets of wise use of water in all spheres of our daily
                                                                               used because it can dissolve and the loose pieces
encounter with water. Water is life and precious gift
                                                                               can cause damage to the internal parts.Instead,
from God to be misused. Here are some of world
                                                                               place a one-gallon plastic jug of water into the tank
shared water saving tips gained from the video
                                                                               to displace toilet flow or purchase a device available
                                                                               at most hardware and home centres designed for
                                                                               this purpose). Be sure that installation does not
In-house use of water                                                          interfere with the operating parts.
• Never pour water down the drain when there may                             • Consider purchasing a low-volume toilet that uses
  be another use for it. Use it to water your indoor                           less than half the water of older models.
  plants or garden.                                                          • Take shorter showers.
• Make sure your home taps and pipes are leakfree.                           • Replace your showerhead with an ultra-low-flow
  When you are certain that no water is being used                             version.
  in your home, take a reading of the water meter.                           • Place a bucket in the shower to catch excess water
  Wait for 30 minutes and then take a second readi-                            for watering plants.
  ing. If the meter reading changes, you have a leak!                        • In the shower, turn the water on to get wet; turn off
• Repair dripping taps by replacing washers. One                               to lather up; then turn the water back on to rinse.
  drop per second wastes 2,700 gallons (110,000                                Repeat when washing your hair.
  litres) of water per year!                                                 • Don't let the water run while brushing your teeth,
                                                                               washing your face or shaving.
                  ^...   ^_                    .,^:
KENYA NATIONAL PtEilatitntili"43F    7'                                 12
                                          .           -
                                                          -   ;.-   '
                                                                                      TOPICAL ISSUES

• Avoid flushing the toilet unnecessarily. Dispose of       Check sprinkler systems and timing devices
  tissues, insects and other similar waste in the trash     regularly to be sure they operate properly. Raise
  rather than the toilet.                                   the lawn mower blade to at least three inches, or
                                                            to its highest level.A higher cut encourages
Kitchen:                                                    grassroots to grow deeper, shades the root
• When hand washing dishes, save water by filling           system, and holds soil moisture.
  two containers - one with soapy water and the oth       • Avoid over fertilizing your lawn. Applying fertilizer
  er with rinse water containing a small amount of          increases the need for water. Apply fertilizers that
  chlorine bleach.                                          contain slow-release, water-insoluble forms of
• Most dishwashers can clean soiled dishes very well        nitrogen.
  so dishes do not have to be rinsed before washing.      • Do not leave sprinklers or hoses unattended. A
  Just remove large particles of food, and put the          garden hose can pour out 600 gallons or more in
  soiled dishes in the dishwasher.                          only a few hours.
• Store drinking water in the refrigerator. Don't let
  the tap run while you are waiting for water to cool.    Garden irrigation:
• Clean vegetables in a pan filled with water rather      Irrigate with the most efficient method. If you cannot
  than running water from the tap. Re-use the water       use drip irrigation method then consider buying
  that vegetables are washed in for cleaning or wa        your vegetables. However you have an advantage in
  tering plants.                                          establishing your own family vegetable garden. Grow
• Kitchen sink disposals require lots of water to op      high value crops and buy cheaply from the market
  erate properly. Start a compost pit as an alternate     what is available in plenty. Mulch your garden to
  nate method of disposing of food waste, or simply       save water.
  dispose of food in the garbage.
                                                          Harvesting water:
Long Term Indoor Water Conservation:                      Always harvest the roof water and surface run-offs
• Consider installing an instant hot water heater on      and store in storage tanks. As a minimum, target to
  your sink                                               harvest all the roof water and use it for irrigation,
• When purchasing a new appliance, choose one             laundry, bathing, cooking and drinking. Prepare
  that is more energy and water efficient.                your land and garden in such a way to encourage
                                                          water to infiltrate in to the soil. Aim not to see water
Outdoor Use of Water                                      running on the surface. Use physical, biological and
General:                                                  agronomic techniques to landscape your gardens in
If you have a well or a borehole at home, check your      order to improve water conservation.
pump periodically. If the pump turns on and off
while water is not being used, you have a leak.
                                                          Swimming Pool:
                                                          • If you have a swimming pool, consider installing a
Car Washing:                                                new water-saving pool filter. A single back flushing
If you wash your own car, park on the grass so that         with a traditional filter uses 180 to 250 gallons of
you will be watering it at the same time.                   water.
                                                          • Cover pools to reduce evaporation of water.
Lawn Care:
• Don't over water your lawn. Lawns only need to be
                                                          Long Term Outdoor Water Conservation:
  watered every five to seven days in the dry season,     • Plant native and/or drought-tolerant grasses,food
  and every 10 to 14 days in the wet season, if need        crops, fodder, shrubs and trees. Once established,
  be. A heavy rain eliminates the need for watering         they do not need water as frequently and usually
  for up to two weeks. Most of the year, lawns only         will survive a dry period without watering. They
  need 25mm of water per week. Buy a rain gauge             also require less fertilizer or herbicides.Landscape
  and use the rainfall trends so that you can better        with plants that are heat and drought tolerant
  determine when to water.                                  and that do not require much water to live. Small
• Water in several short sessions rather than one           plants require less water to become established.
  long one in order for your lawn to better absorb          Group plants together based on similar water
  moisture. For example, water in ten-minute ses            needs.
  sions spaced 30 minutes apart, rather than one          • Install irrigation devices that are the most water
  straight 30-minute session.
                                                            efficient for each use. Micro and drip irrigation
• Water lawns during the designated hours, espe-            are examples of efficient devices.
  cially in the early morning or early evening.           • Use mulch to retain moisture in the soil.
• Position sprinklers so water lands on the lawn and      • Both organic and inorganic mulch helps smother
  shrubs and not on paved areas.                            weeds that compete with crops and landscape
• Avoid sprinklers that spray a fine mist; most of          plants for water.
  the mist evaporates before it reaches the lawn.         • Avoid purchasing recreational water toys that
  require a constant stream of water.
• Avoid installing ornamental water features (such
  as fountains) unless they use recycled water.
• Construct of water storage structures like dams
  and water pans to mitigate flood waters.
• Adopt of water harvesting technologies and storing
  the harvested water for domestic, livestock and
  irrigation use.

Within the Community:
• Participate in public water conservation meeting
   conducted by your local government, water
   management ministries and other stakeholders.               A lined water Canal
• Follow water conservation and water shortage
• Encourage your employer to promote water
                                                               Water is the most important natural resource,
   conservation in the workplace.
                                                               because it's the most limiting and the most relevant
• Patronize businesses that practice water
                                                               factor of development in a region. The demand
   conservation, such as restaurants that only serve
                                                               for water has increased tremendously. Kenyans
   water upon request.
                                                               experience both extremes of weather vagaries,
• Report water losses (broken pipes, open hydrants,
                                                               whereas in wet season, floods ravage most of the
   errant sprinklers, abandoned free - flowing wells,
                                                               urban and rural areas, people experience famine due
   etc.) to the property owner, local authorities or
                                                               to drought in the dry season with the latter rapidly
   your water management agencies.
                                                               becoming a perennial problem. Kenya is classified as
^ Encourage your school system and local                       a water scarce country and is categorised as globally
   government to help develop and promote water
                                                               a country is categorized water stressed since its
   conservation ethics.
                                                               annual renewable fresh water supplies are between
• Support projects that will lead to an increased
                                                               1,000, and 1,700 m3 per capita per year as indicated
   use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation and
                                                               by FAO. Kenya 's available per capita consumption
   other uses.
                                                               is 650m3 per year but the fresh water resource is
• Support efforts that create a concern for water
                                                               fast dwindling. Let us protect and conserve our
   conservation among tourists.
                                                               water resources. The diminishing water resources
 • Promote water conservation in community, work
                                                               led to food insecurity and fundamental challenges
   place, learning institutions, newsletters, magazines
                                                               in human welfare and economic growth in Africa.
   newspapers, pamphlets and brochures, bulletin
                                                               Low agricultural production, results in low incomes,
   boards, and by example.
                                                               poor nutrition, vulnerability to socio-economics
 • Encourage your friends, neighbours, and co-
                                                               and natural risks and lack of empowerment. Land
   workers to "be water smart. '"
                                                               degradation, soil fertility depletion, irrigation water
 • Conserve water because it is the right thing to
                                                               scarcity and misplaced attitudes towards farming as
   do - even when someone else is footing the bill,
                                                               a self employment opportunity are the major threats
    such as when you are staying at a hotel.
                                                               to food security and natural resource conservation
 • Try to do one thing each day that will result in
                                                               in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
    saving water. Every drop counts!
                                                               Africa needs to break the cycle of poverty and natural
Water Restrictions:                                            resource degradation by employing strategies that
In some communities where drought conditions                   empower farmers economically and promoting
persist, officials may recommend measures to                   sustainable     agricultural intensification using
ration use of water. These recommendations may                 efficient, effective and affordable water management
include such procedures as domestic use, watering              technologies.
livestock, irrigation of crops, watering lawns and             Every drop of water counts let us
washing cars on odd or even days of the week, at
                                                               conserve it.
night, or on weekends. The restrictions may limit
hours or prohibit use of water, or require use of
hand watering instead of using sprinkler systems
that use much more water. You should check with                Edward Kateiya, KENFAP, Fabian
your local authorities for information on water                Kaburu M. and Isaya Sijali, Research
restrictions that may be imposed for your area.
                                                               Scientist, Irrigation and Drainage
Example of efficient water use technique in Picture            Research Programme; Kenya Agricul-
below                                                          tural Research Institute (KARL)


By Edward Kateiya
                                                       However, the second window has some limitations
KENFAP in collaboration with coffee growers            that hinder the flow of benefits to the target small
association has been engaging the government to        holder coffee farmers due to:
create an enabling environment through direct sales    • Individual farmers harvest small quantities of
of coffee. The engagement aimed at bridging the gap       coffee which is insufficient for direct export
between coffee producers and buyers by eliminating     • Fat viers lack the capacity to provide good agri
agents who exploit farmers' without necessarily           cultural practices hence produced low quality
adding value. This effort employed institutional          coffee
development and organizational strengthening of        • Farmers lacked capacity to engage service provid-
coffee growers association to build the capacity          ers in logistics involving transportation, hedging,
for sustained effort to capture the opportunity.          insurance,coffee samples, warehousing and statu
Furthermore, coffee value chain players in Kenya          -tory deductions
lack transparency and are greatly influenced by
power and governance of
global value chain. In this
light, the marketing policies
in Kenya are governed by the
Coffee Act, 2001 (No. 9 of 2001)
under liberalized market. The
prices are determined by the
market forces at the local
level and world demand and
supply forces at international
level. The world price greatly
influences the producer price
at local level. There are two
marketing policies

a. Coffee Auction
Coffee in Kenya is marketed
through coffee auction, where
buyers all over the world bid
for coffee in person or through
their agents in Kenya at
Nairobi coffee exchange (NCE).
NCE is managed by the Kenya
coffee producers and traders                           Coffee Farming in Kenya

                                                       There is a need to make deliberate efforts to bring
b. Direct Coffee Sales
                                                       together small holder coffee farmers to pool their
Direct coffee sales are attempts by the government
                                                       produce in order to market it directly in bulk to the
of Kenya to link coffee farmers directly to markets
                                                       buyers eliminating middlemen exploitation. Coffee
by eliminating or reducing intermediaries. This
                                                       is grown in Kenya by an estimated 700,000 small
initiative is referred as Kenya's `second window'
                                                       scale farmers and 4,000 estate farmers. The total
which was introduced by amending coffee Act
                                                       estimated area under coffee is 170,000 hectares.
2001 to accommodate direct coffee marketing by
                                                       Kenya grows mainly Arabica coffee in areas ranging
gazetting the Coffee (general) (Amendments) rules
                                                       from 1400-2000M above sea level. Coffee is mainly
2006. Direct sales entails a contractual agreement
                                                       grown in Central, Eastern, North 86 South Rift,
between the grower and his or its marketing agent
                                                       western and Nyanza regions in Kenya. In addition,
and a buyer located outside Kenya for the sale of
                                                       pockets of coffee are grown in Taita Taveta district
clean coffee based on mutually accepted terms and
                                                       in the coastal region. Through KENFAP effort and
conditions enforceable in law and registered with
                                                       other stakeholders, the government developed a
the board. The new policy allows small holder coffee
                                                       regulatory framework and support initiatives geared
farmers to sell directly to consumers
to improve coffee marketing in Kenya as follows:

a. Regulation
The government of Kenya through Coffee Board of
• Registers and licensed dealers to become mark
  eting agents
• Ensure growers and Commercial miller provide
• Compel marketing agents to disclose selling price
• Control movement of coffee by issuing movem
  ent permit
• Maintain records of appointments of the manage-
  ment agents by growers
• Ensure marketing agents contribute to the promo-
  tion of Kenya coffee
• Enforce certification and issue an inspection cer-
• Provide requirement for arrangement for specialty
• Enforce inspection of specialty coffee facilities
• Regulate and inspect management of Nairobi coffee      Quality Kenyan Coffee
  exchange by Kenya Coffee Producers and Traders             branding are based on aroma, taste, flavour and
  Association                                                body of the coffee depending on the geographical
• Ensure all licenses under seal                             factors. Kenya coffee blends, high-grade Arabica
                                                             and certified coffee that yield premium prices in the
Despite government regulation, most marketing                market. The government is supporting initiatives
agents are:-                                                 to add value through packaging of Kenya coffee in
• Dealers and exporters who have been acting as              special ways and marketing abroad. The importers
   agents of the big multinationals and in some cases        who use Kenya coffee to blend their low quality
• Act as farm management agencies to gain access             produce will acknowledge the country inputs in
                                                             their labeling. It recognizes the producers as a
   to coffee easily and cheaply. Hence exploit the
                                                             major player in the industry that had been under
   smallholder farmers
                                                             the whims of the consumer and middlemen

b). Support Initiatives                                      (iv) International coffee agreement
                                                             Kenya signed international coffee agreement which
(i) Coffee Development Fund                                  allows coffee from the country to be branded,
Coffee development fund was established under                thereby fetching higher prices in the world market.
the Coffee Act No 9 of 2001 for the purpose of               The government is in the process of registering
providing sustainable and affordable credit and              seven brands of coffee from the country with world
advances to coffee farmers. Currently, the fund              intellectual property office and the industrial property
is targeted at small holder coffee farmers with a            institute (KIPI) in Kenya. This will enable small holder
minimum of one hundred coffee bushes and small               coffee farmers to benefit from protected intellectual
to medium estate growers. The funds are disbursed            property rights, marketing and guaranteed premium
through intermediaries and sometimes directly to             prices as well as increased benefits from research
the beneficiaries. The fund approval is based on             initiatives.
approved coffee calendar of activities and farmers
access the funds in organized farmer groups of ten           In conclusion, KENFAP effort stimulated government
(10) under group guarantee                                   initiatives to support coffee development such as
                                                             coffee development fund, coffee research, branding
(ii) Coffee research                                         Kenya coffee and signing international coffee
The government of Kenya support coffee research              agreement which triggered increasing trends in
foundation to develop high yielding and disease              production of coffee in Kenya. It is imperative to
resistant varieties                                          organize farmers to facilitate collective marketing
                                                             hence increase bargaining power.
(iii) Branding Kenya coffee
In Kenya, indicators of geographic origin (IGO)              By Edward Kateiya, Manager Policy and


                          WN W&$ AND PAP
By Peter Mwangi
                                                       more effective in agricultural productivity. The Key
                                                       area identified were inadequate skills in lobby and
           enya National Federation of Agricultural
                                                       advocacy, group dynamics and crop production.
           Producers (KENFAP) and Nederlands
                                                       The NAJK embarked on the development of the
           Agrarisch Jongeren Kontakt(NAJK) a
                                                       materials for training in these areas borrowing
             utch young farmers association held
                                                       heavily on the Netherlands experiences. The
joint activities to strengthen their collaborations
                                                       training materials were agreed upon by the two
which has been on going since 2006. The activities
                                                       organizations.   The    materials were       however
included visits to KENFAP youth groups, a three days
                                                       customized to suit the Kenyan situation and the
workshop on developing (customizing) lobbying and
                                                       training given in a three days workshop by a team
group dynamics manuals, discussing the KENFAP
                                                       from the Netherlands.
youth policy to put it inline with contemporary
needs of the society and development of a three year
                                                        The trainees were drawn from the KENFAP youth
activity plan.
                                                       council. The training was very participatory as one
                                                         member put it that she has never had "such an
                                                         attention wakening situation". The workshop
                                                         was officially opened by the KENFAP CEO who
                                                         underscored the need for greater Involvement of
                                                         Youth in Agriculture. He noted that Agriculture
                                                         is the backbone of Kenya's economy contributing
                                                         25% directly to the GDP and a further 27%
                                                         indirectly through agriculture related service
                                                         industries. However the sector is normally under
                                                         funded compared to the non- productive ministries
                                                         like heath and education. Increased funding by
                                                         a small margin translates to an increase in the
                                                         entire economy hence the need to lobby for more
                                                         funding to the sector.

                                                         He also noted that the youth form the bulk of the
                                                         population, are well educated, innovative, risk
                                                         takers and more informed. Therefore empowering
                                                         the youth means empowering a proactive group.
                                                         Various players have put a lot of effort to assist
                                                         the youth, key among them the the youth
                                                         development fund (YDF), an initiative of the
                                                         Government. He added that to take full advantage
                                                         of such efforts the youth need to be organized
                                                         with clear leadership from the grassroots {group
                                                         level to the national as is the case with KENFAP
                                                         youth structures.)

                                                         In the recent past as a result of various
Youths from Kisumu involved in agricultural              challenges key amongst them; lack of meaningful
Activities                                               engagement, the youth have been misused and
                                                         involved in;
                                                          1. Post election crisis
The two had jointly developed a training needs
                                                          2. Formation of militia groupings
assessment questionnaire which was administered
                                                          3. Criminal activities
to the different youth groups in all the KENFAP
                                                          4. Drugs and drug abuse
regions. The main objective of the survey was to
                                                          5. HIV/Aids scourge
ascertain the capacity needs of the youth to be
                               Youths involved in agricultural Activities

      It is upon realization of all these challenges that the Kenya:
       National Federation of Agricultural Producers (KENFAP)
       developed a youth policy (2006).
This is evidenced by the fact that majority of those           schools in Kisumu which will be replicated in other
in prison (65%) are between 18 years and 35years.              schools. In 2007 the federation started collaborations
These challenges could be addressed through more               with the Limuru Agricultural Youth Centre, an
engagement of youth in agriculture. However there              institution which caters for youth in developing skills
are several reasons compelling the youth not to fully          in agriculture. The institution caters for the youth
participate in agriculture which includes;                     who drop out of school and from poor background.

1. The school curriculum reinforcing the negative              The youth council chairman has participated in
    attitude towards agriculture by not paying extra           many international forums representing the Kenyan
   attention to agriculture in schools. There is need          youth and is currently the member of the board of
   to reinstate agriculture as an examinable subject           the IFAP World young farmers committee and IFAP
   in primary schools and more attention paid to               vice president representing Africa continent.
   agriculture in secondary schools
2. Land in Kenya is mainly owned by those over 35              An Msc student from Wageigen University did a
   years                                                       study of the organisation of young farmers within
3. Cultures and practices that hinder active involve-          KENFAP in order to have a clear understanding of
   ment of youth in agriculture                                the level of participation and decision making by
4. The poor financial status of the youth                      the youth. The findings provided a baseline with
                                                               clear recommendations and lessons. The report
It is upon realization of all these challenges that the        was adopted by the various end users and played
Kenya National Federation of Agricultural Producers            a key role in developing three years collaborative
(KENFAP) developed a youth policy (2006). A                    activities between the two organizations. The council
youth council was put in place to spearhead the                members were awarded certificates and developed
implementation of the policy and youth leaders have            the action plan to train the district councils and
been incorporated at district leadership. Various              youth groups.
sensitizations on the policy have been on going.

The federation has supported initiatives which
promote youth involvement in agriculture. A Pilot              Peter Mwangi is KENFAP's Training and
project on 4K clubs is underway in two primary                 Youth Officer

                                                          18                                THE FARMERS' VOICE

By Daphne Gatwiri

             omen play a leading role in agricultural
             production and in food security. In

W            developing countries, women produce
             80-90 per cent of the food. Women are
therefore a critical factor in development and their
economic empowerment is essential to address
poverty and food insecurity. Yet women farmers are        Woman in Construction
one of the most vulnerable groups, often lacking
                                                           for reproducing and maintaining the family, and
access to resources, land, education and training,
                                                           this as resulted in rather complex and demanding
credit and to market opportunities. It is critical that
                                                           livelihood strategies. Food security and family well-
women are motivated to use their organizational
                                                           being are clear reasons for protecting or enhancing
skills to access training, active involvement in
                                                           women's access and control over land and other
the decision-making process from the local to
                                                           productive resources. Studies have shown that
international levels.
                                                           resources controlled by women are more likely to
                                                           be used to improve family food consumption and
KENFAP seeks to empower the Kenyan agricultural
                                                           welfare, reduce child malnutrition, and increase
producers to enhance marketability of their
                                                           overall well-being of the family. Enhancing women
produce through enhancing the capacity of Kenyan
                                                           capacity in both production and marketing goes
agricultural producers to deliver competitive
                                                           along way in ensuring food security at farm and
products, while targeting to increase women
                                                           national levels contributing in poverty alleviation.
participation as the majority producers. Agriculture
                                                           Women often engage in group activities and this
continues to play an important role in most non-
                                                           offers an opportunity for group based engagements
                                                           such as collective production, value addition and

                                                            Food security cannot be assured without improving
                                                            the situation of women producers. Women have
                                                            shown themselves to be ready to take advantage
                                                            of new opportunities. Evidence from a World Bank
                                                            study in Kenya suggests that if women had the same
                                                            human capital endowments and used the same
                                                            production factors and inputs as men, the value of
                                                            their output would increase by some 22 per cent.
                                                            Given women's key roles in food production, then
                                                            simply raising the productivity of women to the same
                                                            level as that of men would increase total production
Women in production                                         by 10-15 per cent, eliminating a key constraint to
                                                            food security.
industrial economies, as a major contributor to
                                                            Unfortunately, some of the obstacles that women
the country's export earnings and as a source
                                                            farmers confront have been worsened by the impact
of employment and livelihood. Official statistics
                                                            of structural adjustment programmes. By placing
often underestimate the value of women's work
                                                            greater emphasis on export crops, which usually
and their overall contribution to national wealth.
                                                            are grown by men, the domestic terms of trade
Women continue to provide a large proportion of the
                                                            have tended to shift against food production, where
labour that goes into agriculture production and
                                                            women predominate. Few women farmers market
marketing. It is estimated that women represent a
                                                            enough of their own produce to benefit from higher
substantial share of the total agricultural labour
                                                            producer prices, while the increased acreage devoted
force, as individual food producers or as agricultural
                                                            to export and other cash crops also has increased
workers, and that around two-thirds of the female
                                                            labour demands on women.
labour force in developing economies is engaged in
agricultural work.
                                                            Daphne Gatwiri is KENFAP's Agri -
Women's responsibilities increased in recent decades        Development and Marketing Officer
   Farmers concerns on Climate Change:
  Implications for the future model of Agricuiture.
By Janet Ngombalu                                            decline, extinction of species (which will be unable
                                                             to adapt to new climates), etc. This will result in,
                                                             among others, creation of thousands of internally
          enyan farmers realize that many sectors in         displaced persons (IDPs) i.e., environmental refugees
          developing countries are already vulnerable        mostly from arid and semi-arid lands and other
          to current climate variability and climate         marginal lands, water shortages will be exacerbated
           hange is adding additional vulnerability.         leading to conflicts over water resources by different
Loss of life and damage from extreme climate events          users like herdsmen, human wildlife conflicts will
is already a major barrier to achieving sustainable          increase, competition between agriculture and
development, raising alarming concerns among the             domestic and industrial users, etc.
farming community.
                                                             National and international economic plans like
Farmers are concerned that climate change will               vision 2030, ERS will be seriously undermined
have serious implications to Kenya's and Africa 's           by the change in climate. Achievement of the UN
sustainable development aspirations, as predicted            Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets,
in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report released              which so far most African governments have failed
in November 2007. Climate change will affect the             to make adequate progress on, will be further
African continent more or less uniformly but due             delayed.

                                                                                  Kenyan farmers
                                                                                  are concerned that
                                                                                  the dependence
                                                                                  of agriculture on
                                                                                  climate implies
                                                                                  that conditions of
                                                                                  temperature and
                                                                                  rainfall, among
                                                                                  other climatic
                                                                                  factors, dictate the
                                                                                  performance of both
                                                                                  crops and livestock.

                                                                                  Farmers in developing
                                                                                   countries like Kenya
                                                                                  face far more severe
                                                                                   adaptation challenges
                                                                                   and these have to be
                                                                                   met by governments
                                                                                   operating under sever
                                                                                  financial constraints,
                                                                                   and by poor people

to varying national circumstances e.g., geographical
differences, varying natural resource endowments,            Effects of climate change on
different GNPs, and inequalities in capacity to adapt
to climate change impacts, each country will be              future model of agriculture.
                                                             Agriculture is the backbone of the Kenyan economy.
affected differently. Climate change will lead to sea
                                                             Agriculture accounts for about 70% of the country 's
level rise, food shortages as agricultural production

                                                                                 OUR ENVIRONMENT

GDP. The sector employs over 65% of the population          outcome. For the first half of the 21st Century there
directly and indirectly. In Kenya the Ministry of           is no alternative to adaptation to climate change.
agriculture has adopted a strategy for revitalizing
agriculture (SRA). However the recurrent effects            Rich countries already recognize the imperative to
on climate change may delay its achievement.                adapt. Many are investing in the development of
Agricultural production depends on natural factors,         climate defence infrastructures. National strategies
mainly climate and soils; capital inputs; and human         are being drawn up to prepare for more extreme and
resources. However, climate is the overriding factor        less certain weather patterns. The UK is spending
which leaves Kenyan farmers with limited choices.           US$1.2 billion annually on flood defences. In the
                                                            Netherlands, people are investing in homes that
Kenyan farmers are concerned that the dependence            can float on water. The Swiss alpine ski industry is
of agriculture on climate implies that conditions           investing in artificial snow-making machines.
of temperature and rainfall, among other climatic
factors, dictate the performance of both crops              Farmers in developing countries like Kenya face far
and livestock. For example, other than delays in            more severe adaptation challenges and these have
maturity of cereal crops like maize and sorghum,            to be met by governments operating under sever
low temperatures may also lead to crop loses. High          financial constraints, and by poor people themselves.
temperatures, on the other hand, coupled with high          "Adaptation" in Kenya, as in many African countries,
humidity may favour the maintenance of a high               means women and young girls walk further to collect
population of insect pests and higher incidence of          water, farmers will continue losing incomes with
plant pathogens.                                            reduced agricultural production.

The main effects of climate                                 For the developed countries, adaptation is a matter
                                                            of erecting elaborate climate defence structures,
change in agriculture are:                                  and of building homes that float on water. In other
•   Decrease in agricultural production; Areas in the       parts of the world (Africa, Asia,), adaptation means
    rift valley (the so called grain basket of Kenya, are   people themselves learning to `float in' flood water.
    likely to see a fall in agricultural output due to      And unlike people living behind the flood defences
    climate change.                                         of London and Los Angeles, people in Africa do not
                                                            have a deep carbon footprint. As Desmond Tutu,
•   Increased temperature means increased evapo-            ex-Bishop of Cape Town, has argued, we are drifting
    transpiration and reduced moisture for plant            into a world of adaptation apartheid.
    growth. If temperature increases without subseq-
    uent of increase in rainfall, a situation which is      Responding to climate change will require the
    currently happening in the ASAL areas North             integration of adaptation into all aspects of policy
    Eastern, Upper Eastern and North Rift (Marsabit,        development and planning for poverty reduction.
    Moyale, Wajir, Lodwar), crop failure and livestock
    deaths, will follow.                                    The Bali Roadmap which gives the guidelines on
                                                            climate change management has provided the
•   Climatic conditions determine the development
                                                            international community with an opportunity to
    and spread of diseases in plants. Coffee leaf rust      develop negotiate and implement a drastic ghg
    disease has been confirmed to be influenced by
                                                            emission reduction agreement to succeed the Kyoto
    climatic conditions, particularly much rainfall         Protocol. This successor to the Kyoto Protocol will
    which influences frequency of its outbreaks.            have to base on established UNFCCC principles,
    Increased rainfall as it predicted for most parts
    of Central province is likely to increase potential
    of coffee rust disease. To sustain coffee yields
                                                            •   It would need to be inclusive and global in its
    requires increased use of fungicide sprays.                 reach;
                                                            •   It would need to be embedded in sustainable
Adaptation - the inevitable                                     development;
response to climate change.                                 •   It would need to ensure that industrialized
Farmers are concerned because of the realization                countries continue to take the lead in reducing
that even if current greenhouse gas emissions, the
primary cause of climate change, are drastically cut        •   And it would need to accord equal importance.
and reversed, temperatures will rise by at least 20C
by 2050. This means that even the most stringent
mitigation will be insufficient to avoid major human
setbacks. The world is already committed to further         Janet Ngombalu is KENFAP's Partner-
warming because of the inertia built into climate           ship and Information Manager.
systems and the delay between mitigation and
  KENFAP Staff participated in the Nakuru
  Agricultural show held from July 9' to 12 th              Mr. Volker Schaefer KENFAP's Marketing
  July 2008.                                                Advisor supported by DED, visits farmers
                                                            in Kisumu during a recent familiarisation
                                                            meeting to KENFAP'S District Branches .

Mr. George Ogoda KENFAP's 2nd National Vice
Chairman and AB Chairman Kisumu with farmers                Dr. Mutunga, KENFAP CEO following
and staff during the Kisumu agricultural show.              proceedings of the CSOs meeting in Accra on
                                                            more and better aid in september 2008.

 Paul Ndonga (KENFAP staff member) veiwing                 Mr. Sarno, AB Chairman Uasin Gishu displays
 the hanging grape gardens at Netafim firm                 farm input at the branch farm input shop
 in Israel.                                                 under the Farmer fighting poverty program.

                                              THE KENYA NATIONAL
                                              FEDERATION OF
              9-4T1ON OF AGp`
                                              PRODUCERS - KENF P
             kENFAp ^
        ry^ FARMER'S

Let your voice be heard • • •                                                             •     • subscribe
            KENFAP offers the following services:
   •        Lobbying and Advocacy on all agricultural policies and provisions.
   •        Promotion of information and communication among farmers and other agricultural stakeholders.
   •        Production and distribution of numerous publications carrying farmers' views on topical issues
   •        Extension services to its members through Farmer to Farmer Extension (FtF) programs
   •        Professional, advisory and consultancy services to its membership and the wider public in matters of
            agriculture and rural development.
   •        Capacity building to commodity organisations and farmer groups on
                     Representation at all levels.
                     Development of strategic orientation
                     Gender and agriculture
                     Professionalisation and democratisation
                     Organisational development
   •        Publicity through IT enhanced services to farmer groups, regional networks and commodity
    •       Establishment of linkages between farmer groups, commodity organizations and even individual farmers
            with strategic partners and donors.

KENFAP is a membership organization in that farmers can subscribe to the Federation in any of the different
categories provided by the constitution. They include individual, group, commodity associations, Cooperative
Societies and life memberships.

        •     Individual small scale member pay a minimum fee of 500/= (to cover a period of 3 years) while
              large scale farmers pay Kshs. 2000 per year.
        ^     Group membership fee is Kshs 3000, for Groups with membership ranging from 30 to 50.
        •     Commodity associations pay an entry fee of Kshs. 10,000 and 5% of its annual member's
              subscription of KShs. 35,000 annually which ever is greater.
        •     Cooperative societies pay an entry fee of Kshs_ 5000 while individual members within pay
              KShs. 150 each.
        •     Life membership is open to all farmers. Membership is open to all farmers. Membership in this
              category is ratified by the National Executive council upon payment of a fee of Kshs. 20,000


                                           FAMILY HEALTH PLAZA
                                   JUNCTION OF LANG'ATA/ MAI MAHIU ROAD
                                       P.O.BOX 43148, 00100, NAIROBI
                                       TEL:608324/600355, FAX 608325
                                          Website:www. kenfap. org
                                                                  A *.rrrA} f 1kf^Af{

                                    Coming soon...
                                    l UHmo Talai` is the Kiswahik name for Agra-tourism. This project was started in 2005
                                    through a joint partnership pf KENFAP, Agriterra and the Community. It is located in
                                    Meru South District on the windward side of Mount Kenya. It is 150km North East of
                                    Nairobi and 2km away from Chogorla Town situated at the foot of Mount Kenya, on the
                                    Eastern slopes of Eastern Province.
                                    The region offers a rich agricultural land with a rich Meru culture. Tea is the main
                                   agricultural commodity while maize, beans, bananas and other fruits are grown for
                                   domestic consumption and the surplus for sale. it gas scenic hills, green
                                   and lush vegetation, rivers, waterfalls and caves. it is along the recently
                        reconstructed Meru-Embu road and it is en route from Nairobi to the recently
                        revived Meru National Park.
                        in the Meru South region the project assists over 4000 farming households. You will
                        be exposed to different aspects of ag riculture,commu n ity life, culture and history in
                        different tours.Tours are guided by members of the community, The income that is
                        earned through tourism helps to alleviate poverty in the rural community.

                        Highlights of Kilimo Tali! Meru South
                        • Accommodation in an African hut or
                        • Camping amidst the rural community
                        • Tea, community and village tours among others guided by local farmers
           ;            • Overall presence of the famous Mount Kenya with opportunities for excursions in
               00         the Mount Kenya National Park
                        • Meal preparation by local women
                        • Contributing to the fight against poverty in Meru South
                          Engagement of the rural communities in environmental conservation,
                          acknowledging and branding the project as located in a World Heritage Site
               ,          (Mount Kenya)
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