Graphic Design

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					Graphic Design
           Graphic Design
• Audience Analysis

  – Who is the audience?
  – What are their demographics?
  – Where are they located?
  – How long do they have to read the message?
  – What is their anticipated level of interest?
  – Trends?
•   Age
•   Sex
•   Social status
•   Religion
•   Education level
•   Economic level
•   Interests

• Where are they in reference to the
  Message? – Distance

• Where are they? – Describe Location

• How long do they have to read the

• What is in competition with the
  message for reading time?
• How interested is the audience in
  the subject of the message?

• What do they like or dislike?

• What interest can be exploited to get
  the audience to read the message?
        Human factors
•   Values
•   Beliefs
•   Attitudes
•   Character
•   Temperament
•   Outlook
•   Perspectives
        Effective Graphic Design
• Incorporates Message Analysis

  Message Content - concise but complete

  Size and Shape - how the message is to be delivered

  Readability – typography

  Needs the Audience        - understands demographics

  Use of proven Design Principles and Elements
• How do you get the target audience, or the
  prospective consumer’s attention?

• How do you encourage the desired
           Message Content
    Supply all of the information expected

• Many ads only display the essential information
  but indicate where the rest of the details can be
  obtained. i.e. Dealership location and phone

• Textbooks have all or most of the information on
  a subject area depending on what grade level
  the book is intended.

Understand the format and know what is expected.
           Size and Shape
• The size and shape of the design are a
  function of all the items included in the
  audience analysis.

• The design must be the appropriate size to
  get the job done.
• Style of type, font
• Size of type, point
• Font enhancements,
  – underline, shadow, word art
• White space
• Line length and justification
• Color of the text and
  color of the text background
• Page layout
                  Style of Type
• Fonts – There are seven different font groupings, each
             with their own intended purpose.

   Old Style       used in the body of text where legibility is
   Sans Serif      used for display, headlines, and captions.
   Modern       much like old style in purpose but has
                higher contrast on the lettering strokes.
   Square Serif used for display, headlines, and short
                blocks of text.
   Occasional      for special effects, and should be used

   Text            used for special occasions like wedding
   Cursive         used for special effects.
             Type Nomenclature
 Ascender Line

   Waist Line

                                                     Thin   Size
    Base Line

Descender Line

                         Serif              Descender
           Old Style Type
Old Style typefaces have slight differences
between the thick and thin strokes,
rounded serifs and fillets. These features
allow for an eye pleasing amount of white
space thus making the fonts easier to read
and good for blocks of text.
             Goudy Old Style
             Modern Type
Modern Type is very similar to old
style. The major difference is there is a
much larger contrast between the thick
and thin strokes. Modern is light and
airy, it is considered a stylish type, and it
is very readable in a block of type.

 Bodoni             Times New Roman

         Century Schoolbook
            San Serif Types
San Serif Types San means without. San serif
types have no serifs. There is little or no
difference in the thickness of any of the strokes of
the letters. Their primary use has traditionally
been for headlines and captions. But these
typefaces have gained popularity for their use in
blocks of type. The lack of serifs allows the letter
to be closer together allowing more words to be on
the page. The readability is decreased but the
cost is reduced.
Arial                        Franklin Gothic
          Lucinda Sans
       Square Serif Types
Square Serif Types have square serifs and
even stroke width. The common uses for
the seldom used square serif types are for
display, head lines, and occasionally for a
short block of text.

             Occasional Types
Occasional types are used for special effect and create high
contrast but should be used very sparingly. These types should
never be used to set a block of text.

   Chiller                                    Broadway
                    Text Types
Text Type and Old English are very difficult to read
and are reserved for formal events such as weddings.
Due to the ornate nature of the capitol letters, text type

                 Cursive Types
Cursive Types are also occasional types and should be used
for special effect. They have the ability to show style and
class when used in advertising. They can be hard to read and
should not be set in all capitol letters.

             White Space
White space can add or detract from the
 readability of a design depending on how
 much is used. Too little and the design is

Too much and the design is disjointed and

unorganized which makes finding what

information goes together difficult.
                               Line Length
A long line length with small font size allows for a lot of words to be placed on a page which saves
    money but makes the information very hard to read. It is for that very reason that contracts use
    this format. It is hard to stay on the correct line because readers have to reposition their eyes
    several times as they read down the length of the line.

                                A short
                                line length
                                with a
                                large font
                                size results
                                in exactly
Fully understanding the audience allows the
 designer to select the appropriate design
 elements and principles to deliver the

Color can add or detract
from a design by making
it easy or hard to read.

Color can add or detract
from a design by making
it easy or hard to read.
High School Play Poster

 Unity- All but the title are in
 the same font.

 Emphasis- Art work and a
 contrasting font are used for
 the title.

 Rhythm-The diagonal
 placement helps the reader’s
 eye move down the page.
•This has a
good use of
emphasis and

• The viewer is
drawn in.

•The use of
three fonts
lacks unity
and the font
gets lost in the
  Additional Design Sources
• Templates
  – Most software for print documents has
    templates which are designed by professional
    designers. They are well done, BUT they do
    not take the user off the hook.
  – Selecting the appropriate format still must be
    done based on the needs of the audience and
    the intent of the design.
 Engineers and Engineering Technologists
• Technical reports and presentations are
  not advertisements.

  – The audience:
     • Is looking for information.
     • Does not want to waste time.
     • Does not need to be entertained.
– The message should be:
   • Clear
   • Concise
   • To the point
   • Well-organized
There should be a reason for every
  element placed on a design.

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