Docstoc

Note This is an excerpt of the index to Infectious Diseases In

Document Sample
Note This is an excerpt of the index to Infectious Diseases In Powered By Docstoc
					                                                       Index

 Note: This is an excerpt of the index to Infectious Diseases: In Context, edited by Brenda Wilmoth
 Lerner and published by Gale Cengage.
                                                               dracunculiasis, 253
E                                                              E. coli infections, 307
E. coli infections. See Escherichia coli O157:H7               ear infections, 263
Ear drops, for swimmer's ear, 802                              early plague, 631
Ear, external, 803                                             emerging diseases, 283, 921
Ear infections (otitis externa), 801, 801–803                  encephalitis, 288
Ear infections (otitis media), 262, 262–264                    filariasis, 316
Earth's Best Organic baby food, 117                            food-borne illness, 319, 320
East Africa, dengue fever outbreaks, 233                       H5N1-induced culling, 671
East African trypanosomiasis, 1, 2, 3                          HAART, 62
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), 265, 265–268, 266, 287      handwashing and, 359
Eastern Europe                                                 health care, 434
   diphtheria re-emergence, 165, 242, 243, 244, 245–246        hepatitis B, 380
   hantaviruses in, 363                                        HPV vaccine, 137
   syphilis in, 805                                            influenza, 440
   trichinellosis in, 829                                      IVM, 409
   tuberculosis in, 861                                        malaria, 279–280
   typhus in, 855                                              neglected tropical diseases, 836
Ebers Papyrus, 628                                             pink eye, 622
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), 37, 373, 375                    Rift Valley fever, 712
Ebola-Ivory Coast subtype, 271                                 river blindness, 717
Ebola-Reston subtype, 271, 273                                 rotavirus infections, 724
Ebola-Sudan subtype, 271, 272, 275                             rubella, 730
Ebola virus, 269–275                                           Salmonella infections, 735
   animal importation regulation and, 35, 37                   SARS precautions, 256, 276
   images, 270, 372                                            trachoma, 826
   makeshift disinfection methods, 250–251                     trichinellosis, 830
   overview, 375                                               tuberculosis programs, 279, 841–842
   patients in Uganda, 269                                     vaccines, 871, 872–874
   Reston, Virginia outbreak, 867                              vector-borne diseases, 878–879
   social inequalities and, 278                                viral diseases, 884
Ebola-Zaire subtype, 269, 270–271, 272                         water-borne diseases, 897
EBV. See Epstein~Barr virus                                    West Nile virus, 903
ECDC (European Center for Disease Prevention and            Economic Costs of Malaria Are Many Times Higher Than
 Control), 213                                               Previously Estimated (press release), 279–280
Echinococcus multilocularis infections, 26, 26–28           Economic development, 276, 276–280, 277
Economic considerations                                     The Economic Impact of a Bioterrorist Attack (CDC), 45
   African sleeping sickness medications, 4                 ECOSOC (United Nations Economic and Social Council),
   airborne precautions, 24                                  858
   alveolar echinococcosis, 27                              Ectopic pregnancy, from Chlamydia infections, 168
   anthrax bioterrorism, 45                                 Eczema, 393
   antiviral drugs, 446                                     EDCP (Epidemiology and Disease Control Program), 225
   ARV treatment distribution, 240                          Edible vaccines, 69
   bioterrorism preparedness, 102–103                       Education
   BSE-related meat bans, 120                                  AIDS, 11, 667
   cancer, 137                                                 Chlamydia infections, 170–171
   chickenpox vaccine, 155–156                                 helminth diseases, 370
   childhood immunization programs, 161–162                    HSV-2, 397
   CJD, 210                                                    Lassa fever, 473
   coccidioidomycosis outbreaks, 195                        Eflornithine, for African sleeping sickness, 3–4, 239
   colds, 201                                               Egars, Johnnie, 166
   cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, 219–220                     Egypt
   DDT, 567                                                    bilharzia in, 95



                                                            1
                                                     Index
   early plague in, 627–628, 632                          zoonoses, 935, 937
   leper colony, 487                                      See also Re~emerging infectious diseases
   polio in, 655                                        Emerging Infectious Diseases (journal), 5, 147, 690
   Rift Valley fever in, 711                            Emory University, 78, 146
Egyptian ophthalmia. See Trachoma                       Encephalitis, 285–290
Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfried, 221                       HFMD and, 356
Ehrlich, Paul, 48                                         HSV-1 and, 393, 394
El Bushra, Hassan, 275                                    measles and, 532
"El Garatillo". See Diphtheria                            Nipah virus and, 588, 588–590
El Salvador, pneumonia outbreak in, 642                   patient in India, 285
El Tor cholera serotype, 175, 178                         West Nile virus and, 900
Elbow bump greeting, 360                                  See also Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE); Equine
Elderly                                                     encephalitis; Japanese encephalitis; St. Louis
   antibiotic sensitivity testing and, 223                  encephalitis
   chickenpox/shingles and, 154                         Encephalomyelitis, 285
   CJD in, 208                                          Endemic flea-borne typhus, 852, 853, 854, 855
   Clostridium difficile infections and, 187–188        Endemicity, 291–293
   as cohorted community, 197                           Enders, John F., 648, 651
   E. coli infections, 306                              Endocytosis, 881
   income/health status relationship, 278               Enfuvirtide, 13
   infectious disease trends and, 230                   England. See United Kingdom
   pneumonia in, 644, 645                               Enrofloxacin ban, 700
   shingles in, 768, 769                                Entamoeba histolytica infections, 29, 29–31, 896
Electrolyte replacement, 177, 180, 219                  Enteric fever. See Typhoid fever
Electron microscopes, 553, 555                          Enterobius vermicularis infections, 370, 624, 624–626
Elephantiasis                                           Enterococcal infections, antibiotic resistance of, 875,
   from filariasis, 315, 315, 316                        875–877
   as tropical disease, 834                             Enterotoxins, 734
ELISA antibody tests, 13                                Enteroviruses, 356, 544, 545
Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, 759         Environmental issues
Elizabeth of Thuringia (saint), 488                       antimicrobial soap waste, 58
Elk, brucellosis and, 124                                 Burkholderia species as aid, 128
Ellermann, Wilhelm, 135                                   DDT, 520–521, 566
Ellis Island Great Hall, 418                              drinking water disinfection, 251
Emergency response                                        insecticides, 65
   bioterrorism preparedness and, 104                     mosquito pesticides, 568, 903
   field level response to outbreaks, 606, 606–611        pesticides, 617
Emerging infectious diseases, 281–284                   Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
   avian flu, 283, 433, 440, 884                          disinfectant regulation, 57, 251
   CA-MRSa, 572                                           water system standards, 220, 735, 933
   cryptosporidiosis, 323, 896, 897                     Enzymatic sterilization, 789–790
   EEE, 266                                             Enzyme targeting, 60
   epidemiology and, 299                                Eosin dye, 222
   global examples, 281                                 Eosinophilic meningitis, 32, 33
   H5N1 virus, 440, 446                                 EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency
   helminth diseases, 371                               Epic of Gilgamesh, 627
   HPS, 148                                             Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR),
   leptospirosis, 495                                    774–775
   MRSA, 433                                            Epidemic arthritic erythema, 687–688
   Nipah virus, 589                                     Epidemic louse-borne typhus, 852, 853, 855, 856–857
   notifiable diseases and, 600                         Epidemics
   plague, 606                                            African sleeping sickness, 1, 3, 4
   SARS, 282                                              BSE, 118, 119, 120
   seasonal variation in disease and, 230                 cholera, 178, 295, 299, 300, 479, 607, 736
   West Nile virus, 288–289, 566, 692, 902, 903           control efforts, 297
   wildlife trade and, 921                                diphtheria, 165, 242, 243, 244, 245–246


                                                        2
                                                       Index
   vs. endemicity, 291, 292–293                            Eskazole. See Albendazole
   influenza, 452, 453–454                                 Esophageal cancer, 367
   late-peaking diseases, 230                              Esophageal candidiasis, 139
   modeling of, 230–231                                    Essential services, access to. See Access to essential services
   rubella, 729                                            Estonia, typhus hospital in, 852
   U.S. reporting systems, 665–666                         Ethical issues
   war and, 889, 889–894, 890                                 Ebola virus testing, 274
Epidemiology, 294–300                                         edible vaccines, 69
   Bill of Mortality, 295                                     gene therapy, 706
   field level response and, 606, 606–611                     HIV/AIDS research funding, 22
   foot and mouth disease analysis, 294                       HPV vaccine, 415
   GIDEON and, 336                                            irradiation, 320, 321
   influenza pandemic of 1918, 890–891                        isolation and quarantine policies, 457–458
   London cholera analysis, 300                               Koch's Postulates and, 467
   STD project in India, 297                                  life sciences knowledge, 105
Epidemiology and Disease Control Program (EDCP), 225,         recombinant DNA research, 67–69
 226                                                          reconstruction of 1918 influenza virus, 446
Epididymitis, 346                                             self-experimentation of scientists, 308, 308–311, 366–367
Epstein, Anthony, 135                                         smallpox virus research, 776, 778
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 301–303                             Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 806, 807–809
   cancer link, 135–136, 137                                  vaccination choice, 162–166
   conjunctivitis and, 301                                 Ethiopia, LBRF in, 695
   mononucleosis from, 559–564                             Ethylene oxide sterilization, 789
Epstein, Michael, 301, 559                                 Europe
Epstein, Paul, 184                                            animal importation, 36
Equine encephalitis, 287                                      anthrax outbreak, 42
   See also Eastern equine encephalitis                       babesiosis cases, 81, 82
Equipment, medical. See Medical equipment                     cholera in, 177, 479
Equipment, protective. See Personal protective equipment      Culex mosquitoes in, 900
Eradication programs                                          diphtheria in, 243
   dracunculiasis, 253–254                                    early AIDS cases, 20
   endemicity and, 291–292                                    hantaviruses in, 363
   polio, 283–284                                             LBRF in, 695
   smallpox, 771, 773–774                                     leprosy in, 488
   taeniasis, 812                                             liver fluke infections in, 504
   WHO work, 915–916                                          necrotizing fasciitis in, 585
Erlich, Paul, 221                                             plague in, 64, 628, 630–632
Erskine, Marjorie Halcrow, 633                                smallpox in, 770–771
Erythema infectiosum, 312–314                                 tapeworm infections in, 814
Erythema migrans rash, 510, 511                               trichinellosis in, 829, 830
Erythromicin                                                  tularemia in, 846
   diphtheria, 244                                            typhus in, 854, 855
   rat-bite fever, 688                                        West Nile virus in, 901
   scarlet fever, 753                                         See also specific countries
   syphilis, 806                                           European Center for Disease Prevention and Control
   trachoma, 825                                            (ECDC), 213
   whooping cough, 911                                     European Medicines Agency, 324
Eschars, from typhus, 853                                  European Union, nontherapeutic antibiotics ban, 54, 700,
Escherichia coli O157:H7, 304–307                           877
   antimicrobial soaps and, 57                             Eustachian tube, 262, 263
   bacteria images, 305, 318                               Evang, Karl, 915
   as emerging disease, 282                                Evolution, disease and, 425–426, 547–550
   gene transfer and, 68, 69, 548–549                      Exclusion policies
   history, 84, 304–305, 319                                  fifth disease, 313, 314
   outbreak in Canada, 898                                    HFMD, 357
   warning sign, 304                                          lice outbreaks, 498


                                                           3
                                                            Index
  pandemic preparedness and, 614                                  FFI (familial fatal insomnia), 657–658
Excrement tanks, 738                                              Field-based biosensors, 686
Executive Order 13295, 458, 481, 746                              Field level responses to outbreaks, 606, 606–611, 747, 867
Exemptions for vaccines, 164                                      Fifth disease, 312–314
Exodus, book of (Bible), 43                                       Filariasis, 315, 315–317, 316, 834, 835
Exopolysaccharide coatings, 411–412                               Filatov's disease. See Mononucleosis
Expanded Program on Immunization, 161                             Filippo, Giovanni, 153
Exposed: scientists who risked disease for discovery, 308,        Filoviruses, 373, 523, 883
 308–311                                                          Filters, water. See Water filters
Exposure, cold temperatures, 200, 202                             Financial considerations. See Economic considerations
Extended wear contact lenses, 203–205                             Fine-toothed combs, for lice, 498
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. See XDR~TB               Fingers, disease effects on, 392–393, 577
External ear, 803                                                 Finlay, Carlos, 308, 929–931
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis, 755, 755–757, 838                    First International Sanitary Conference, 479
Extreme weather, climate change and, 184                          First Pandemic (plague), 629–630, 637
Extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis. See XDR~TB                 First responders. See Emergency response
Eye disorders. See Visual disorders                               First Test Approved to Help Detect West ile Virus (press
                                                                   release), 903–904
F                                                                 Fischetti, Vincent, 586
Face masks, 256                                                   Fish, anisakiasis from, 38, 39, 40
Fact Book Fiscal Year 2004 (NIH), 137                             Flagella, 304, 509
Factor VIII, 110                                                  Flat smallpox, 772
Faden, Ruth R., 671                                               Flaviviruses, 373, 883
False positives, defined, 298                                     Fleming, Sir Alexander, 48
Falwell, Jerry, 17                                                Flesh-eating disease. See Necrotizing fasciitis
Famciclovir, 393, 768                                             Floods
Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 657                              in Bangladesh, 896
Familial fatal insomnia (FFI), 657–658                               leptospirosis and, 496
Famine fever. See Typhus                                             Rift Valley fever and, 711
Farming. See Agriculture                                          Fluconazole
Farr, William, 295                                                   candidiasis, 140
Fascioliasis, 503–505                                                coccidioidomycosis, 195
Fatalities. See Deaths                                               Cryptococcus neoformans infections, 215
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), 44, 44                     Fluid replacement. See Oral rehydration methods
FDA. See U.S. Food and Drug Administration                        Fluke infections, 369–370, 503–505
Febrile seizures, from vaccines, 164                              Fluoroquinolones
Fecal-oral transmission, defined, 433                                antibiotic resistance of, 223–224
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 44, 44                        pneumonia, 645
Federal level infrastructure. See National level infrastructure      rickettsial diseases, 708
Feed for animals. See Animal feed                                 Flupirtine, 209
Ferrets, influenza research on, 441                               Flying squirrels, typhus from, 855
Fertility, by country, 228                                        Foam cells, 172
Fetal development                                                 Foci of diseases, 291
   chickenpox and, 154, 155                                       Fomites, 206, 358
   group B streptococcal infections and, 797                      Food and Drug Administration. See U.S. Food and Drug
   rubella and, 729                                                Administration
   toxoplasmosis and, 822                                         Food-borne disease and food safety, 318, 318–321
Fever                                                                angiostrongyliasis and, 33–34, 38
   African sleeping sickness, 2                                      anisakiasis and, 39, 40
   brucellosis, 123                                                  BSE/CJD and, 119, 120, 209, 210, 658–659
   chickenpox, 154                                                   Campylobacter infections and, 132, 133–134
   hantaviruses, 363                                                 cholera and, 175, 176, 179
   RBF and, 687–688                                                  cyclosporiasis and, 225, 226
   relapsing fever, 497, 694–696                                     E. coli and, 84, 305, 306–307, 319
Fever blisters. See Cold sores                                       hepatitis A and, 378–379
                                                                     hepatitis E and, 390, 391


                                                                  4
                                                      Index
   listeriosis and, 319, 500, 500–502                      Gamgee, John, 36
   marine toxins and, 527–530                              Ganciclovir, 191, 288
   Norovirus infections and, 594–596                       GAO (General Accounting Office), 608
   rapid tests and, 686                                    Garcia del Huerto, Dr., 178
   Salmonella infections and, 319, 320–321, 733, 733–735   Gardasil, 136, 137, 415
   scrofula and, 756                                       GAS (group A streptococci). See Streptococcal infections,
   tapeworm infections and, 813, 813–815                    Group A
   typhoid fever and, 849, 850, 851                        Gastric diseases, Helicobacter pylori infections and, 136,
   yersiniosis and, 932, 933                                137, 309–310, 366–367
Food imports. See Importation of food                      Gastroenteritis, 322–324
Food irradiation. See Irradiation                             E. coli and, 304
Food labeling. See Labeling                                   Noroviruses and, 319, 594–596
Food poisoning. See Food-borne disease and food safety        rotavirus infections and, 322, 324, 722–724, 723
Food-service workers                                       GAVI (Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization),
   HIV transmission, 9–10                                   148, 354
   Norovirus infections and, 595, 596                      Gay Freedom Day Parade, 10
Food Standards Agency (UK), 120                            GBS (group B streptococcal infections). See Streptococcal
Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 932, 933    infections, Group B
Foot and mouth disease, epidemiological map, 294           GBUI (Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative), 130
Fore people, 120, 468–470, 469                             Gel hand sanitizers. See Hand sanitizers
Formaldehyde, as disinfectant, 251                         Gelsinger, Jesse, 706
Formenty, Pierre, 275, 887                                 Gene therapy, 68, 706
Foscarnet, for CMV, 191                                    Gene transfer
Four Corners region, hantaviruses in, 148, 364                antibiotic resistance and, 52–53
France                                                        microbial evolution and, 547–548
   chikungunya in, 159                                        MRSa and, 570
   CJD in, 210                                                plasmid-mediated, 52–53, 547–548
   diphtheria ward, 244                                       smallpox virus genetic engineering and, 778
   military influenza patient ward, 443                    General Accounting Office (GAO), 608
   royal healing ceremonies, 755                           General Medical Council (UK), 534
   Yersinia pestis genetic identification, 632–634         Generalized immune cells, defined, 423
Francisella tularensis infections, 845, 845–848            Genetic engineering
Frank, Anne, 855                                              edible vaccines, 69
Freeman, Lisa, 290                                            horizontal gene transfer and, 548
Freeman, Stone, 290                                           mosquitoes, 567
Frequency assessment, 296                                     rapid tests and, 686
Friction, in handwashing, 359                                 smallpox virus, 778
Fruit bats, as Nipah virus reservoir, 588, 589                vaccines, 872
Fulminant hepatitis, 388, 391                              Genetic identification of microorganisms, 307, 325–327,
Fume hoods, 433                                             632–634
Fumigation programs. See Spraying programs                 Genetic mutations
Fungal infections. See Mycotic diseases                       CJD and, 210
Fungal keratitis, 203–205                                     drug resistance and, 697–699
Fungi, 551, 579                                               H5N1 virus and, 349, 350
Fungus balls, 70, 71                                          influenza, 452–455
Furious rabies, 680                                           influenza virus of 1918, 444, 448
Fusarium keratitis, 203–205                                   microbial evolution and, 548
Fusion inhibitors, 13                                         prion diseases and, 658
                                                              spontaneous antibiotic resistance and, 52
G                                                          Genetic recombination, HIV and, 402, 404
Gabon, Ebola virus in, 37, 270–271, 273, 274               Genetic replication
Gajdusek, Carleton, 120, 468                                  antiviral drugs and, 60–61
Galen, 345, 629                                               microbial evolution and, 548
Galileo, 553                                                  retroviruses and, 402, 704
Gallo, Robert, 13, 706                                        viral diseases and, 881
                                                           Genetic translation, antiviral drugs and, 61


                                                           5
                                                            Index
Genetics                                                        GIVS (Global Immunization Vision and Strategy), 354
   CJD and, 210                                                 Glanders, 126, 126–127, 338, 338–340
   Helicobacter pylori infections and, 367                      Glandular fever. See Mononucleosis
   leprosy and, 490                                             Gleavey, Dylan, 289
   West Nile virus and, 902                                     Global Alliance for the Elimination of Leprosy, 491
   See also Genome sequencing                                   Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI),
Genital herpes, 328, 395, 395–398, 760–761                       148, 354
Genital warts, 414, 762                                         Global Appeal to End Stigma and Discrimination against
Genome sequencing                                                People Affected by Leprosy, 491, 492
   Campylobacter bacteria, 132                                  Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative (GBUI), 130
   de novo virus synthesis and, 778                             Global climate change. See Climate change
   emerging diseases and, 283                                   Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 860,
   human genome, 105                                             861
   influenza virus of 1918, 444, 446                            Global HIV/AIDS Vaccine Enterprise, 282
   microorganism research and, 552                              Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), 354
   Mycobacterium ulceranus, 130                                 Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Online
   rapid tests and, 684                                          Network, 336–337
   SARS, 743                                                    Global Movement for Children, 858–859
Gentamicin, for tularemia, 847                                  Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN),
Genus identification, 325                                        607–608
Genus-species classification, 551                               Global Patient Safety Challenge, 598
Geographic focality, 291                                        Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 648, 652, 654, 654–656,
Geographic scope, defined, 297                                   916
Georgetown University, 103                                      Global Reference Group on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights,
Gerberding, Julie, 441                                           240
Germ theory of disease, 329–332                                 Global Salm-Surv program, 735
   Koch, Robert and, 178, 221, 330, 465, 551                    Global Strategic Framework for Integrated Vector
   Pasteur, Louis and, 178, 250, 330–331, 598                    Management, 409
   Snow, John and, 178, 299                                     Global Task Force on Cholera Control, 178, 179
   weather/disease relationship and, 182                        Global Vaccine Action Plan, 614
Germany                                                         Global warming. See Climate change
   anthrax biological weapons, 42                               Globalization, 341–344
   leptospirosis in, 495, 496                                      IHR and, 418
   Marburg hemorrhagic fever discovery, 523                        international law and, 478–482
   waiting mortuaries, 633                                         lung fluke infections and, 507
Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), 657                 world trade issues, 918–922
Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work campaign, 699                zoonoses and, 935
Ghana                                                           Glossina morsitans morsitans (tsetse fly), 2
   bilharzia in, 94                                             Gloves
   Buruli ulcer in, 835                                            patient contact and, 207
   yellow fever in, 928t                                           purpose, 619
Ghoson, Joseph, 341                                                as standard precaution, 782
Giant African land snails, as angiostrongyliasis carrier, 32,   glpD gene sequencing, 632–634
 34                                                             Glutaraldehyde, as disinfectant, 251
Giard, Alfred, 333                                              GOARN (Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network),
Giardiasis, 333, 333–335, 896                                    607–608
GIDEON (Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology             Goats, anthrax in, 43
 Online Network), 336–337                                       Gonorrhea, 345, 345–348, 346, 759–960
Giemsa stains, 519, 554                                         Gore, Al, 361
Giese, Jeanna, 682–683                                          Gorgas, William Crawford, 293, 886, 925, 926
Gifford, David R., 289                                          Gostin, Lawrence, 921
Gigantobilharzia, swimmer's itch from, 802                      Gottlieb, Jia, 166
Gilchrist, Thomas, 107                                          Gottlieb, Michael S., 21
Gilchrist's disease. See Blastomycosis                          Gould, Stephen Jay, 426
Gingivostomatitis, 78                                           Gowns, as standard precaution, 782–783
Gipson, John L., 564                                            Gowon, Yakubu, 371


                                                                6
                                                       Index
Gram, Hans Christian, 221, 222                               Haakon (prince of Norway), 38
Gram-negative bacteria                                       HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), 14, 61–62
   defined, 222                                              Haemophilus influenzae, 262, 352–354
   MIC testing and, 223                                      Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis (Hib)
   opportunistic infections and, 603                           deaths from, 162
Gram-positive bacteria                                         overview, 352, 353–354, 540
   defined, 222                                                vaccines for, 161, 352, 352, 353–354, 542
   MIC testing and, 223                                      Haiti
   opportunistic infections and, 603                           filariasis patient, 315
Gram stains, 222, 541, 554                                     girl with water bucket, 895
Grant, James Augustus, 129                                     HIV/AIDS prevention programs, 862
Granular conjunctivitis. See Trachoma                          immigration and malaria, 418
Granulocytopenia, 603                                          malaria in, 517
Graunt, John, 295                                              scabies in, 749
Gravitation law, 631                                         Hamburger disease. See Escherichia coli O157:H7
Great apes, Ebola virus and, 274                             Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), 355, 355–357
Great Hall of Ellis Island, 418                              Hand sanitizers
Greece, early plague in, 628–629                               in hospitals, 358, 570, 571, 783
Greenaway, Heather, 435–436                                    political campaigns and, 360–361
GreeneChips, 616                                               standard precautions and, 782, 783
Greenfield, Karl Taro, 608–611                               Handwashing, 358–361
Gross, Ludwick, 856–857                                        antimicrobial soaps for, 56, 56–58
Group A streptococcal infections. See Streptococcal            Campylobacter infection prevention, 133
 infections, Group A                                           children at petting zoo, 358
Group B streptococcal infections. See Streptococcal            contact precautions and, 206–207
 infections, Group B                                           cyclosporiasis prevention, 226
Group vs. individual evolution, 426                            dysentery prevention and, 259
Groups A-C rotavirus, 322                                      E. coli infection prevention, 306, 307
Gruinard, Scotland anthrax contamination, 43                   food-borne illness and, 319
GSS (Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker) syndrome, 657             improper methods, 58, 251
Guangdong, China SARS outbreak, 740, 742                       infection control and, 433
Guérin, Camille, 840                                           low compliance rate, 571–572, 783
Guerin, Philippe, 260, 261                                     Norovirus infections and, 595
Guideline for Isolation Procedures in Hospitals (CDC), 206     nosocomial infections and, 598, 599
Guillain-Barré syndrome, 133                                   puerperal fever prevention and, 330, 359, 598
Guinea worm disease. See Dracunculiasis                        standard precautions and, 359, 782, 783
Gulf of Mexico, disease outbreaks in, 177, 725               Hanoi, Vietnam SARS outbreak, 741, 747
Gummatous syphilis, 805                                      Hansen, Gerhard Henrik Armauer, 489
Guyana, leptospirosis lecture in, 85                         Hansen's disease. See Leprosy
                                                             Hantaan virus, 362, 363
H                                                            Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)
H1, H2 and H3 influenza, 74                                    as emerging threat, 148
H1N1 virus, as cause of 1918 pandemic, 444, 445                overview, 362, 364–365, 373
H2N2 virus, as cause of 1957 pandemic, 450                     research on, 885
H5 and H7 influenza, 74                                      Hantaviruses, 148, 362, 362–365, 885
H5N1 virus, 349–351                                          HAP (hospital-acquired pneumonia), 644–646
  CDC research on, 441                                       Harm reduction strategies, for STDs, 762
  as emerging disease, 440, 446                              Harold (political contact), 610
  images, 350                                                Hartsfield Jackson International Airport, quarantine station,
  NIAID research on, 583                                      771
  PMED vaccine delivery devices, 871                         Harvard University, 239, 279
  poultry vendor, 349                                        Haskell County, Kansas, as start of 1918 influenza
  wildlife trade and, 920                                     pandemic, 890–891
  See also Avian influenza                                   Haverhill fever. See Rat~bite fever
HA antigens. See Hemagglutinin (HA) antigens                 Hawaii
                                                               dengue fever in, 233, 234


                                                             7
                                                         Index
  liver fluke infections in, 504                               Hemolytic uremic syndrome, 306
HBV. See Hepatitis B virus                                     Hemophilia, HIV and, 22, 110
HCV. See Hepatitis C virus                                     Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), 148
Head lice, 497–499                                             Hemorrhagic fevers, 372–375
Healers, royalty as, 755, 757                                    in Bolivia, 885, 886–887
Health Canada, 62, 216                                           CCHF, 212, 212–214
Health care access. See Access to essential services             Ebola virus and, 37, 372, 375, 619–620
Health care-associated infections. See Nosocomial infections     hantaviruses, 363
Health care workers                                              Rift Valley fever, 711
  anthrax prevention, 46                                         See also Marburg hemorrhagic fever
  antibiotics overuse and, 224                                 Hemorrhagic smallpox, 772–773
  bloodborne pathogen risks, 112, 113                          Henderson Act of 1943, 807
  contact precautions, 206–207                                 Hendon, Ernest, 807
  cryptosporidiosis risks, 218                                 Henry Frederick (prince of Wales), 849
  handwashing and, 58, 783                                     HEPA (high-efficiency particulate) filters, 24
  HIV infection, 7–8                                           Hepatitis A virus (HAV), 376–379
  ICPs, 431                                                      liver tissue sampling, 378
  infection control equipment, 433–434                           map of risk areas, 377
  nosocomial infections and, 598                                 table of cases, 376t
  personal protective equipment, 618–620                       Hepatitis B virus (HBV), 380–383
  puerperal fever and, 674, 675–676                              decrease in infections, 114
  SARS and, 741, 747, 748                                        hepatitis D and, 388, 389
  typhus in, 852                                                 images, 380
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996      liver cancer and, 136
 (HIPAA), 481                                                    as major bloodborne pathogen, 112, 113
Health Protection Agency (UK)                                    table of cases, 381t
  CJD work, 209                                                  vaccines for, 67, 113, 114, 136, 161, 382, 388
  Clostridium difficile outbreak, 188                          Hepatitis C virus (HCV), 384–387
  scarlet fever outbreak, 753–754                                blood-borne transmission, 110, 112, 113, 384
  STDs data, 762                                                 DNA map, 386
Healthy Drinking Water Program, 898                              liver cancer and, 136
Healthy Environments for Children Alliance, 879                  map of risk areas, 384
Hearing                                                          table of cases, 385t
  ear anatomy and, 803                                         Hepatitis D virus (HDV), 388, 388–389
  ear infections and, 262, 264                                 Hepatitis E virus (HEV), 390, 390–391, 883
  meningitis and, 542                                          Hepatocellular carcinoma. See Liver cancer
Heart complications                                            Herd immunity, 161, 162–165
  Chlamydia infections and, 172, 173                           Herodotus, 755
  Kawasaki syndrome and, 462, 463                              Herpes B virus, 78–80
  Lyme disease and, 511                                        Herpes gladiatorum, 393, 394
  Staphylococcus aureus and, 785–786                           Herpes simplex 1 virus (HSV-1), 392–394
Heat sterilization, 788–789                                      cold sores from, 198, 392
Heberden, William, 153                                           encephalitis from, 286
Heine, Heinrich, 180                                             genital herpes from, 328
Helicobacter pylori, 366–368                                   Herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2), 395–398
  bacteria image, 366                                            encephalitis from, 286
  stomach cancer and, 136, 137, 367                              genital herpes from, 328, 395, 760–761
  stomach ulcers and, 309–310, 366–367, 466                      image, 395
Helminth diseases, 369–371                                     Herpes simplex viruses, 286, 287
  See also specific diseases                                   Herpes zoster infections. See Shingles infections
Helper T cells, 403, 424                                       Herpesviruses, overview, 883
Helsinki Declaration, 310                                      Herpetic whitlow, 392–393
Hemagglutinin (HA) antigens                                    Heterophile antibodies, 302, 561
  antigenic drift and, 439                                     Heterosexual transmission of HIV, 7, 15, 16, 20, 298
  H5N1 virus, 74, 350                                          HEW (Department of Health, Education and Welfare), 806
  influenza pandemics and, 441, 444, 450                       HFMD (hand, foot and mouth disease), 355, 355–357


                                                               8
                                                      Index
HHS. See U.S. Department of Health and Human Services       arthropod-borne diseases and, 65
HHV-4 (human herpes virus 4). See Epstein~Barr virus        in Democratic Republic of the Congo, 674
HHV-8 (human herpes virus 8), 136                           tuberculosis and, 841
Hib. See Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis         Homosexual transmission of HIV, 7, 19–20, 21, 22
High-efficiency particulate (HEPA) filters, 24            Honey, botulism from, 117
High-level disinfection, 57, 249                          Hong Kong
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 14, 61–62     influenza outbreaks, 74
HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability      SARS outbreak, 343–344, 609, 742, 748
 Act of 1996), 481                                        Hooke, Robert, 329, 553
Hippocrates                                               Hookworm infections, 405, 405–407
  on cholera, 178                                         Horizontal gene transfer, 547–548
  on diphtheria, 245                                      Horses
  on disease causation, 294–295                             EEE in, 265, 266, 267
  on hygiene, 206                                           encephalitis in, 287, 288
  on mumps, 573                                             West Nile virus vaccine, 902–903
  on tuberculosis, 837                                    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), 644–646
  on weather and disease, 182                             Hospital disinfectants, defined, 57
Histoplasmosis, 399–401                                   Hospital patients
History of the Peloponnesian War (Thucydides), 628          airborne precautions, 23, 23–25
History of the Wars (Procopius), 629                        charter for tuberculosis care, 842–844
HIV fusion inhibitors, 13                                   contact precautions, 206–207
HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus), 402–404                 droplet precautions, 255–256
  blood donation transmission of, 7, 8, 15, 22, 110–111     HIV infection from health care worker, 8
  candidiasis and, 139, 140                                 rights and responsibilities, 842–844
  CMV and, 190, 191                                         transport limits, 207, 256
  Cryptococcus neoformans infections and, 215, 216        Hospitals
  discovery, 13, 20–21, 706                                 antibiotic resistance and, 51–52
  drug-resistant tuberculosis and, 24                       antimicrobial soap use, 57
  as emerging disease, 282                                  aspergillosis surveillance, 71
  gonorrhea and, 348                                        availability of beds, 25t
  HHV-8 and, 136                                            biofilm bacteria growth, 699
  HSV-2 and, 396                                            cohorted communities and, 197
  image, 402                                                disinfection for, 249, 250
  Koch's Postulates and, 466–467                            droplet precautions, 255–256
  leishmaniasis co-infection, 485                           emergency room bioterrorism signs, 100
  as major bloodborne pathogen, 112, 113                    field level response and, 607, 608
  malaria and, 185, 690                                     handwashing and, 358, 433
  map of risk areas, 19                                     infection control and, 431–435
  Millennium Goals and, 860–862                             isolation policies, 457
  NIAID research on, 582                                    MSF projects, 537
  overview, 758–759                                         puerperal fever and, 673–674
  patients, 60, 403                                         Staphylococcus aureus infections and, 786
  PCP and, 640, 641, 643                                    VRE in, 876
  PEP for, 114                                              See also Nosocomial infections; Standard precautions
  in prisons, 197                                         Host cells (viruses), 881
  research on, 14–15                                      Host focality, 291
  scrofula and, 756, 757                                  Hosts and vectors, 408–410, 878, 878–880
  in Somalia, 419                                         Hot tub rash, 411, 411–412
  syphilis and, 807                                       The Hot Zone (Preston), 271, 274
  tracking policies, 478                                  Hotez, Peter, 4–6
  tuberculosis and, 603, 690–691                          Household transmission of disease
  in women and minorities, 913                              antibacterial products and, 332
  See also AIDS                                             antimicrobial soaps and, 57–58
Holler, Anthony F., 873                                     epidemiological modeling and, 230–231
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 597–598                             HIV, 9
Homeless people                                             SARS, 667, 668


                                                          9
                                                           Index
Houston, Texas Norovirus infection outbreak, 595                colds and, 200, 201
How Charles icolle of the Pasteur Institute Discovered          E. coli infection prevention, 306, 307
 That Epidemic Typhus Is Transmitted by Lice:                   food-borne illness and, 319, 320
 Reminiscences from My Years at the Pasteur Institute in        Fusarium keratitis and, 204–205
 Paris (essay), 856–857                                         germ theory and, 331, 332
Howard, Carter, 807                                             helminth diseases and, 370
HPS. See Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome                          hepatitis A and, 378
HPV (human papillomavirus infection), 413–416                   hepatitis B and, 382
  cervical cancer and, 135, 136, 761, 913                       hepatitis C, 385
  vaccines for, 762–763                                         hepatitis E and, 390, 391
  virus image, 135                                              hookworm infections and, 406
  warts from, 413, 761                                          impetigo and, 429
HSV-1. See Herpes simplex 1 virus                               listeriosis prevention, 501
HSV-2. See Herpes simplex 2 virus                               measles and, 533
HTLV-I (human T-lymphotropic virus I), 136, 704                 meningitis, viral and, 545–546
HTLV-III (human T-cell leukemia virus III), 20–21               MRSa and, 572
  See also HIV                                                  Norovirus infections and, 595
Huang (political contact), 611                                  nosocomial infections and, 598
Human Development Report of 2005 (UNDP), 860                    pinworm infections and, 626
Human enterovirus-71, 356                                       plague and, 638
Human genome sequencing, bioterrorism and, 105                  ringworm and, 714
Human herpes virus 4 (HHV-4). See Epstein~Barr virus            rotavirus infections and, 322
Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), 136                               RSV and, 701, 702
Human immunodeficiency virus. See HIV                           Salmonella infections and, 735
Human itch mite infections (scabies), 749, 749–751, 750         SARS and, 746
Human papillomaviruses. See HPV                                 shigellosis and, 765, 766
Human parvovirus B19, 312                                       shingles and, 769
Human rights issues, HIV/AIDS as, 240                           strep throat and, 792
Human T-lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I), 136, 704                 Streptococcus infections and, 430
Human T-lymphotropic virus III (HTLV-III), 20–21                tapeworm infections prevention, 815
  See also HIV                                                Hymenolepis species infections. See Tapeworm infections
Human vaccines. See Vaccines and vaccine development          Hynes Memorial Hospital, 649
Human volunteers for research. See Volunteers for
 experiments                                                  I
Humanitarian aid                                              IAPB (International Agency for the Prevention of
  drug delivery programs, 239                                   Blindness), 718
  ivermectin donations, 717–718                               Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 209, 657, 658
  leprosy treatment donations, 491                            ICPs (infection control professionals), 431
  viral diseases and, 884                                     ID Biomedical, 873
  See also Médecins Sans Frontières                           Identification of pathogens
Humans and animals, proximity of. See Proximity of                GIDEON and, 336
 humans and animals                                               Koch's Postulates and, 745
Hun invasions, anthrax and, 43                                    See also Culture and sensitivity (microbiology); Genetic
Hurricane Katrina                                                   identification of microorganisms
  cholera and, 180–181                                        Idoxuridine, 60
  dysentery and, 257                                          IDSR (Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response
  Norovirus infection outbreak, 595                             program), 148
Hurricane Mitch, 184                                          IgM Capture ELISA test, for West Nile Virus, 903, 904
Hutu refugees, 249                                            IHR. See International Health Regulations
Hyalomma ticks, 212                                           Iliad (Homer), 43
Hydrogen peroxide, as disinfectant, 251                       Illinois
Hygiene                                                           African snail seizure, 32
  antibiotic resistance and, 549–550                              cyclosporiasis outbreaks, 225
  B virus exposure, 79                                            flu shot clinic, 438
  CMV infections and, 191, 192                                Immigration, 417–420, 418, 616
  cohorted community infections and, 196, 197


                                                              10
                                                      Index
Immune globulin treatments                                  brucellosis and, 124
  hepatitis A, 378, 379                                     BSE/CJD and, 119, 120, 210
  RSV, 702                                                  cyclosporiasis and, 225
  tetanus, 817                                           In Clean Politics, Flesh Is Pressed, Then Sanitized
Immune response to infection, 421–427                     (newspaper article), 360–361
  antibody-antigen docking, 421                          In Disaster's Wake: Tsunami Lung (journal article), 646–647
  colds, 200                                             Inactive polio vaccine (IPV), 651–652
  Cryptococcus neoformans infections and, 215            Incidence rate, 291, 295–297
  influenza virus of 1918, 444–445                       Income and health status relationship, 276, 276–280, 277,
  rapid tests and, 686                                    425–426
  white blood cells, 422, 423                            Incubation period, defined, 297
Immune system, 230, 332, 421                             Incus bones, 803
Immunity                                                 India
  chickenpox, 155                                           bacterial meningitis in, 540
  defined, 160–161                                          chikungunya in, 157–158, 689
  diphtheria, 245, 246                                      cholera vaccine trials, 178
  EEE, 266                                                  ciprofloxacin production, 49
  fifth disease, 313                                        dengue fever warning poster, 374
  herd, 161, 162–165                                        diphtheria in, 244
  smallpox, 772                                             early plague in, 632
Immunization Plus program, 859                              encephalitis in, 285
Immunizations. See Vaccines and vaccine development         filariasis in, 315
Immuno-based rapid tests. See Antibody tests                HIV/AIDS prevention programs, 862
Immunocompromised people                                    LBRF in, 695
  aspergillosis and, 70, 71                                 leishmaniasis in, 484
  candidiasis in, 139                                       leprosy in, 490, 491, 916
  cat scratch disease and, 142–143                          malaria in, 519
  chickenpox and, 154, 155                                  Nipah virus encephalitis in, 589
  CMV in, 190, 191                                          nurse with vaccine bag, 238
  coccidioidomycosis and, 194                               polio in, 650, 652, 655
  Cryptococcus neoformans infections and, 215               polio outbreak, 648
  cryptosporidiosis and, 219, 220, 897                      STD reduction project, 297
  cyclosporiasis and, 225                                   torrential rains, 184
  E. coli infections and, 306                               tropical diseases in, 835
  fifth disease and, 313                                    tuberculosis in, 279, 841
  fungal infections and, 578, 579                           typhus in, 855
  gastroenteritis and, 322                               Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, 537, 646–647
  helminth diseases and, 370                             Indiana, histoplasmosis outbreak, 400
  histoplasmosis and, 400, 401                           Indirect transmission, defined, 206
  hot tub rash and, 411, 412                             Individual vs. group evolution, 426
  HSV-1, 393                                             Indonesia
  Legionnaire's disease and, 476, 477                       anthrax outbreak, 43
  listeriosis and, 501                                      avian flu outbreak, 74, 77, 342, 671
  mononucleosis and, 562                                    dengue fever in, 232, 235–236
  nocardiosis and, 592–593                                  malaria in, 516
  opportunistic infections and, 603, 603–605                pesticide spraying, 569
  PCP and, 640                                              pigs with H5N1 virus, 437
  scabies and, 749, 750                                     roundworm infections in, 725
  shingles and, 768, 769                                    smallpox eradication, 777
  strongyloidiasis and, 799–800                             tsunami survivors, 537, 646
  tuberculosis and, 837, 838, 841                        Industrial Revolution, animal importation and, 36
Immunofluorescence, 554                                  Industrialized nations
Immunostrip testing, 684, 685–686                           Chlamydia infections in, 170
Impetigo, 428, 428–430                                      dysentery in, 259
Importation of animals. See Animal importation              income/health status relationship, 276, 276–280, 277
Importation of food                                         mononucleosis in, 560–561


                                                         11
                                                         Index
   pinworm diseases in, 370                                     CDC research on, 441
   puerperal fever in, 674–675                                  deaths from, 74
Infantile paralysis. See Polio                                  history, 74, 283, 440
Infants                                                         military hospital ward, 443
   botulism in, 117                                             scientist examining culture, 146
   chickenpox in, 154, 155                                      WWI and, 890–891
   Chlamydia infections in, 169                              Influenza pandemic of 1957, 74, 439, 449, 449–451
   diaper rash in, 140                                       Influenza pandemic of 1968, 74, 439, 449
   gonorrhea in, 345, 346–347                                Influenza Surveillance Network, 445
   group B streptococcal infections in, 797, 798             Informed consent for research volunteers, 310, 806, 807
   hepatitis B and, 382                                      Inglesby, Thomas V., 104–105
   HFMD in, 355, 356                                         Inhalation disease forms
   HIV/AIDS in, 8, 13                                           anthrax, 41, 45, 102
   HSV-1 in, 393, 394                                           botulism, 116, 117
   HSV-2 in, 395–396, 397                                       histoplasmosis, 399
   meningitis in, 542, 544, 545                                 Q fever, 677
   pink eye in, 621                                          Inhibition zones, 53
   rotavirus infections in, 722, 723, 723                    Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR), 65, 95
   RSV in, 701, 702                                          Innate immunity
   rubella in, 728, 728, 729                                    HIV infection and, 403
   tetanus in, 816, 817                                         overview, 423
   vaccination schedules, 160, 162                              re-emerging diseases and, 692
   whooping cough in, 910                                    INRUD (International Network for the Rational Use of
   yellow fever in, 927                                       Drugs), 239
   yersiniosis in, 932                                       Insect repellents and disease prevention
   See also Breastfeeding; Neonatal diseases                    CCHF, 213, 214
Infection control and asepsis, 431–436                          chikungunya, 159
   antibiotics overuse and, 224                                 filariasis, 316
   pneumonia and, 645                                           leishmaniasis, 486
   public health agencies and, 665–672                          Lyme disease, 512
   standard precautions and, 782–784                            malaria, 519
Infection control professionals (ICPs), 431                     mosquito-borne diseases, 568
Infectious agents, defined, 297                                 typhus, 856
Infectious Disease Society of America, 224                      West Nile virus, 903, 904
Infectious hepatitis. See Hepatitis A virus                  Insecticide resistance. See Pesticide resistance
Infectious mononucleosis. See Mononucleosis                  Insecticides. See Pesticides
Infectious parotitis. See Mumps                              Insomnia, familial fatal, 657–658
Infectivity, defined, 297                                    Inspections of cargo. See Cargo inspections
Infertility                                                  Institute Pasteur, 20
   Chlamydia infections and, 168                             Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response program
   gonorrhea and, 346                                         (IDSR), 148
   mumps and, 575                                            Integrated vector management (IVM), 409
Inflammatory response, 422, 423–424                          Intensified Smallpox Eradication Program, 771, 776–777
Influenza, 437–441, 452–455                                  Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, 224
   vs. bioterrorism agents, 6                                Interferon, 385, 387, 388
   vs. colds, 200                                            Interferon-gamma tuberculosis tests, 839
   flu shot clinic, 438                                      Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 183,
   NIAID research on, 582–583                                 617
   in nursing homes, 197                                     Intermediate hosts, defined, 408
   pandemic preparedness, 612, 612–614, 669–671              Intermediate leprosy, 490
   pig research, 437                                         Intermediate-level disinfection, defined, 57, 249
   scientist examining culture, 146                          Internally displaced persons (IDPs), defined, 417
   vaccines for, 60, 438, 440, 445, 450, 454, 612–613, 873      See also Displaced people
   See also Avian influenza                                  International adoption, vaccinations and, 420
Influenza pandemic of 1918, 442–448                          International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness
   burial ground, 442                                         (IAPB), 718


                                                             12
                                                         Index
International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses, 21      Isaac (article), 538–539
International cooperation                                   Ishii, Shiro, 310
    CDC and, 148                                            Isolation and quarantine, 456–458
    cyclosporiasis prevention, 226                             airport stations, 771
    field level response and, 606, 606–611                     Apollo 11 astronauts, 456
    global surveillance systems and, 342                       Black Death and, 478–479
    history, 479–480                                           BSE-infected cows, 118
    HIV/AIDS, 861, 862                                         droplet precautions and, 255–256
    hookworm infections, 407                                   Ebola virus outbreak, 275
    influenza surveillance, 445                                hemorrhagic fevers, 374
    isolation and quarantine policies, 458                     imported pets, 37
    Lassa fever, 474                                           infection control and, 431, 434
    MSF and, 536–539                                           infectious disease law and, 481
    pandemic preparedness and, 671                             influenza pandemic of 1957, 450
    reporting systems, 665                                     Lassa fever, 867
International Decade for Action, 260, 898                      leprosy, 488, 491
International Emerging Infections Program, 342                 Mallon, Mary ("Typhoid Mary"), 851
International Health Regulations (IHR)                         measles, 533
    purpose, 418, 481–482, 602                                 Overseas Marilyn, 472
    SARS and, 746                                              pandemic preparedness and, 614
    U.S. reporting systems and, 665                            SARS, 667, 740, 742, 742, 745–746, 747
    world trade issues, 921                                    smallpox, 773
International law, 478–482                                     Speaker, Andrew case, 343, 419, 481, 840
    See also Legislation                                       VRE at-risk patients, 877
International level reporting systems, 299, 665             Israel, avian flu outbreak, 74
International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs         Italy
  (INRUD), 239                                                 early plague in, 629, 630
International Network to Promote Household Water               typhus warning sign, 853
  Treatment and Safe Storage, 30                            Itching, from scabies, 749
International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, 842          ITI (International Trachoma Initiative), 824, 825
International Trachoma Initiative (ITI), 824, 825           Itraconazole
Internationally Adopted Children - Immigration Status          blastomycosis, 108
  (letter to the editor), 420                                  coccidioidomycosis, 195
Internet resources                                             sporotrichosis, 781
    CDC preparedness website, 670                           Ivermectin
    GIDEON, 336–337                                            APOC and, 239
    ProMED, 660–661                                            filariasis, 835
Intertrigo, 140                                                river blindness, 717
Intestinal disorders, 188, 304–305                             scabies, 750
Intravenous gamma globulin (IVGG), 463                         strongyloidiasis, 800
Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), 817                     IVGG (intravenous gamma globulin), 463
Invasive candidiasis, 140, 141                              IVM (integrated vector management), 409
Iodine, as disinfectant, 250                                Ivory Coast. See Côte d'Ivoire
Iodoquinol, for balantidiasis, 88                           IVR (Initiative for Vaccine Research), 65, 95
Ionic staining techniques, 221–222                          Iwan warrior, 469
Ip, Regina, 344                                             Ixodes species. See Tick-borne diseases
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 183,
  617
Iran, cholera outbreak, 179
Iraq War (2003- ), 228–229, 892
Iron deficiency anemia. See Anemia
Iron lungs, 649, 650–651
Irradiation
    CDC on, 320
    cyclosporiasis prevention, 226
    food-borne illness prevention, 321


                                                            13

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:6
posted:3/17/2012
language:English
pages:13
jennyyingdi jennyyingdi http://
About