; Technical Introduction to CDMA
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Technical Introduction to CDMA


  • pg 1
									   Course RF100

            Wireless CDMA RF
           Engineering: Week 1

December, 1998   RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1   1-1
     Integrated RF/CDMA/Performance Training
Course RF100: RF Introduction, CDMA Principles, Understanding System Design & Performance Issues
       Monday                      Tuesday                   Wednesday                    Thursday                      Friday
•Wireless Industry Intro.   •Wireless Antennas          •Introduction to CDMA       •CDMA Flow Examples         •System Growth Mgt.
•Modulation Techniques        •Intro: Principles          •Spread Sp. Principles    •Critical CDMA Issues         •Stopgap measures
•Mult. Access Methods         •Families/Types             •CDMA’s Codes               •Interference control       •Longterm strategies
•Wireless system              •Choosing the right         •Fwd & Rev Channels         •Managing Soft HO%          •Multiple carriers
Architectures                 antenna                     •System Architecture        •Capacity constraints       •Intercarrier Handoff
•RF Propagation               •Selecting ants.            •Power Control                 •Forward big picture   •Intro to Optimization
  •Physics                    •Other devices              •Phone Architecture            •Reverse big picture     •Perspectives
  •Mechanisms                 •Tests/Problems             •Handoff Process          •Sys Architecture details        •Bottom-up: mobile
  •Models                   •Traffic Engineering             •Ec/Io, Eb/No            •Lucent                        •Top-down: OMs
  •Link Budgets               •Units, principles             •phone’s limitations     •Nortel                     •Survey of Tools
  •Margins                    •Traffic tables             •Call Processing            •Motorola                   •Performance Goals
  •Pred. Tools                •Wireless appls.            •CDMA Messages                                          •Design Implications
  •Meas. Tools

Course RF200: Optimization Principles, Tools, Techniques, and Real-Life Examples/Exercises
         Day 1                       Day 2                       Day 3                       Day 4
•Optimization Overview      •Intro to Mobile Tools      •Handsets as test tools     •Operators’ Corporate
•RF100 Fast Review            •Collection Tools         •Drive-Test Demo Lab        RF Benchmarking
•General Q&A                     •Grayson, LCC, HP        •RSAT/Collect 2000!       Overview
•Meet the CDMA                •PN Scanners                •Grayson Inspector        •PN Scanner Lab
performance indicators           •HP, Grayson,          •Data Analysis and Post-      •HP, Grayson,
•Signatures of CDMA              Berkeley               Processing                    Berkeley
transmission problems         •Post-processing            •Analyzer, DeskCat          •Gathering data,
•The classic CDMA                •Analyzer, DeskCat       •what events did you        interpreting problems
death scenario              •Drive-test Demo files        see?                      •Applied Optimization
•Introduction to              •Grayson                    •Identifying root           •common scenarios
Performance Data              •LCC                        causes
•System-side tools and      •Intro to Post-Processing     •Parameter &
their implications            •Analyzer, DeskCat          configuration changes

 December, 1998                              RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                                                   1-2
  RF100 Chapter 1

                 Wireless Systems:
    How did we get here? What’s it all about?


December, 1998      RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1   1-3
          Radio Hasn’t Been Around Long!

                                      Days before radio.....
                                      • 1680 Newton first suggested
                                        concept of spectrum, but for
                                        visible light only
                                      • 1831 Faraday demonstrated that
                      N    S            light, electricity, and magnetism
                          U             are related
                                      • 1864 Maxwell’s Equations:
LF HF VHF UHF MW IR       UV XRAY       spectrum includes more than light
                                      • 1890’s First successful demos of
                                        radio transmission

December, 1998        RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                 1-4
     First Wired Communication: Telegraphy
 Samuel F.B. Morse had the idea of the telegraph on a
  sea cruise in the 1833. He studied physics for two years,
  and In 1835 demonstrated a working prototype, which he
  patented in 1837.
 Derivatives of Morse’ binary code are still in use today
 The US Congress funded a demonstration line from
  Washington to Baltimore, completed in 1844.
 1844: the first commercial telegraph circuits were coming
  into use. The railroads soon were using them for train
  dispatching, and the Western Union company resold idle
  time on railroad circuits for public telegrams, nationwide   Samuel F. B. Morse
 1857: first trans-Atlantic submarine cable was installed   at the peak of his career

          Submarine Cable Installation                       Field Telegraphy
           news sketch from the 1850’s                during the US Civil War, 1860’s
December, 1998              RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                      1-5
        Wired Communication for Everyone:
 By the 1870’s, the telegraph was in use all over the world and largely taken for
  granted by the public, government, and business.
 In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone, a device for carrying
  actual voices over wires.
 Initial telephone demonstrations sparked intense public interest and by the late
  1890’s, telephone service was available in most towns and cities across the USA

Alexander Graham Bell and his phone
      from 1876 demonstration                   Telephone Line Installation Crew
December, 1998             RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                    1-6
                            Radio Milestones
          1888: Heinrich Hertz, German physicist, gives lab demo of
           existance of electromagnetic waves at radio frequencies
          1895: Guglielmo Marconi demonstrates a wireless radio
           telegraph over a 3-km path near his home it Italy
          1897: the British fund Marconi’s development of reliable
           radio telegraphy over ranges of 100 kM
          1902: Marconi’s successful trans-Atlantic demonstration
          1902: Nathan Stubblefield demonstrates voice over radio
                                                                     Guglielmo Marconi
          1906: Lee De Forest invents “audion”, triode vacuum tube radio pioneer, 1895
              • feasible now to make steady carriers, and to amplify signals
          1914: Radio became valuable military tool in World War I
          1920s: Radio used for commercial broadcasting
          1940s: first application of RADAR - English detection of
           incoming German planes during WW II
MTS,      1950s: first public marriage of radio and telephony -
           MTS, Mobile Telephone System
          1961: transistor developed: portable radio now practical
          1961: IMTS - Improved Mobile Telephone Service               Lee De Forest
          1970s: Integrated circuit progress: MSI, LSI, VLSI, ASICs vacuum tube inventor
          1979, 1983: AMPS cellular demo, commercial systems

 December, 1998              RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                  1-7
                Overview of the Radio Spectrum
             Frequencies Used by Wireless Systems
                                                   AM                        LORAN          Marine
0.3           0.4          0.5    0.6     0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0       1.2    1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0    2.4        3.0 MHz
                                                                                      3,000,000 i.e., 3x106 Hz

                  Short Wave -- International Broadcast -- Amateur                              CB
    3         4            5       6      7    8   9      10   12     14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 MHz
                                                                                     30,000,000 i.e., 3x107 Hz

        VHF LOW Band                  VHF TV 2-6        FM            VHF VHF TV 7-13
30            40         50       60     70   80 90 100        120 140 160 180 200       240       300 MHz
                                                                                  300,000,000 i.e., 3x108 Hz
                                               Cellular                      DCS, PCS
                     UHF       UHF TV 14-69                            GPS
0.3           0.4        0.5      0/6    0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0       1.2    1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0     2.4        3.0 GHz
                                                                                3,000,000,000 i.e., 3x109 Hz

3            4           5        6       7   8    9    10     12     14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 GHz
                                                                              30,000,000,000 i.e., 3x1010 Hz
           Broadcasting          Land-Mobile      Aeronautical Mobile Telephony
                                  Terrestrial Microwave Satellite
        December, 1998                  RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                          1-8
    Development of North American Cellular
 In the late 1970’s, the FCC (USA Federal Communications Commission)
  allocated 40 MHz. of spectrum in the 800 MHz. range for public mobile
 FCC adopted Bell Lab’s AMPS (Advanced
         Mobile Phone System) standard, creating
         cellular as we know it today              333 MSAs
    • The USA was divided into 333 MSAs
         (Metropolitan Service Areas) and over
                                                   300+ RSAs
       300 RSAs (Rural Service Areas)
 In 1987, FCC allocated an additional 10 MHz. of “expanded spectrum”
 By 1990, all MSAs and RSAs had competing licenses granted and at
  least one system operating.
 In the 1990’s, additional technologies were developed for cellular
    • TDMA (IS-54,55,56, IS-136) (also, GSM in Europe/worldwide)
    • CDMA (IS-95)
 US Operators did not pay for their spectrum, although processing fees
  (typically $10,000’s) were charged to cover license administrative cost

December, 1998          RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1              1-9
                North American Cellular Spectrum
Uplink Frequencies                                                           Downlink Frequencies
(“Reverse Path”)                                                                 (“Forward Path”)

824            835         845     849
                                             Frequency, MHz            870       880       890      894

          A            B                    Paging, ESMR, etc.               A         B
 825                             846.5                           869                          891.5

                                         Frequencies used by “A” Cellular Operator
              Ownership and               Initial ownership by Non-Wireline companies
              Licensing                  Frequencies used by “B” Cellular Operator
                                            Initial ownership by Wireline companies

   In each MSA and RSA, eligibility for ownership was restricted
      • “A” licenses awarded to non-telephone-company applicants only
      • “B” licenses awareded to existing telephone companies only
      • subsequent sales are unrestricted after system in actual operation

      December, 1998               RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                        1 - 10
            Development of North America PCS
 By 1994, US cellular systems were seriously
  overloaded and looking for capacity relief
    • The FCC allocated 120 MHz. of spectrum
      around 1900 MHz. for new wireless telephony
      known as PCS (Personal Communications
                                                                   51 MTAs
      Systems), and 20 MHz. for unlicensed services                493 BTAs
    • allocation was divided into 6 blocks; 10-year
      licenses were auctioned to highest bidders
 PCS Licensing and Auction Details
    • A & B spectrum blocks licensed in 51 MTAs (Major Trading Areas )
         • Revenue from auction: $7.2 billion (1995)
    • C, D, E, F blocks were licensed in 493 BTAs (Basic Trading Areas)
         • C-block auction revenue: $10.2 B, D-E-F block auction: $2+ B (1996)
    • Auction winners are free to choose any desired technology
    • About half the C-block winners were unable to pay for their licenses. These
      openings will be reauctioned in early 1999
                                           unlic. unlic.
       A    D      B    E F         C      data voice       A      D   B    E F       C
       15   5      15   5   5       15                      15     5   15   5   5     15
1850                                     1910        1930                                    1990
MHz.                                     MHz.        MHz.                                    MHz.
  December, 1998                RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                    1 - 11
                         Major PCS Auction Winners
                                           The Largest Players, Areas, and Technologies
                                            Sprint PCS
          Sprint PCS                           • Began as partnership of Sprint, TCI, Cox Cable
            CDMA                               • Bid & won in 2/3 of US markets A or B blocks
                                               • Sprint won D and/or E blocks in remaining markets
                                               • CDMA: Mix of Nortel, Lucent, Motorola
                                            AT&T Wireless Systems
    AT&T Wireless
       IS-136                                  • Bid & won a majority of markets in A&B Blocks
                                               • will combine and integrate service between its new
                                                 PCS 1900 systems and its former McCaw cellular
                                                 800 MHz. properties
                                               • IS-136: mix of Lucent and Ericsson equipment
           Primeco                          Other CDMA Operators
            CDMA                               • Primeco: partnership of various operators
                                               • GTE, others
                                            GSM Operators
     Wireless                                  • Western Wireless, OmniPoint, BellSouth, GTE,
                                                 Powertel, Pacific Bell
           GSM              BellSouth
                                               • Mix of Ericsson, Nokia, and Nortel networks
                                            For auction details, check www.fcc.gov

  December, 1998                           RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                 1 - 12
Progress in Radio Technology Development

Systems, Signals, & Devices

Radio Communication Systems
            HFAmateur               VHFLand Mobile                Mobile Telephony30-50MHz
                  Marine                                                             150MHz
                  Military            Microwave          Microwave                   450MHz
                                 RADAR Point-to-Point          Satellite             800MHz
                      AM Bcst1MHz FM Bcst100MHz
                                          VHF-TV Bcst
                                                    UHF-TV Bcst

Devices   Spark Vacuum             Discrete MSI   VLSI,
                 Tubes            Transistors LSI ASICS

       1910       1920       1930   1940     1950 1960            1970   1980   1990 2000
 December, 1998                RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                     1 - 13
Evolution of Wireless Telephony

Standards, Technologies, & Capacity
 Standards Evolution
                MTS150MHz           IMTS150MHz         AMPS800MHz         PCS1900MHz
                                          450MHz         N_AMPS           CDMA
                                                         D-AMPS           AMPS, etc

 Technology Evolution                                      CDMA           ESMR800MHz
            Analog    AM, FM    Digital Modulation       Access Strategies
                                               DQPSK                       FDMA
                                                GMSK                       TDMA

         Vacuum Tubes          Discrete Transistors      MSI        LSI    VLSI, ASICs
 System Capacity Evolution - Users
                   Dozens          Hundreds            100,000’s                1,000,000’s

                   1960                                                                1990
  AMPS = Advanced Mobile Phone System              PCS-1900 =   Personal Communication Systems
N_AMPS = Narrowband AMPS (Motorola)                  FDMA =     Frequency Division Multiple Access
D-AMPS = Digital AMPS (IS-54 TDMA)                   TDMA =     Time Division Multiple Access
  ESMR = Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio           CDMA =     Code Division Multiple Access
  December, 1998                 RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1                         1 - 14
 Summary: Wireless Economics and Logistics

 Trends in Radio Communications

    Technology:          Analog                                 Digital

    Organization:        Centralized                        Distributed

   Cost per Subscriber

       System Capacity
    System Complexity
Radio Frequencies Used

  December, 1998         RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1            1 - 15
                  End of Section

December, 1998   RF100 (c) 1998 Scott Baxter v1.1   1 - 16

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