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									Using the World Cup as a learning
opportunity (Cont’d)
The French Team of 1998
    How much do you know about
    what they represented?
What was significant about them?

•   In 1998 the world cup came to France. It was the first time that the tournament had been held there but
    that is not the most interesting thing.
•   It has since been acknowledged that when you look at the team they stand out as one of the most
    interesting studies in international diversity there has ever been
    Is it fair to criticise?
•   Many people complained about the composition of the team
    and that they really shouldn’t have been able to field a team
    like that.
•   Such comments are a little unfair and perhaps a little
    outdated because most countries in the world, certainly in
    the ‘developed world’ have experienced widespread
    immigration and really you need to think carefully about
•   Just think about all the players of African, European, Asian
    and American decent in our own football leagues and even
    our national team!
•   Most of all you have to remember that we are an island – so
    in a way we are all immigrants!
How did it happen?
•   French history is similar to Britain’s
    especially in the 19th century. For
    centuries French explorers and
    traders travelled the globe setting
    up crucial trade links for their nation
    back home.
•   This inevitably brought new cultures,
    fashions, foods and habits to France.
•   It also brought people.
•   France also like England was heavily
    involved in the Slave trade and the
    resulting colonialisation of Africa.
    This meant that their foothold in the
    continent was firmly established.
•   This influence remains today and for
    many Africans France is seen as a
    second home and the language a
    common ground.
    A History of Diversity
•   The French national football team has long reflected the
    ethnic diversity of the country. The first black player playing in
    the national team was Raoul Diagne in 1931.
•   He was the son of the first African elected to the French
    National Assembly, Blaise Diagne.
•   In the 1950s, the first French national team reaching
    international success with a semi-final at the World Cup 1958
    already included many sons of immigrants such as Raymond
    Kopa, Roger Piantoni, Maryan Wisnieski and Bernard Chiarelli.
•   This tradition continued through the 1980s, when such
    successful players as Michel Platini, Jean Tigana, Luis
    Fernández, Manuel Amoros or Eric Cantona all had foreign-
    born parents.
Here are some of the
players who played for
France in 1998
See how many you recognise

• Zinédine Zidane was
  born in Marseille to
• Patrick Vieira
  immigrated as a
  child from Senegal
• Claude Makélélé
  was also an
  immigrant from
  Africa – he comes
  from the
  Republic of the
• Lilian Thuram is
  from France's
  department of
• Thierry Henry is the
  son of parents born
  in Guadeloupe and
• Marcel Desailly was
  born in Ghana
            And too many more to mention…
• Ok here’s a couple.
  Louis Saha, Sylvain
  Wiltord, and Pascal
  Chimbonda all have
  parents who hail
  from Guadeloupe so
  they are second
 The trend continues…
• In the 2006 French national team, 17 of the 23
  players were members of racial minorities,
  including many of the most prominent players.
  The team featured players born in France's
  overseas departments and others who were
  immigrants or the children of immigrants from
  former French colonies.
            The Newcomers
• Although they didn’t
  play in 1998 because
  they were too young
  Karim Benzema,
  Samir Nasri, and
  Hatem Ben Arfa
  were born to
  immigrant families
  from Algeria and
• Florent Malouda
  was born in French
        GOMIS & SAGNA
• Both Bafétimbi
  Gomis and Bacary
  Sagna have dual
• Vikash Dhorasoo —
  the first French
  player of Indo-
  Mauritian origin –
  played in the 2006
  World Cup.
            The French National Front
•   The multiracial makeup of the team
    has at times provoked controversy. In
    recent years, critics on the far right of
    the French political spectrum have
    taken issue with the proportional
    underrepresentation of white
    Frenchmen on the team.
•   National Front politician Jean-Marie Le
    Pen protested in 1998 that the Black,
    Blanc, Beur team that won the World
    Cup did not look sufficiently French.
•   In 2002, led by Ghanaian-born Marcel
    Desailly, the French team unanimously
    publicly appealed to the French voting
    public to reject the presidential
    candidacy of Le Pen and instead return
    President Jacques Chirac to office in a
•   In 2006, Le Pen also resumed his
    criticism, charging that coach
    Raymond Domenech had selected too
    many black players.
            Alain Finkielkraut
•   In 2005, French
    philosopher Alain
    Finkielkraut caused a
    controversy by remarking
    to the Israeli newspaper
    Haaretz that despite its
    earlier slogan, "the French
    national team is in fact
    black-black-black," adding
    "France is made fun of all
    around Europe because of
    that." He later excused
    himself for this comment,
    which he declared was not
    meant to be offensive.
                             The Infamous Head butt

•   The Zidane-Materazzi head butt incident in the 2006 World Cup final and its aftermath served as a symbol
    for the larger issue of Europe's struggle to integrate its non-white immigrant population: even though
    both players denied it, international media speculated for days about the presence of a racist element in
    the exchange, observing that the Italian team contained no ethnic minorities.
                              Tensions Remain

•   The national team's overall impact on France's efforts to integrate its minorities and come to terms with
    its colonial past has been mixed, however. In 2001, France played a friendly match in the Stade de France,
    site of its 1998 World Cup triumph, against Algeria. It was France's first meeting with its former colony,
    with whom it had fought a war from 1954–1962, and it proved controversial. France's national anthem, La
    Marseillaise, was booed by Algerian supporters before the game, and following a French goal that made
    the score 4–1 in the second half, spectators ran onto the field of play and caused the game to be
    suspended. It was never resumed.
The similarities and differences in
children’s lives in UK and SA
       Over the next few slides you will see information that
       allows us to compare the conditions in which children
       grow up in the two nations
       How many examples of differences can you find?
       What aspects of life are the same?
       What can this information tell us about the two
                        Venn Diagram

• You will have probably seen one of     •   If you think that it applies to both sides
                                             then you put it in the middle
  these diagrams before they are         •   This is a useful way or sorting information
  quite simple to fill in                    because it helps us to see both sides of an
                                             argument and connect our thoughts in a
• All you have to do is to think about       clear way… good luck
  the information and make a
  decision which side of the diagram
  it fits.
Life in South Africa and U.K.

Life in UK                      Life in South Africa
Number of young people in South Africa and the UK

    •   Although South Africa’s population is smaller than Britain’s there are more young people.
    •   In South Africa it is harder to get essential health care for children in their early years – this is
        known as an infant mortality rate. It means you are more likely to die there on average
    •   In Britain young people make up around 14% of all the people living here. This means that
        people in Britain have smaller families and as a result the quality of life for children is higher
        because children can afford to support and even spoil their children
    •   In South Africa around 40% of the population are aged under 18.
    •   Life expectancy in South Africa is around 50 years of age.
    •   With such a large percentage of young people in South Africa, the future of their country
        really depends on them!
    •   Young people in South Africa are seen as very important, in Britain they are too but more
        personal freedom for most children and teenagers can mean that people can be quite
        negative towards all young people because of the bad behaviour of a minority!
Children and poverty

•   There are many things that can affect children’s health such as the
    food they eat, the housing they live in, the amount of exercise they
    get, how clean the air is where they live and so on. Poverty can affect
    their health.
•   In Britain 1.6 million children live in housing that is overcrowded,
    temporary or run down.
•   There are around 11.7 million children in the country so that means about 14% are
    considered to be in extreme poverty
•   In South Africa health can be a struggle for young people.
•   Two thirds (75%) of children in South Africa live below the poverty
    line, many of them in rural areas.
•   Although there are now more families in South Africa that have
    improved water supplies, around a half (50%) of the children in South
    Africa don’t have access to clean reliable water in their house or yard
    and there are still thousands of schools that don’t have access to safe
    water on site.
•    In mid-2003 the UK was home to 59.6 million people. The average age was 38.4 years, an
     increase on 1971 when it was 34.1 years. There are more people in the UK aged over 60 (12.4
     million), than there are children under 16 (11.7 million).
•    The UK population has increased by 6.5 per cent in the last 30 years or so, from 55.9 million
     in mid-1971. It is one of the largest populations in the European Union (EU), accounting for
     13 per cent of the total.
•    In the recent election immigration management was acknowledged as a key issue. However
     much of immigration into the UK is from Europe and therefore acceptable under law.
•    In South Africa the population is 49.3 million – around 10 million less than the UK
•    Even though the population of South Africa has increased in the past decade (primarily due to
     immigration), the country had an annual population growth rate of −0.501% in 2008,
     including immigration.
•    The CIA estimates that in 2009 South Africa's population started to grow again, at a rate of
•    South Africa is home to an estimated 5 million illegal immigrants, including some 3 million
     Zimbabweans. A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa beginning on 11 May

•   The challenge of childhood diseases is being tackled by immunisation.
•   Polio which used to be problem for some children in Britain until the 1960s was still a problem in South Africa until recently
    but has now been eradicated.
•   Other health challenges are still there, though. It is estimated that 3.3 per cent of children aged 2-14 are living with HIV.
    There are also many children in South Africa who have lost their parents because of serious illnesses.
•   There are 3.7 million orphaned children in South Africa and around half of them have lost their parents to HIV/AIDS.
•   Many orphaned children have to take responsibility for looking after younger brothers and sisters and this limits the time
    they have to concentrate on their own development and the interests they want to pursue for themselves.
•   In Britain, some children have problems with the fitness and stamina needed for playing sports like football for different
•   Very few children in Britain have to walk long distances to school and many children spend their leisure time playing
    computer games rather than getting physical exercise.
•   Quite a lot of children in Britain eat foods that contain a lot of salt and fats that are unhealthy and some are overweight.
•   In the rural areas in South Africa, in particular, many children have to walk long distances to school, and instead of eating
    unhealthy sugary manufactured foods, they eat healthy organic food which their families have grown.
•   So in some ways they will be healthier, but sometimes there is not enough food.
Child labour
•   Some children in South Africa have little time to be free to play and get exercise because
    they have to work.
•   About 1 million children in South Africa are engaged in child labour. Sometimes this is work
    they are paid for, sometimes this is work they do for their families like collecting wood or
    fuel, which can be very difficult and tiring.
•   The South African government has been working to make new laws to reduce and hopefully
    to stop child labour.
•   The Constitution of South Africa says children have a right to be protected from work that is
    dangerous or exploitative, or would affect their schooling and development and to protect
    them from work that is not appropriate for their age.
•   In Britain child labour is against the law
•   Every child has the legal right to a protected period in which they have a chance to grow,
    gain education and be protected from harm.
•   Britain follows guidance set out by the UN Declaration of Human Rights as far as children are
    concerned and is a leading nation globally in securing equal opportunities for all children
•   Britain also has lots of charities that work to support the law and make sure that crimes are
    well below the global average
School facilities to support sport

  •   One of the places that many children in Britain get to take part in sport and games and use facilities is through schools. Most
      schools have a PE hall and some, especially secondary schools, have their own sports fields and pitches.
  •   In Britain nearly every child who is of school age does go to school, but in South Africa that is not the case. There are nearly
      200,000 children aged between 7 and 15 in South Africa who are not at school and more of these are girls than boys.
  •   But the situation is improving. More children in South Africa today are now completing school; there are almost as many
      girls as boys at school.
  •   It is still the case, though, that facilities and opportunities for children are generally better in the urban schools than the
      rural schools.
  •   In 2006 the South African government launched its “Mass Participation School Sport programme” focusing on football,
      netball, volleyball, athletics, cricket, basketball. Through this programme it is trying to ensure that more children have the
      opportunity to take part in these sports.
  •   More and more girls are being encouraged to play football. South Africa has had a women's football team – Banyana
      Banyana – since 1993 and since 2001 it has had its first under-19 national women's football team.
  •   In Britain there are opportunities for all children to play sport. There are private clubs that many children enjoy but there
      are also government sponsored clubs and charity organisations to ensure that sport is accessible to all students.
  •   Although childhood obesity remains a growing problem in Britain has been a clear effort by the government and the
      educational system to try and encourage healthier habits and a more outgoing lifestyle.
    Children’s right to play
•     Governments of many countries around the world are agreed that children have the right to play, and they know that
      means also that children should be able to play freely, confidently and safely.
•     There is a very important United Nations document called “The Convention of the Rights of the Child”, which most countries
      in the world have signed.
•     The British government signed this document in 1991. This means that the British government has a responsibility to try to
      make sure that there are play opportunities for children and young people.
•     In local areas the council takes on this responsibility. Local councils have to think about making sure that streets and estates
      and parks and green spaces are available for children to use for play. They know that children need play environments that
      are safe, healthy and fun. But not all play environments in Britain are like this and some areas have much more green space
      and many more facilities than others.
•     In South Africa in 1992, there was a conference held by a children’s rights organisation called Molo Songololo, and 200
      children aged 12-16 from 20 different regions of South Africa came there.
•     They discussed the difficulties they had as children, especially under the apartheid rules. But they had high hopes for the
      future and they wrote a new document called “The Children’s Charter of South Africa”. Among the statements in this
      charter it says:
•     All children have the right to clothing, housing and a healthy diet
•     All children have the right to clean water, sanitation and a clean living environment
•     All children have the right to play and to access to free and adequate sports and recreational facilities
•     The reality of life in South Africa is a little different. There are lots of areas where it is simply not possible to protect children
      because of over crowding and poverty.
•     It is also difficult to ensure that all the different ethnic groups in the country follow the laws set out by the government

•   Study the events at Soweto and think
    about the questions asked in the headline

•   In the following slides you will see a
    number of quotes about children made
    from famous people. Read them through
    as a class and form an ‘opinion line’ to
    show whether you think the idea is
    followed in both the U.K. and South Africa

•   You could also take each focus area in turn
    and talk about what you have learned
    about them and the similarities or
    differences for each country
    The Soweto football stadium and events of 1976

    Think about the following story and what it means for children’s rights?
    What does the fact that it is remembered tell us about the direction in which the country is

•   In Soweto, near Johannesburg, there is a football stadium called the Orlando Stadium. It was built in 1959. In
    June 1976 it was going to be used for something other than football. School students from many schools in
    Soweto were organising a protest because at that time black children had to go to separate schools that had
    much worse facilities and the government was also bringing in a law that the teaching of most subjects had
    to be done in the Afrikaans language – the language of the apartheid law-makers.
•   Children left their classrooms in protest and many teachers agreed with them. As their marches joined up,
    they were heading in the direction of Orlando Football stadium. When they got there they were planning to
    make speeches to explain what they were protesting about and what they wanted to change. The police
    blocked their path and asked the children to go home. They refused and stood there singing their national
    song “god Bless Africa”. A confrontation happened and the policed fired live ammunition. A 13 year old boy,
    Hector Pieterson was shot dead. The news spread around the world and made more people everywhere
    determined that the children of South Africa should have a future of freedom and equality.
•   The football stadium was then closed by the authorities as a punishment, but it has been rebuilt and is now
    ready for use again.

Youth Day

•   To remember the bravery of the schoolchildren of Soweto and the events of June 1976, when children
    protested against the effects of apartheid on their rights to an equal education, the new South African
    government has made June 16th into a national holiday which is called “Youth Day”.
“We must all work to make the
world worthy of its children”
(Pablo Casals)
“If we are ever to have real
peace in this world we shall
have to begin with the
children” (Mahatma Ghandi)
“In a disparate world children
are a unifying force” (Graca
Machel Mandela)
“Children are a wonderful gift.
They have an extraordinary
capacity to see into the heart of
things” (Desmond Tutu)
“Many things can wait; the
child cannot. Now is the time
his bones are being formed, his
mind is being developed. To
him, we cannot say tomorrow;
his name is today” (Gabriela
“There can be no keener
revelation of a society’s soul
than the way in which it treats
its children” (Nelson Mandela)
Making a Plastic Bag Football
       This task is just a bit of fun but could be
       an interesting exercise if you take the
       basic principle and try to experiment in
       competition with your classmates!
Red Card to Child Labour
   Stitching Footballs a Global Issue
    Child Labour + Footballs = A Disgrace

•    Did you know that stitched footballs are normally made by hand rather than by machine? In
     countries like India and Pakistan children as young as five have jobs stitching footballs by hand – and
     it is a hazardous job. Many child stitchers suffer from poor eyesight, chronic back and neck pain, and
     sometimes deformed fingers. They often don’t get proper treatment for these conditions, leaving
     them affected for life.
•    Wages are incredibly low and many children never get the chance to go to school. Some children
     stitch part-time and then go to school in the afternoons, but their work leaves them too tired to
     concentrate on their studies. However, many families could not survive without the income these
     children bring into the home.
•    The use of child labour in the sporting goods industry has attracted lots of bad publicity. The World
     Federation of the Sports Goods Industry has been trying to end harmful child labour and improve
     working conditions for children and adults. However local organisations feel that more needs to be
     done to ensure that these programmes are more effective in protecting child stitchers.

                                                             From Global March Against Child Labour 2000
• Is child labour ever acceptable? Why or why not?

• You’ve heard of fair-trade chocolate. But did you know
  you could get fair-trade footballs too? They are made
  by a company in Pakistan who employ only adults (not
  children), and offer a fair wage and good working
  conditions. The company also provides a healthcare
  clinic and schooling for workers’ children.
• Print off pictures of the new football from, or show the group online.
• Get the group to write to the manager of a football
  team – it could be your local club, your school team or
  the professional side you support – telling them about
  these fairly traded footballs, and requesting that they
  use them.
• As an alternative, mock up a magazine advert
  promoting the new fair-trade footballs.
• If you are really ambitious get the group to act out a TV

• The arguments for and against fair-trade footballs.
• Think about the effect on the workers who make them,
  the cost for teams in the UK, and the standard of the
  footballs they make.
Its not all bad…

                   • Click the link to see a nice story about
                     Footballs being made for a good cause…

Millenium Development Goals
The Millennium Development Goals

•      By 2015, the governments of the world have promised to …
•      reduce poverty
•      educate every child
•      provide equal chances for girls and women
•      reduce the number of babies and children who die
•      ensure safe and healthy motherhood
•      fight infectious diseases
•      clean up the environment
•      share responsibility for making the world a better Place


•      To help pupils develop an understanding of what the Millennium Development Goals
•      are and to consider some of the issues behind them.
•      To enable pupils to express, justify and defend orally a personal opinion.
•      What to do
•      Ask pupils to work in groups of three or four, and give each group a copy of The Millennium
•      Development Goals (see page 2). Ask them to cut them out and rank them according to how
•      important they think each goal is. They can use diamond ranking or ordinary ranking.
•      Put two groups together and ask them to compare their results. They should explain to each
•      other how they arrived at their decisions.
•      In a plenary discussion, ask the pupils:
•      • Which MDGs did they consider most important and why?
•      • Who did they have in mind when they made their decisions?
•      • Do they think everyone, everywhere would agree with their conclusions? Why or why
•      • not?
•      The aim of this ranking exercise is to get pupils to engage with the goals and to discuss them
•      together. During the plenary, you could tell them that specialists think that all the goals are of
•      equal importance, as none of them can be achieved without the others. Furthermore, the
•      seven goals depend on the eighth goal (to build a global partnership for development
•      fairer trade, more aid and debt relief).
Millennium Development Goal 1 – to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

•    Target – Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less that
     $1 a day.
•    Target – Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
•    In 1990, nearly 28 per cent of people in low- and middle-income countries were living on less
     than $1 (60p) a
•    day. Many people living at this level of poverty cannot afford to pay for basic requirements
     such as food. The aim
•    of the first Millennium Development Goal is to reduce this figure to 14 per cent by 2015,
     thereby lifting more
•    than 500 million people out of extreme poverty. While this will not signify a complete
     eradication of poverty, it
•    will bring the world closer to a stage when all its people will have the minimum necessary to
     feed and clothe
•    themselves.
•    Although poverty levels have been decreasing in many regions since 1990, in others progress
     has been less
•    good. The greatest number of poor people live in South Asia, but the proportion of poor is
     highest in sub-Saharan
•    Africa where over forty per cent of the population continues to live on less than $1 a day. In
     fact, the number of
•    poor people in this region has actually increased over the years.
•    It is vital the world community works together to reduce poverty and thus meet people’s
     basic needs. Much
•    could be achieved by reforming international trade, so that developing countries receive fair
     prices for their
•    goods, and by addressing other issues such as climate change. In a world in which many
     people are better off
•    than ever before, it is unacceptable that so many others should be struggling to survive.
Football in the slums

Nairobi, Kenya

•    In Kenya’s Mathare Valley slum (near Nairobi) there is a football club which is helping
•    to make life better for children living there. The club is called the Mathare Youth Sports
•    Association (MYSA).
•    ‘[MYSA] has changed the way our children view this slum. It has kept them out of
•    drugs and HIV/AIDS,’ says Naomi Mugure, a fruit seller, whose youngest son, Laban,
•    plays football for one of the MYSA teams. He is twelve and became a member of MYSA
•    football club two years ago.
•    MYSA is a unique organisation: an umbrella of 1010 football teams organised and run
•    – mostly by youth under 16 years – in the sprawling Mathare Valley, one of Nairobi’s
•    largest slums. About half a million people live there in crowded conditions.
•    Joining up is easy: you can play for a MYSA team as long as you also help out with
•    clearing up rubbish in the area, take AIDS prevention classes and leadership training,
•    and join in other similar community projects. There is a league for teams to play in,
•    and two points are scored for each match won. In addition, each team earns four
•    points – the equivalent of winning two games – for each clean-up in Mathare. MYSA
•    has many teams playing in their league, and some play in national leagues too. One
•    ex-team member now plays in Denmark.
•    (Source: Adapted from Gemini News Service)

Lusaka, Zambia

•    ‘Initially the idea was to just get kids off the streets by keeping them busy with some
•    home-made plastic balls. But there was so much talent, we decided to form a regular
•    team and enter an organised league. We emphasise the need for them to develop their
•    talent and avoid beer drinking, smoking or crime. As a result, these boys have changed
•    and are now more focused on succeeding in what they are doing.’
•    (Brian Mulenga, Fountain of Hope Club, Lusaka, Zambia, Gemini, 1.6.01)
•    (Both extracts adapted with permission from Global Express, Edition No. 32, June 2002,
     Teachers’ notes p 3. Global
•    Express is produced by Development Education Project, Manchester. For more information,
The Millennium Development Goals – Teacher’s sheet

•     What are the Millennium Development Goals?
•     The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international targets for
•     global poverty. By the year 2015, these goals, if they are reached, will have
      lifted around 500
•     million people out of poverty. Fewer women will die in childbirth, fewer
      people will die from
•     treatable diseases, many more boys and girls will go to school and the lives of
      millions of
•     people will improve dramatically.
•     How did they come about?
•     In the year 2000, the member states of the United Nations General Assembly
•     adopted the Millennium Declaration. This document outlines the 189
      countries’ commitment
•     to the UN’s principle of working towards a more just, peaceful and equal
      world. The MDGs,
•     as a set of realistic and achievable targets, are central to this process. By
      signing up to these
•     goals, governments of both developing and developed countries have
      committed themselves
•     to working collaboratively towards a better future for all of us.
•     What is happening now?
•     Progress on the goals will be measured each year, in order to help achieve
      them all by 2015.
•     For the first seven goals, the onus is on the governments of developing
      countries to ensure
•     that targets are met or bettered. It is the eighth goal, however, to ‘build a
      global partnership
•     for development’ that will create the conditions necessary for achieving the
      other seven. With
•     this goal, the responsibility falls on the richer countries and the wider ‘global
      community’ to
•     reduce debt, to give more and better aid and to make trade fairer, among
      other measures. At
•     the current rate of progress, many of the targets will be missed and it is
      therefore vital that
•     pressure is stepped up on the world community to increase efforts to achieve

For more information

•     www.undp/mdg

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