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                                                         4
Happy Sweet Sixteen!!!!!!!!


June 29, 1989                 June 29, 2005




                                              5
Surface Water Treatment Rules (SWTRs)




                U.S. EPA
         Webcast Training Session
              June 29, 2005
            2:00-4:00pm EST
                                        6
SWTRs
   SWTRs Training encompasses requirements of the
    following regulations:
    •   Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR)
    •   Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
        (IESWTR)
    •   Long Term Enhanced 1 Surface Water Treatment
        Rule (LT1ESWTR)
    •   Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (FBRR)



                                                        7
  SWTRs
   Size          Filtration Type     SWTR    IESWTR LT1    FBRR
                                      1989     1998 2002    2001
           Conventional or Direct                          
Serving at Filtration
least      Slow Sand, Diatomaceous            
10,000     Earth or Alternative
           Filtration
           Unfiltered Systems                 
           Conventional or Direct                         
Serving    Filtration
fewer than Slow Sand, Diatomaceous                  
10,000     Earth or Alternative
           Filtration
           Unfiltered Systems                       
                                                                   8
SWTRs Purpose
   Purpose: To improve public health protection
    through the control of microbial contaminants,
    including requirements for removal and/or
    inactivation of:
    •   Viruses
    •   Giardia Lamblia
    •   Cryptosporidium




                                                     9
SWTRs Scope
   Scope:
    •   Applies to all public water systems using surface
        water or ground water under the direct influence of
        surface water (GWUDI), otherwise known as
        “Subpart H systems.”
            Require all Subpart H systems to:
             • Disinfect
             • Filter
             • Individual filter monitoring & establishes CFE limits
             • Apply treatment technique requirements for control of
               microbials.
                 Exception – Systems meeting Filter Avoidance Criteria
                  only need to disinfect
                                                                          10
       Outline
          History of Microbials
          Overview of SWTR, IESWTR, and LT1ESWTR
           Requirements
          Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking
           •   Lessons Learned in the Process (City of Manassas, VA)
          Other Requirements under the SWTR
          Turbidity Requirements
           •   Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
           •   Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative
               Filtration
           •   Unfiltered Systems
                   Case Studies
          Additional Resources
Overview                                                                    11
       Applicability to Systems
          This presentation covers:
           •   Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
           •   Slow Sand and Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative
               Filtration Systems
           •   Unfiltered Systems


                       The requirements that apply to each
                     system depend on the system’s treatment
                                    process.



Overview                                                         12
            Presenters                Panelists
           Ed Moriarty, U.S. EPA     Tom Grubbs, U.S. EPA

                                     Mike Finn, U.S. EPA
           Maria Lopez, U.S. EPA



           Linda Hills, The Cadmus
              Group, Inc.



Overview                                                    13
       Disclaimer
          The examples included in this presentation are intended for discussion
           purposes only. Throughout this presentation, the terms “state” or “states”
           are used to refer to all types of primacy agencies including U.S. territories,
           Indian tribes, and EPA Regions. The statutory provisions and EPA
           regulations described in this document contain legally binding requirements.
           This presentation is not a regulation itself, nor does it change or substitute
           for those provisions and regulations. Thus, it does not impose legally
           binding requirements on EPA, states, or public water systems. This
           guidance does not confer legal rights or impose legal obligations upon any
           member of the public. While EPA has made every effort to ensure the
           accuracy of the discussion in this presentation, the obligations of the
           regulated community are determined by statutes, regulations, or other
           legally binding requirements. In the event of a conflict between the
           discussion in this presentation and any statute or regulation, this
           presentation would not be controlling.



Overview                                                                               14
       Public Health & Regulated Pathogens
          Regulated Pathogens:      In excess amounts:
           •   Viruses                •   Nausea
           •   Giardia                •   Cramps
           •   Cryptosporidium        •   Diarrhea
                                      •   Associated headaches
                                      •   More serious health effects for
                                          infants, elderly or other
                                          immune-compromised people




Overview                                                                    15
History of Microbials




                        16
       The Challenge of Microbial Organisms
          What They Do Was Known
           Before What They Are
           •   Hippocrates: Boil and
               Strain Water ~300BC
           •   Chlorination to Prevent
               ‘Child Bed Fever’ - 1846
           •   John Snow Closes the
               Broad Street Well,
               London, 1854 -
               Terminates Cholera
               Epidemic
          What They Do Was Known
           Before How To Detect
           Them In Drinking Water
Overview                                      17
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   18
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
                   S1DBPR – 1998
      IESWTR and1974 – Safe Drinking
                    Water Act
    SDWA Amendments – 1996 (SDWA)
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   19
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   20
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                   200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                         LT1ESTWR – 2002
              1976 – S1DBPR – 1998 Primary
                     National Interim       FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and
                Drinking Water Regulations
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
            (NIPDWR): Coliform and Turbidity
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989        MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                       GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                  SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                     Overview   21
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   22
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                   200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                         LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                            FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and–S1DBPR – 1998Water Act
              1986 Safe Drinking
            Amendments 1996
    SDWA Amendments –(SDWA Amendments)
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989        MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                  SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                     Overview   23
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   24
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                    200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                          LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                             FBRR – 2001
             1989 – S1DBPR – 1998
      IESWTR andTotal Coliform Rule (TCR);
           Amendments Treatment Rule (SWTR)
    SDWA Surface Water – 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989         MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                       GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                   SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                      Overview   25
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   26
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                   200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                         LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                            FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and–S1DBPR – 1998Water Act
              1996 Safe Drinking
            Amendments 1996
    SDWA Amendments –(SDWA Amendments)
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989        MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                  SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                     Overview   27
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   28
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                   200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                         LT1ESTWR – 2002
          1998 – Interim Enhanced Surface Water – 2001
                                            FBRR
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998
            Treatment Rule (IESWTR); Stage 1
         Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
                       Rule
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993 (S1DBPR)
TCR and SWTR – 1989         MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                        GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                  SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                     Overview   29
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   30
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                   200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                         LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                            FBRR – 2001
                  2001 – Filter 1998
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – Backwash
                 Recycling Rule
    SDWA Amendments – 1996 (FBRR)
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989         MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                     Overview   31
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   32
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
       2002 – Long S1DBPR – 1998
      IESWTR and Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water
              Treatment 1996
    SDWA Amendments –Rule (LT1ESWTR)
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   33
 History of M-DBP Regulations
                  200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR
   2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
                        LT1ESTWR – 2002
                                           FBRR – 2001
      IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998
    SDWA Amendments – 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993
TCR and SWTR – 1989       MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989
                      GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987
                 SDWA Amendments – 1986
              MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985
         THM – 1979
    NPIDWRs – 1976
 SDWA – 1974                                    Overview   34
       National Interim Primary Drinking
       Water Regulations (NIPDWR)
          Effective from 1975 to 1986 SDWA Amendments
          Total Coliform Monitoring and MCL Based on
           USPHS Drinking Water Regulations of 1962
          Turbidity MCL for Surface Water
          Recognized Underreporting of Outbreaks




Overview                                                 35
           1996 SDWA Amendments
           No Significant Changes to the Total Coliform Rule
           Required Promulgation of Microbial/Disinfection
            Byproduct Regulations
            •   IESWTR, LT1ESWTR, FBRR, LT2ESWTR
            •   Stage 1 and 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection
                Byproducts Rules




Overview                                                        36
       6-Year Review Cycle
          SDWA Requires Review of Existing Regulations
          The Total Coliform Rule is Under Review
           •   Schedule to Be Determined




Overview                                                  37
       Types of Filtration:
          Conventional Filtration
          Direct Filtration
          Slow Sand Filtration
          Diatomaceous Earth Filtration
          Alternative Filtration Technologies




Overview                                         38
       Requirements for Filtered Systems
          Removal/Inactivation Requirements for Certain
           Pathogens
          Residual Disinfectant Requirements
          Turbidity Treatment Techniques
          Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking
          Sanitary Surveys
          Covered Finished Reservoirs/Water Storage Facilities
          Operator Certification

Overview                                                          39
       Requirements for Unfiltered Systems
          Inactivation Requirements for Certain Pathogens
          Residual Disinfectant Requirements
          Filtration Avoidance Criteria
          Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking
          Sanitary Surveys
          Covered Finished Reservoirs/Water Storage Facilities
          Operator Certification


Overview                                                          40
Q&A




               Questions




      Please send your questions &
      comments via the web console
      located on your bottom right.


                                      41
Overview of SWTR, IESWTR, and
   LT1ESWTR Requirements




   Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
  Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth
             or Alternative Filtration
                Unfiltered Systems

                                                42
               General Requirements
               All Subpart H systems must comply with the
                following requirements:
                   •        Removal/inactivation requirements for viruses,
                            Giardia, and Cryptosporidium
                   •        Residual disinfectant monitoring
                   •        Disinfection profiling and benchmarking
                   •        Sanitary surveys
                   •        Covered finished reservoirs/water storage facilities
                   •        Qualified operators
                 Slow Sand,
Conventiona                      Unfiltered
                Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                or Alternative    Systems
  Filtration
                  Filtration                                                       43
               Regulated Pathogens
               (Removal/Inactivation Requirements)
                All subpart H systems must comply with the
                 removal/inactivation requirements established for
                 regulated pathogens. The removal/inactivation
                 requirements are as follows:
                                                        Removal/Inactivation
                             Microbial           MCLG
                                                           Requirements
                                  Viruses                  99.99% (4-log)




                  Slow Sand,
Conventiona                         Unfiltered
                 Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                 or Alternative      Systems
  Filtration
                   Filtration                                                  44
               Regulated Pathogens
               (Removal/Inactivation Requirements)
                All subpart H systems must comply with the
                 removal/inactivation requirements established for
                 regulated pathogens. The removal/inactivation
                 requirements are as follows:
                                                        Removal/Inactivation
                             Microbial           MCLG
                                                           Requirements
                                  Viruses                  99.99% (4-log)

                     Giardia Lamblia             Zero      99.9% (3-log)



                  Slow Sand,
Conventiona                         Unfiltered
                 Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                 or Alternative      Systems
  Filtration
                   Filtration                                                  45
               Regulated Pathogens
               (Removal/Inactivation Requirements)
                All subpart H systems must comply with the
                 removal/inactivation requirements established for
                 regulated pathogens. The removal/inactivation
                 requirements are as follows:
                                                          Removal/Inactivation
                             Microbial           MCLG
                                                             Requirements
                                  Viruses                    99.99% (4-log)

                     Giardia Lamblia             Zero         99.9% (3-log)

                     Cryptosporidium             Zero   99% (2-log) (removal only)

                  Slow Sand,
Conventiona                         Unfiltered
                 Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                 or Alternative      Systems
  Filtration
                   Filtration                                                        46
               Residual Disinfectant Monitoring
               Requirements
                                                  Entrance to
                       Population                 Distribution      In Distribution System
                                                    System

                                                 Cannot be < 0.2   Detectable in at least 95%
                   All Subpart H
                                                 mg/L for more     of samples in a month for
                      Systems
                                                  than 4 hours1    any 2 consecutive months

               1Residual monitored continuously. A state may allow systems serving
               3,300 or fewer persons to take grab samples from 1-4 times per day,
               depending on system size.


                    Slow Sand,
Conventiona                         Unfiltered
                   Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                   or Alternative    Systems
  Filtration
                     Filtration                                                                 47
               Residual Disinfectant Reporting
               Requirements
                                                Report to state due within 10 days of
                                                  the end of the following month.
                                                       Remember to include:

                                                                                   When state was notified
               Lowest daily value                                                  of events where residual
                 for each day                                                       disinfectant was <0.2
                                                                                             mg/L

                                       A calculation of the percent
                                         of distribution residual
                                            samples that were              The date and duration
                                              undetectable                     when residual
                                                                           disinfectant was <0.2
Conventiona
                   Slow Sand,
                  Diatomaceous     Unfiltered
                                                                                   mg/L
l and Direct
                  or Alternative    Systems
  Filtration
                    Filtration                                                                                48
         Additional Disinfectant Monitoring
         Requirements
             Frequency                       In Distribution System
               Daily                     Before or at the first customer:
                            Temperature
                            pH (if chlorine is used)
                            Disinfectant contact time(s) at peak hourly flow
                            Residual disinfectant concentration measurement(s) at
                             peak hourly flow used in the inactivation calculation(s)




Unfiltered
 Systems                                                                                49
         Additional Disinfectant Reporting
         Requirements
                Report to state due
                                            As soon as possible, but
               within 10 days of the
                                            no later than the end of
               end of the following
                                             the next business day.
               month. Remember to
                                            Remember to include:
                     include:



             Daily residual disinfectant
                                             Instances where the
                 concentration(s) and
                                             residual disinfectant
             disinfectant contact time(s)
                                               level entering the
             used for calculating the CT
                                              distribution system
                       value(s).
                                                was < 0.2 mg/L

Unfiltered
 Systems                                                               50
               Quiz #1: Disinfectant Residual
                Example System:
                 •   Takes 3 routine TCR samples
                 •   Uses Surface Water
                 •   Has a Conventional Filtration

                In addition to taking one sample at the entry point to the
                 distribution systems, what does this system need to do to
                 comply with the SWTRs residual disinfectant monitoring
                 requirements?



Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                              51
               Quiz #1: Disinfectant   System needs to take:
               Residual                 3 disinfectant residual
                                       samples at the same time
                                         and place as the TCR
                                                sample
               = Sample
               Location


                                            40 CFR 141.74
                                               (b)(6)(i)
               Entry
               Point




Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                              52
     Quiz #2: Unfiltered System Reporting Requirements
      Example Systems: Unfiltered, Surface Water system that serves 12,000 people

            What does this system need to report in order to comply with the
             SWTRs residual disinfectant monitoring requirements?
             1) Daily residual disinfectant concentration(s) & disinfectant
                contact time(s) used for calculating the CT value(s)
             2) Lowest daily value for each day
             3) The date/duration when residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L
             4) When state was notified of events where residual disinfectant
                was <0.2 mg/L
             5) A calculation of the percent of distribution residual samples
                that were undetectable
             6) All of the above
Unfiltered
 Systems                                                                            53
     Quiz #2: Unfiltered System Reporting Requirements
      Example Systems: Unfiltered, Surface Water system that serves 12,000 people

            What does this system need to report in order to comply with
             the SWTRs residual disinfectant monitoring requirements?
              6) All of the above

                    Daily residual disinfectant concentration(s) and disinfectant contact
                    time(s) used for calculating the CT value(s).
                        Lowest daily value for each day        A calculation of the percent
                                                                 of distribution residual
                       The date and       When state was            samples that were
                      duration when      notified of events           undetectable
                         residual          where residual
                     disinfectant was     disinfectant was
                        <0.2 mg/L            <0.2 mg/L


Unfiltered
 Systems                                                                                      54
                 Quiz #3: Filtered System Reporting Requirement
           Example Systems: GWUDI systems that serves 4,500 people that uses slow
           sand filtration and measures HPC in lieu of distribution disinfectant residuals.

                  What does this system need to report in order to comply with
                   the SWTRs residual disinfectant monitoring requirements?
                   1) Lowest daily value for each day
                   2) The date and duration when residual disinfectant was
                      <0.2 mg/L
                   3) When state was notified of events where residual
                      disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L
                   4) A calculation of the percent of distribution residual
                      samples that were undetectable
 Slow Sand,
Diatomaceous
                   5) All of the above
or Alternative
  Filtration                                                                                  55
                 Quiz #3: Filtered System Reporting Requirement
           Example Systems: GWUDI systems that serves 4,500 people that uses slow
           sand filtration and measures HPC in lieu of distribution disinfectant residuals.

                  What does this system need to report in order to comply with
                   the SWTRs residual disinfectant monitoring requirements?
                   5) All of the above

                              Lowest daily value for each day       A calculation of the percent
                                                                      of distribution residual
                             The date and       When state was           samples that were
                            duration when      notified of events          undetectable
                               residual          where residual
                           disinfectant was     disinfectant was
                              <0.2 mg/L            <0.2 mg/L


 Slow Sand,
Diatomaceous
or Alternative
  Filtration                                                                                       56
How long have you worked with the surface
water rules (base your response on the
average in the room)
   0-6 Months
   7-12 Months
   1-2 Years
   2-4 Years
   4+ Years
Q&A




               Questions




      Please send your questions &
      comments via the web console
      located on your bottom right.


                                      58
Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking




                                          59
           Disinfection Profiling and
           Benchmarking
                A “Snap-Shot”
                Ensures Microbial Protection
                3-Step Process
                  1. Applicability Determination
                  2. Profiling
                  3. Benchmarking and Consultation



Conventional
 and Direct     Slow Sand,
  Filtration   Diatomaceous     Unfiltered
               or Alternative
                 Filtration
                                 Systems             60
                                                                40 CFR 141.172
               Disinfection Profiling and                         and 141.530
               Benchmarking
                Applies to: all Subpart H        Disinfection benchmark must
                 PWSs                              be calculated and State must be
                Profiling requirements vary       consulted if the system is
                 by system size                    considering:
                                                   •   Changes to the point of
                                                       disinfection
                                                   •   Changes to the disinfecant(s)
                                                       used
                                                   •   Changes to the disinfection
                                                       process
                                                   •   Any other modification
                                                       identified by the state.
                  Slow Sand,
Conventiona
l and Direct
                 Diatomaceous     Unfiltered
                 or Alternative
  Filtration
                   Filtration
                                   Systems                                             61
           Why Develop a Disinfection Profile and
           Benchmark?
              A Regulatory Threshold to Be Achieved
              The Threshold Is Often Exceeded
              Assess Affects of Treatment Changes Upon Actual
               Inactivation
              Consider:
                  •        Positive and Negative Impacts
                  •        Acute and Chronic Health Risks
                  •        Alternatives
              Public Health Based Decision
Conventional
 and Direct     Slow Sand,
  Filtration   Diatomaceous     Unfiltered
               or Alternative
                 Filtration
                                 Systems                         62
           Why Develop a Disinfection Profile &
           Benchmark?
               Lake
                                                 1
                                                         Potential Chlorination
                                                                 Points
                                             2
                                                                   4
                                                     3




                                                                         Filters
                                                                                          To Distribution
                   Flocculation                      Sedimentation
                      Basins                             Basin
Conventional
                                                                          Contact Basin
 and Direct     Slow Sand,
  Filtration   Diatomaceous     Unfiltered
               or Alternative
                 Filtration
                                 Systems                                                               63
Month   Week   Log Inact.   Month   Week   Log Inact.
                Giardia                     Giardia

 JAN     1        1.34      JULY     27       1.86
         2        1.35               28       1.82
         3        1.38               29       1.76
         4        1.37               30       1.74
 FEB     5        1.38      AUG      31       1.71
         6        1.38               32       1.70
         7        1.39               33       1.66
         8        1.40               34       1.61
MARCH    9        1.40       SEP     35       1.60
         10       1.40               36       1.55
         11       1.41               37       1.56
         12       1.42               38       1.52
         13       1.43               39       1.51
APRIL    14       1.46      OCT      40       1.47
         15       1.50               41       1.48
         16       1.54               42       1.47
         17       1.57               43       1.47
 MAY     18       1.64      NOV      44       1.45
         19       1.66               45       1.41
         20       1.70               46       1.43
         21       1.72               47       1.41
JUNE     22       1.74      DEC      48       1.40
         23       1.77               49       1.40
         24       1.79               50       1.40
         25       1.82               51       1.40
         26       1.81               52       1.37      64
Example Disinfection Profile
                            1.400
Log Inactivation, Giardia




                            1.200           Log Inactivation
                            1.000
                            0.800
                            0.600
                            0.400
                            0.200
                            0.000
                                    0   4       8    12    16    20     24     28     32     36      40   44   48   52
                                                                    Week Tested


                                                                Conventional and Direct Filtration
LT1ESWTR Profiler
   www.LT1P.com




                    66
Disinfection Profile and Benchmark




     “Lessons Learned in the Process”
           Alexander Vanegas
            City of Manassas
                June 2005
                                        67
EPA Sets Guidelines

   The purpose of developing the disinfection profile
    and benchmark is to provide a basis for the water
    system and the state primacy agency to work together
    to assure that any changes in disinfection practices to
    meet new disinfection byproduct MCLs will not result
    in a significant reduction in the microbial protection
    provided by the system.




                                                              68
EPA Sets Guidelines
   In order to determine if profiling was necessary, water
    utilities were to conduct four quarters of
    "Applicability Monitoring" for TTHMs and HAAs. If
    the TTHM or HAA annual averages from the
    applicability monitoring exceeded 64 ppb or 48 ppb,
    respectively, the water system needed to prepare a
    disinfection profile.




                                                          69
Crypto & Giardia Removal
   All surface water systems that serve more than l0,000
    people and are required to filter must achieve at least:
    •   2 log removal of Cryptosporidium or 99% removal
        based on treatment technique
    •   3 log removal of Giardia lamblia or 99.9%
        removal/inactivation based on treatment technique.
    •   4 log removal of viruses or 99.99%
        removal/inactivation based on treatment technique.




                                                               70
Timeline of Problems
   January 2002 - TTHM & HAA MCL reduced from
    100ppb -80ppb respectively to 80-60 ppb.
   November 2002 - Manganese violation (0.05 mg/L)
   December 2002 - Exceeding TTHMs MCL and
    difficulty meeting TOC removal
   December 2002 - Inverted application of Chlorine
    from heavy Pre-CL 2 in Rapid Mix and low
    concentration in clearwell to low Pre-CL 2 in Rapid
    Mix and higher concentration in clearwell.

                                                          71
Timeline: Action Steps taken to Obviate
the Situation
   January 2003 - Switched coagulant from Aluminum
    Sulfate to Ferric Chloride to assist in TOC removal
    and reduce TTHMs.
   October 2003 - Moved CL2 application point from
    rapid mix to pre-filter area after sedimentation basins.
   January 2004 - Switched from Gaseous Chlorine to
    Sodium Hypochlorite



                                                               72
Timeline: Action Steps taken to Obviate the
Situation
   September 2004 - Replaced GAC media

   December 2004 - Lead & Copper exceeds limits
    requiring action. (15 ppb)

   May 2005 - Switched to Ferric Sulfate.




                                                   73
January 2003—Switched to Ferric
Chloride
   Switched from Alum
   Common trend in industry
   Assist with TOC removal and increased NOM
    removal
   Implications




                                                74
October 2003—Chlorine Application
   Moved Chlorine Application Point
   Originally at Rapid Mix prior to Sedimentation
   New location prior to filters after sedimentation.




                                                         75
January 2004—Switch to NaOCL

   Sodium hypochlorite, (NaOCl) offers an excellent
    alternative approach to disinfection. The active
    ingredient is the hypochlorite ion OCl—, which
    hydrolyzes to form hypochlorous acid (HOCl).




                                                       76
January 2004—Switch to NaOCL
   Often called liquid bleach, is considered to be the
    second cheapest disinfectant after bulk liquid chlorine
    gas. Commercially available as a 12.5 percent
    solution, it offers most of the advantages of chlorine
    gas–as a disinfectant, oxidizing agent and residual
    disinfectant, yet it does not have transportation or
    storage hazards to the extent present with chlorine
    gas.

   Impetus driven by Vulnerability Assessment &
    reduction of potential hazard in area of high
    development.
                                                              77
Disinfection Profile 2002




                            78
Disinfection Profile 2003




                            79
Disinfection Profile 2005




                            80
Comparison of Water Quality
   Prior to Changes        After Changes
   2002                    2004
   TTHMs - 97 ppb RAA      TTHMs - 55 ppb RAA
   HAA5 - 35 ppb RAA       HAA5 - 30 ppb RAA
   TOC removal             TOC removal
    •   41% highest          •   64% highest




                                                  81
Is the person or persons responsible for
implementing the surface water rules
attending this training?
   Yes
   No
   Not Sure.
Q&A




               Questions




      Please send your questions &
      comments via the web console
      located on your bottom right.


                                      83
      Other Requirements




 Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth
           or Alternative Filtration
              Unfiltered Systems

                                              84
               Other Requirements
               Sanitary Surveys
                   •        Community Water Systems:
                                     Every 3 years
                   •        Noncommunity Water Systems:
                                     Every 5 Years
               Covered Finished Water Reservoirs/Water Storage
                Facilities
               Certified Operator

                 Slow Sand,
Conventiona
l and Direct
                Diatomaceous         Unfiltered
                or Alternative
  Filtration
                  Filtration
                                      Systems                     85
               Filter Backwash Recycling Rule.
               (FBRR)
                Purpose: To improve public health protection by
                 assessing and changing, where needed, recycle
                 practices for improved contaminant control,
                 particularly microbial contaminants.
                Applies to Subpart H conventional or direct filtration
                 systems that:
                 •   Recycle spent filter backwash, thickener supernatant,
                     or liquids from dewaterting processes

Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                             86
               FBRR Requirements
               Return recycle flows through all unit processes at
                treatment system or alternative location approved by
                the states
               Collecting and retaining recycle flow information
               Completing all capital improvements associated with
                relocating recycle return location by June 8, 2006



Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                       87
               PN Rule Requirements (Tier 1)
                Exceedance of maximum turbidity level
                   •        Conventional and direct filtration
                   •        Slow sand, diatomaceous earth, and alternative
                            filtration
                   •        Unfiltered
                Waterborne disease outbreak



                 Slow Sand,
Conventiona                      Unfiltered
                Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                or Alternative    Systems
  Filtration
                  Filtration                                                 88
               PN Rule Requirements (Tier 1)

                                          Tier 1: Notify the state within 24 hours of
                                          the violation!
               • For turbidity, State will determine whether violation is Tier 1
                 or Tier 2
               • Notify customers within 24 hours if violation is Tier 1
               • Design communication to reach all users
               • Send a copy to the state within 10 days of notifying customers


                   Slow Sand,
Conventiona                        Unfiltered
                  Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                  or Alternative    Systems
  Filtration
                    Filtration                                                          89
               Violations Requiring Tier 2 PN
                Turbidity violations
                   •        Single exceedance – As determined by the state
                   •        95th percentile exceedance
                Failure to perform profiling
                Failure to consult with state prior to changing disinfection
                 practices
                Inactivation violations
                > 5 percent undetectable distribution residuals
                Failure to meet avoidance criteria
                Failure to recycle to an appropriate location (FBRR)
                Failure to complete capital improvements by required schedule
                 (FBRR)
                 Slow Sand,
Conventiona                      Unfiltered
                Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                or Alternative    Systems
  Filtration
                  Filtration                                                 90
               PN Rule Requirements (Tier 2)
                                         Tier 2: Notify the state within 48 hours of
                                         the violation!

                Notify customers within 30 days
                Send a copy of PN to the state within 10 days
                 of notifying customers



                  Slow Sand,
Conventiona                       Unfiltered
                 Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                 or Alternative    Systems
  Filtration
                   Filtration                                                          91
               PN Rule Requirements (Tier 3)
                All Monitoring and Reporting Violations




                 Slow Sand,
Conventiona                      Unfiltered
                Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                or Alternative    Systems
  Filtration
                  Filtration                               92
               PN Rule Requirements (Tier 3)
            Notify customers within 12 months
            Send a copy of PN to the state within 10 days
             of notifying customers
            Notification may be included in CCR




                 Slow Sand,
Conventiona                      Unfiltered
                Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                or Alternative    Systems
  Filtration
                  Filtration                                 93
Q&A




               Questions




      Please send your questions &
      comments via the web console
      located on your bottom right.


                                      94
    Turbidity Requirements




 Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth
           or Alternative Filtration
              Unfiltered Systems

                                              95
               Turbidity
                Combined Filter Effluent (CFE)

                Individual Filter Effluent (IFE)




                 Slow Sand,
Conventiona
                Diatomaceous
l and Direct
                or Alternative
  Filtration
                  Filtration                        96
Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems




Conventional
 and Direct
  Filtration
                                         97
       CFE Requirements

               Monitoring      Monitoring       Measurement
               Requirement     Frequency

           CFE 95% Value     At least every 4    < 0.3 NTU
                                  hours




Conventional
 and Direct
  Filtration                                                  98
               CFE Requirements

                 Monitoring       Monitoring       Measurement
                 Requirement      Frequency

                CFE 95% Value   At least every 4    < 0.3 NTU
                                     hours

                CFE Maximum     At least every 4     1 NTU
                    Value            hours


Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                 99
               CFE Reporting

                                  Report to state due within 10
                                 days of the end of the following
                                 month. Remember to include:


               Total number of                                      Date and Value
                     CFE                                              of any CFE
                measurements                                         measurement
                                        Percentage of CFE           that exceeded 1
                                         measurements <                   NTU
                                           95th % limit
Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                                      100
               CFE Exceedance Reporting
               (Systems serving at least 10,000 people)


                      Report to state as soon as possible, but
                        no later than the end of the next
                                   business day



                              Exceedance of 1 NTU


Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                 101
               IFE Monitoring Requirements
               (Systems serving at least 10,000 people)
                IFE must be monitored continuously every 15
                 minutes




Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                               102
               IFE Follow-up Steps
               (Systems serving at least 10,000 people)
                            Condition                                Action
1         2 consecutive measurements >0.5 NTU            Produce filter profile within 7
          taken 15 minutes apart at the end of the       days (if cause is not known)
          first 4 hours of continuous filter operation
          after backwash/offline
2         2 consecutive measurements >1.0 NTU            Produce filter profile within 7
          taken 15 minutes apart                         days (if cause is not known)
3         2 consecutive measurements >1.0 NTU            Conduct a filter self-
          taken 15 minutes apart at the same filter      assessment within 14 days
          for 3 months in a row
4         2 consecutive measurements >2.0 NTU            Arrange for a CPE within 30
          taken 15 minutes apart at the same filter      days and submit report within
          for 2 months in a row                          90 days
Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                                     103
               IFE Reporting – Conditions 1, 2, and 3

                         Report to state due within 10 days
                         of the end of the following month.
                               Remember to include:


               Date                                      Cause (if known)
                                                         or report profile
                                                          was produced

                       Filter                Turbidity
                      Number                  Value
Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                         104
               IFE Reporting – Condition 4
                 Report to state due within
                  10 days of the end of the
                      following month.
                   Remember to include:           Schedule &
                                                 conduct CPE.
                                              Report to state due
                                                within 90 days
    Filter
                                               after exceedance:
   Number                         Date

                  Turbidity                      Submit CPE
                   Value                           Report
Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                    105
               IFE Monitoring Requirements
               (Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people)
                IFE must be monitored continuously every 15
                 minutes




Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                               106
               IFE Follow-up Steps
               (Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people)
                         Condition                          Action
1         2 consecutive measurements >1.0 NTU   Reporting only
          taken 15 minutes apart
2  2 consecutive measurements >1.0 NTU          Conduct a filter self-
   taken 15 minutes apart at the same filter    assessment within 14 days
   for 3 months in a row
3* 2 consecutive measurements >2.0 NTU          Arrange for a CPE within 60
   taken 15 minutes apart at the same filter    days and submit report within
   for 2 months in a row                        120 days

      * Exception if a CPE was done in the last 12 months

Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                            107
               IFE Reporting – Condition 1

                         Report to state due within 10 days of
                           the end of the following month.
                                Remember to include:




               Filter Number                                     Date


                               Turbidity      Cause (if known)
                                Value
Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                        108
               IFE Reporting – Condition 2
                       Report to state due within 10 days of the
                       end of the following month (or within 14
                           days of filter self-assessment being
                       triggered if triggered in the last 4 days of
                      the month). Conduct filter self-assessment.
                                          Report:



                   Date the filter self-           Date the filter self-
                assessment was triggered       assessment was completed
Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                           109
               IFE Reporting – Condition 3
                     Report to State due
                  within 10 days of the end
                   of the following month.
                    Schedule & Conduct         CPE report to
                     CPE. Remember to         State due within
                           include:            120 days after
                                                exceedance:


                       Date CPE was            Submit CPE
                         triggered               Report
Conventiona
l and Direct
  Filtration
                                                                 110
     Case Studies: Great View
        Filtered Surface Water System, Serving 15,000
         People, Using Direct Filtration
             •   Where, when, & how many CFE samples should this
                 system take?
             •   What is the limit for the CFE 95th% value?
             •   What is the system required to report to the state
                 within 10 days?
             •   Where & how many IFE samples should this system
                 take?
             •   Two consecutive IFE measurements are >1.0 NTU
                 What is the system required to do?
Case Study
                                                                      111
Where, when, & how many CFE samples
should this system take?
   One per year at the source
   Five samples per month in the distribution system
   At least one sample every 4 hours from the combined
    filter effluent
                                                          Direct Filtration
                                                          System, serving
                                                              15,000


     Answer
        Where, when, & how many CFE samples should this
         system take?
             •   At least one sample every 4 hours from the combined
                 filter effluent




Case Study
                                                                              113
What is the limit for the CFE 95th% value?
   1.2 mg/L
   1.0 NTU
   <= 0.3 NTU
   None of the above
                                                      Direct Filtration
                                                      System, serving
                                                          15,000


     Answer
        What is the limit for the CFE 95th% value?
             •   <= 0.3 NTU




Case Study
                                                                          115
What is the system required to report to the
state within 10 days?
   Percentage of CFE measurements <= 95th% limit
   Date and value of any CFE measurement that
    exceeded 1 NTU
   Total number of CFE measurements
   All of the above
                                                      Direct Filtration
                                                      System, serving
                                                          15,000


     Answer
        What is the system required to report to the state
         within 10 days?
             •   All of the above




Case Study
                                                                          117
Where & how many IFE samples should this
system take?
   1 sample at the entry point to the distribution system
   2 samples in the source water
   Continuously monitor every 15 minutes from the
    individual filter effluent
   At least every 4 hours at the entry point to the
    distribution system
                                                          Direct Filtration
                                                          System, serving
                                                              15,000


     Answer
        Where & how many IFE samples should this system
         take?
             •   Continuously monitor every 15 minutes from the
                 individual filter effluent




Case Study
                                                                              119
Two consecutive IFE measurements are
>1.0 NTU. What is the system required to
do?
   If the cause cannot be determined, produce a filter
    profile within 7 days
   Report filter number, turbidity value(s) and date by
    the 10th of the following month
   Report the cause, or report that a filter profile has
    been completed, by the 10th of the following month,
   All of the above
                                               Direct Filtration
                                               System, serving
                                                   15,000


     Answer
        Two consecutive measurements are >1.0 NTU. What
         is the system required to do?
             •   All of the above.




Case Study
                                                                   121
Q&A




               Questions




      Please send your questions &
      comments via the web console
      located on your bottom right.


                                      122
  Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous
       Earth or Alternative Filtration




  Slow Sand,
Diatomaceous or
  Alternative
   Filtration                             123
           CFE Requirements

                   Monitoring       Monitoring       Measurement
                   Requirement      Frequency

                  CFE 95% Value   At least every 4     < 1 NTU
                                       hours




  Slow Sand,
Diatomaceous or
  Alternative
   Filtration                                                      124
           CFE Requirements

                   Monitoring       Monitoring       Measurement
                   Requirement      Frequency

                  CFE 95% Value   At least every 4     < 1 NTU
                                       hours

                  CFE Maximum     At least every 4     5 NTU
                      Value            hours


  Slow Sand,
Diatomaceous or
  Alternative
   Filtration                                                      125
        CFE Reporting
                     Report to state due within 10 days of the
                    end of the following month. Remember to
                                      include:

         Total number of
            monthly                                     Date and value exceeding 5
          measurements                                    NTU for slow sand and
                                                       diatomaceous earth filtration
                                                        or maximum level set by the
                       Number and percent of           state for alternative filtration
                     monthly measurements less
                     then or equal to designated
                       95th percentile turbidity
  Slow Sand,
                                limits
Diatomaceous or
  Alternative
   Filtration                                                                        126
             CFE Exceedance Reporting

                       Report to state as soon as
                     possible, but no later than the
                     end of the next business day :




                  Exceedance of 5.0 NTU for slow sand
                  and diatomaceous earth filtration or
                   maximum level set by the state for
                          alternative filtration
  Slow Sand,
Diatomaceous or
  Alternative
   Filtration                                            127
     Case Studies: Plain Valley
        Filtered GWUDI System, Serving 300 People, Using
         Slow Sand Filtration
          •    What is the reduced monitoring frequency that the
               state can set for this system?
          •    What is the maximum CFE limit?
          •    What is the system required to report to the state
               within 10 days?
          •    What are the removal/inactivation requirements for
               Viruses, Giardia Lamblia, and Cryptosporidium for
               this system?

Case Study
           •   How many IFE samples should this system take?
                                                                    128
What is the reduced monitoring frequency
that the state can set for this system?
   At least every 8 hours
   One sample per day
   Continuous monitoring every 2 hours
   Four samples per day
                                                   GWUDI System,
                                                   serving 300 using
                                                       slow sand
                                                        filtration


     Answer
        What is the reduced monitoring frequency that the
         state can set for this system?
             •   One sample per day




Case Study
                                                                       130
What is the maximum CFE limit?
   <= 1 NTU
   5 NTU
   <= 0.3 NTU
   None of the above
                                          GWUDI System,
                                          serving 300 using
                                              slow sand
                                               filtration


     Answer
        What is the maximum CFE limit?
             •   5 NTU




Case Study
                                                              132
What is the system required to report to the
state within 10 days?
   Total number of monthly measurements
   Number and percent less than or equal to designated
    95% turbidity limits
   Date and value exceeding 5 NTU
   All of the above
                                                      GWUDI System,
                                                      serving 300 using
                                                          slow sand
                                                           filtration


     Answer
        What is the system required to report to the state
         within 10 days?
             •   All of the above




Case Study
                                                                          134
What are the removal/inactivation
requirements for Viruses, Giardia Lamblia,
and Cryptosporidium for this system?
   Viruses - 4-log removal/inactivation, Giardia Lamblia
    - 3-log removal/inactivation, Cryptosporidium - 2-log
    removal
   Viruses - 2-log removal/inactivation, Giardia Lamblia
    - 2-log removal/inactivation, Cryptosporidium - 3-log
    removal
   Viruses - 3-log removal/inactivation, Giardia Lamblia
    - 4-log removal/inactivation, Cryptosporidium - 4-log
    removal
                                                           GWUDI System,
                                                           serving 300 using
                                                               slow sand
                                                                filtration


     Answer
        What are the removal/inactivation requirements for
         Viruses, Giardia Lamblia, and Cryptosporidium for
         this system?
             •   Viruses - 4-log removal/inactivation, Giardia Lamblia
                 - 3-log removal/inactivation, Cryptosporidium - 2-log
                 removal




Case Study
                                                                               136
How many IFE samples should this system
take?
   At least every 4 hours
   Continuous monitoring every 15 minutes
   Not required
   Once per day
                                                 GWUDI System,
                                                 serving 300 using
                                                     slow sand
                                                      filtration


     Answer
        How many IFE samples should this system take?
             •   Not required.




Case Study
                                                                     138
                     Unfiltered Systems




Unfiltered Systems
                                          139
             Filtration Avoidance Criteria
                Source Water Conditions
                 •   Turbidity
                 •   Microbial quality
                Inactivation and Disinfectant Residual
                Watershed Control and Inspection




Unfiltered
 Systems                                                  140
             Source Water Conditions
             (Turbidity)

               Requirement      Frequency         Measurement

               Source Water   At least every 4   < 5 NTU on two
                 Samples           hours         consecutive days




Unfiltered
 Systems                                                            141
             Source Water Conditions
             (Microbial Quality)
              Requirement                 Frequency                Measurement
                               1 – 5 samples per week depending
                                on system size and every day the
                                                                   < 20/100 mL
              Fecal coliform      turbidity of the source water
                                         exceeds 1 NTU

                                           And/Or

                               1 – 5 samples per week depending
                                on system size and every day the
              Total coliform                                       < 100/100 mL
                                  turbidity of the source water
                                         exceeds 1 NTU


Unfiltered
 Systems                                                                          142
             Reporting Requirements


                     Report to state within 24 hours.




                     Turbidity              Waterborne
                 exceedances of 5            disease
                       NTU                  outbreaks

Unfiltered
 Systems                                                 143
      Upcoming Regulations
            Expected final in December 2005
             •   Stage 2 DBPR
             •   LT2ESWTR




Additional
Resources                                      144
LT2ESWTR Preview
   Objective: Risk-based targeting approach to reduce exposure to
    Cryptosporidium in public water systems.
    •   Target filtered systems with high source water Cryptosporidium
        levels where 99% (2-log) removal is not sufficient treatment
    •   Target all unfiltered systems, which currently provide no
        treatment
   Components of LT2ESWTR:
    •    Filtered systems assigned to different “risk bins” based on
        results of source water Cryptosporidium monitoring
            Additional Cryptosporidium treatment based on bin classification
            “Microbial Toolbox” of options – flexibility in meeting
             additional treatment requirements

                                                                            145
LT2ESWTR Preview
   Additional LT2ESWTR requirements:
    •   Specific requirements for uncovered finished water
        reservoirs and unfiltered systems.
    •   Second round of monitoring 6 years following initial
        bin assignment.
    •   Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.




                                                               146
Evaluation Form –
   Available on the web at:
    •   http://yosemite.epa.gov/ogwdw/ogwdwsurvey.nsf/
        surveyhome?openform
    •   Enter code: survey07
   Please email webcastinfo@cadmusgroup.com if
    you have questions


                   Join us for Data Verification Webcast
                                  Training
                    Wednesday, July 27, 2005, 2 – 4 PM
                                                         147
Q&A




              Questions?




      Please send your questions &
      comments via the web console
      located on your bottom right.


                                      148
Additional Resources




                       149
      Webcast Materials
            Drinking Water Academy Web site:
             www.epa.gov/safewater/dwa.html
             •   Webcast Presentation Slides
             •   Written Q&A from Webcast
                     Will Be Emailed To All Registered Participants




Additional
Resources                                                              150
      Additional Resources
            Quick Reference Guides:
             •   IESWTR (EPA 816-F-01-011)
             •   LT1ESWTR (EPA 816-F-02-001)
             •   FBRR (EPA 816-F-01-019)
            Technical guidance documents:
             •   Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance
                 Manual (EPA 815-R-99-014)
             •   Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking Guidance
                 Manual (EPA 815-R-99-013)
             •   Enhanced Coagulation and Enhanced Precipitative
Additional
                 Softening Guidance Manual (EPA 815-R-99-010)
Resources                                                           151
      Additional Resources
            Technical guidance documents (continued):
             •   Guidance Manual for Compliance with the Interim Enhanced
                 Surface Water Treatment Rule: Turbidity Provisions (EPA 815-
                 R-99-010)
             •   Guidance Manual for Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Public
                 Water Systems; Surface Water and Ground Water Under the
                 Direct Influence (GWUDI) (EPA 815-R-99-016)
             •   M/DBP Simultaneous Compliance Manual (EPA-815-R-99-
                 015)
             •   Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs Guidance Manual (EPA
                 815-R-99-011)

Additional
Resources                                                                    152
      Additional Resources
            Technical guidance documents (continued):
             •   Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
                 (LT1ESWTR) Implementation Turbidity Provisions - Technical
                 Guidance Manual (EPA 816-R-04-007)
             •   Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
                 (LT1ESWTR) Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking
                 Technical Guidance Manual (EPA 816-R-03-004)
             •   Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Technical Guidance Manual
                 (EPA 816-R-02-014)
             •   Technical Fact Sheet: Final Filter Backwash Recycling Rule
                 (EPA 815-F-01-001)

Additional
Resources                                                                     153
      Additional Resources
            Implementation guidance documents:
             •   IESWTR Final Implementation Guidance (EPA 816-R-01-011)
             •   LT1 Final Implementation Guidance (EPA 816-R-04-008)
             •   FBRR Final Implementation Guidance (EPA 816-R-04-006)
             •   IESWTR Plain English Guidance (EPA 816-R-01-014)
             •   Profiling and Benchmarking Fact Sheet (EPA 816-F-98-017b)
             •   IESWTR Fact Sheet (EPA 816-F-01-013)




Additional
Resources                                                                    154
      EPA Resources Available
            All documents available through
             •    EPA’s Web site
                      http://www.epa.gov/safewater/
             OR
             •    By calling the Safe Drinking Water Hotline
                      1-800-426-4791




Additional
Resources                                                      155
      For More Questions
            Send Your State’s SWTRs Questions or Situations to:
             •   MDBP_OGWDW@epa.gov
             •   SWTRs Questions: Call your EPA Regional Office or
                 Ed Moriarty, US EPA HQ 202-564-3864




Additional
Resources                                                       156
      Next Webcast: Data Verifications
            July 27, 2005, 2 – 4 PM (EST)
             •   For State Staff Only
                     Overview of the EPA Headquarters-sponsored DV
                      process
                     Example of process using TCR and Stage 1 DBPR as
                      examples
             •   Send your DV questions via email to:
                 webcastinfo@cadmusgroup.com


Additional
Resources                                                                157
      Webcast Series
            See Handout or DWA Calendar for Upcoming 2005
             Webcasts
             •   http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwa/calendar.html
            Future Webcasts will:
             •   Cover a Variety of Subjects and Rules
             •   Be Held Last Wednesday of the Month from 2-4 PM
                 (Eastern Time)
             •   Have the Same Registration Process as for SWTRs
             •   Will Open for Registration Six Weeks Prior to Each
                 Webcast
Additional
Resources                                                             158

				
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