Docstoc

Database Ovid MEDLINE to March Week

Document Sample
Database Ovid MEDLINE to March Week Powered By Docstoc
					Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R) <2006 to March Week 3 2010>
Search Strategy:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 exp *intrauterine devices/ (542)
2 use$.tw. and 1 (269)
3 limit 2 to (english language and "review articles" and humans) (59)
4 limit 3 to full text (16)
5 use$.ti. and 3 (16)
6 4 or 5 (30)
7 from 6 keep 1-30 (30)

***************************
<1>
Unique Identifier
  20019650
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
  Concin H. Bosch H. Hintermuller P. Hohlweg T. Mursch-Edlmayr G. Pinnisch B. Schmidl-
Amann S. Schulz-Greinwald G. Unterlerchner D. Wagner T. Mattle V. Wildt L. Fiala C.
Authors Full Name
  Concin, Hans. Bosch, Hubert. Hintermuller, Peter. Hohlweg, Thomas. Mursch-Edlmayr,
Gerhard. Pinnisch, Bettina. Schmidl-Amann, Sigrid. Schulz-Greinwald, Gunda.
Unterlerchner, Dagmar. Wagner, Teresa. Mattle, Verena. Wildt, Ludwig. Fiala, Christian.
Institution
  Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Landeskrankenhaus Bregenz, Bregenz, Austria.
hans.concin@lkhb.at
Title
  Use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: an Austrian perspective. [Review] [48
refs]
Source
  Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 21 Suppl 1:S1-9, 2009 Nov.
Abstract
  Approximately 12 million women worldwide use the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine
system (IUS), with approximately 180,000 users of this IUS currently reported in Austria. A
patient satisfaction study of 591 women in Austria revealed a high number of 'very satisfied'
(79%) and 'satisfied' (19%) patients. Reliability, comfort, excellent compatibility and less severe,
shorter and less painful monthly periods were the most frequently named advantages of the
levonorgestrel-releasing IUS. Medication-induced cervical priming before insertion can be
carried out on a routine or selective basis (for example in nullipara, in women who have
undergone cervical conisation or in women who have previously experienced painful insertion).
There is, at present, no evidence of an increased rate of breast cancer through use of the
levonorgestrel-releasing IUS. A directly comparative study with oral contraceptives in young
nullipara showed excellent results for the levonorgestrel-releasing IUS, with no perforations,
inflammation or pregnancies. [References: 48]
Publication Type
  Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Review.


<2>
Unique Identifier
 19657812
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Ewies AA.
Authors Full Name
 Ewies, Ayman A A.
Institution
  Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, The Ipswich Hospital NHS Trust, Maternity Block,
Heath Road, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP4 5PD, UK. aymanewies@hotmail.com
Title
  Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system--the discontinuing story. [Review] [42 refs]
Source
  Gynecological Endocrinology. 25(10):668-73, 2009 Oct.
Abstract
  Levonorgestrel-releasing Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) is licensed for use as a contraceptive,
for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding and during estrogen replacement therapy. It is
publicized as a local source of progestogen with minimal systemic adverse effects. However, there
is overwhelming evidence of elevated serum and tissue levels of levonorgestrel, and high
discontinuation and dissatisfaction rates amongst users. The guidelines of The National Institute
for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), United Kingdom recommended that the healthcare
professionals should be aware that upto 60% of women discontinue using LNG-IUS within 5
years because of unscheduled bleeding, pain, and/or systemic progestogenic adverse effects. This
article highlights these issues to healthcare professionals to ensure that the rates of adverse
effects are not underestimated, and full information are made available to women to enable them
making an informed choice. [References: 42]
Publication Type
  Journal Article. Review.


<3>
Unique Identifier
 19751859
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Gaffield ME. Kapp N. Curtis KM.
Authors Full Name
 Gaffield, Mary E. Kapp, Nathalie. Curtis, Kathryn M.
Institution
 Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva
27, Switzerland. gaffieldm@who.int
Title
 Combined oral contraceptive and intrauterine device use among women with gestational
trophoblastic disease. [Review] [19 refs]
Source
 Contraception. 80(4):363-71, 2009 Oct.
Abstract
 BACKGROUND: Women diagnosed with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) need safe
and effective contraception because they are advised to delay a subsequent pregnancy. STUDY
DESIGN: We searched MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library for articles in any language on
use of combined oral contraceptives (COC), copper-bearing or levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs
among women with benign or malignant GTD, from database inception through November 2008.
One review and nine articles were identified and evaluated. RESULTS: Incidence of postmolar
trophoblastic disease was lower among COC users compared with nonusers in six studies, but
higher among COC users in three studies. Five studies reported shorter human chorionic
gonadotropin (hCG) regression duration among COC users compared with other methods.
Development of postmolar trophoblastic disease did not differ significantly among IUD users
compared with COC users or nonusers in three studies. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence shows that
postmolar trophoblastic disease risk does not increase among women using COCs or an IUD
following molar pregnancy evacuation compared with use of other contraceptive methods or no
method. [References: 19]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.. Review.


<4>
Unique Identifier
 19445984
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Rose S. Chaudhari A. Peterson CM.
Authors Full Name
 Rose, Susan. Chaudhari, Angela. Peterson, C Matthew.
Institution
 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, 50 North
Medical Drive, Suite 2B200, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA. Susan.rose@hsc.utah.edu
Title
 Mirena (Levonorgestrel intrauterine system): a successful novel drug delivery option in
contraception. [Review] [49 refs]
Source
 Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 61(10):808-12, 2009 Aug 10.
Abstract
 This manuscript serves as a review of Mirena, the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG
IUS) as a very successful drug delivery system. The LNG IUS has a very high contraceptive
efficacy rate, and low rates of patient discontinuation. In addition to its contraceptive benefits,
most users experience a decrease in menstrual bleeding over the 5 years of use. LNG IUS has also
been used for management of menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, adenomyosis, and endometrial
hyperplasia in some cases. The LNG IUS provides long term efficacy, high rates of compliance,
rapid return to fertility, and minimal adverse effects during use. [References: 49]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<5>
Unique Identifier
 19172421
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Martinez F. Lopez-Arregui E.
Authors Full Name
 Martinez, Francisca. Lopez-Arregui, Eduardo.
Institution
 Servicio de Medicina de la Reproduccion, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Institut
Universitari Dexeus, Barcelona, Spain. pacmar@dexeus.com
Title
 Infection risk and intrauterine devices. [Review] [14 refs]
Source
 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 88(3):246-50, 2009.
Abstract
 For most women, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are a safe option. Upper genital
tract infections (pelvic inflammatory disease, PID) occur when pathogenic microorganisms
ascend from the cervix and invade the endometrium and the fallopian tubes, causing an
inflammatory reaction. Evidence-based recommendations regarding intrauterine contraception
and risk of infection were presented at the Congress of the European Society of Contraception, in
Prague, 2008: A clinical history (including sexual history) should be taken as part of the routine
assessment for intrauterine contraception to identify women at high risk of sexually transmitted
infections (STI); if appropriate a test should be offered; if symptoms or signs are present,
appropriate diagnostic tests should be done, results awaited, necessary treatment completed, and
IUCD insertion postponed until resolution. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended
(evidence level II-3). STI screening is not routinely recommended. PID among IUCD users is
most strongly related to the insertion process and to the background risk of STI (evidence level
II-2). Conditions which represent an unacceptable health risk if an IUCD is inserted (WHO
Medical Eligibility Criteria, MEC, Categories 3-4) are current PID, current purulent cervicitis,
chlamydial or gonorrheal infection. For continuation as well as initiation, WHO MEC categories
3-4 are allotted to women with known pelvic tuberculosis, puerperal sepsis and septic abortion.
[References: 14]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<6>
Unique Identifier
  18797269
Status
  MEDLINE
Authors
  Gold MA. Johnson LM.
Authors Full Name
  Gold, Melanie A. Johnson, Lisa M.
Institution
  Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of
Medicine, PA 15213, USA. magold@pitt.edu
Title
  Intrauterine devices and adolescents. [Review] [48 refs]
Source
  Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 20(5):464-9, 2008 Oct.
Abstract
  PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to inform the reader of new information
published on intrauterine devices (IUDs) and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: There are few
studies on the use of IUDs in adolescents. The article reviews topics related to IUD use such as
adolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward IUDs, mechanism of action of copper-releasing
and levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs, benefits of using IUDs with adolescents, safety, side effects, as
well as noncontraceptive benefits such as management of menstrual disorders and endometriosis
using IUDs. SUMMARY: IUDs are a safe and effective long-term contraceptive method with no
increase in risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal infertility or ectopic pregnancies. IUDs are
underutilized in the United States, especially by adolescents. Because adolescents contribute
disproportionately to the epidemic of unintended pregnancy, IUDs should be considered as a
first-line contraceptive choice regardless of parity. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine
system (LNG IUS) is a particularly good choice for adolescents because of associated
noncontraceptive benefits such as decreased menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea and pain
associated with endometriosis. There is a clear need for further studies in the use of the IUD
among adolescents. [References: 48]
Publication Type
  Journal Article. Review.


<7>
Unique Identifier
 18757667
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Browne H. Manipalviratn S. Armstrong A.
Authors Full Name
 Browne, Hyacinth. Manipalviratn, Somjate. Armstrong, Alicia.
Institution
 Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and
Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
brownehy@mail.nih.gov
Title
 Using an intrauterine device in immunocompromised women. [Review] [13 refs]
Source
 Obstetrics & Gynecology. 112(3):667-9, 2008 Sep.
Other ID
 Source: NLM. NIHMS82591
 Source: NLM. PMC2607525
Abstract
 Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are a viable treatment option for immunocompromised women who
need contraception or menses suppression. They may also be an alternative treatment for women
who have a contraindication to estrogen use. A review of the literature on IUD use in this
population is sparse, but currently available data suggest that immunocompromised women are
not at greater risk of developing pelvic infections. [References: 13]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural. Review.


<8>
Unique Identifier
 18573044
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Bahamondes L. Bahamondes MV. Monteiro I.
Authors Full Name
 Bahamondes, Luis. Bahamondes, M Valeria. Monteiro, Ilza.
Institution
 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Campinas, Caixa
Postal 6181, Campinas, SP, Brazil. bahamond@caism.unicamp.br
Title
 Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: uses and controversies. [Review] [99 refs]
Source
 Expert Review of Medical Devices. 5(4):437-45, 2008 Jul.
Abstract
 This article provides a perspective on the use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system
as a contraceptive method and as therapy in different situations, as well as presenting the
corresponding controversies and unresolved issues. All studies have reported high contraceptive
efficacy, an improvement in menstrual blood loss in women with idiopathic menorrhagia,
menorrhagia due to thrombophilic diseases and fibroids, and excellent endometrial protection
during postmenopausal estrogen therapy. Moreover, the device is able to reduce pelvic pain and
dysmenorrhea as well as improve the staging of endometriosis and adenomyosis, and to control,
albeit partially, endometrial hyperplasia. The expectation is that in years to come the number of
hysterectomies and female sterilizations will fall due to increased use of the device, including use
by patients with endometriosis and HIV-positive women. It would also be desirable to develop a
smaller device for postmenopausal women and nulligravidas. [References: 99]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<9>
Unique Identifier
 18261926
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Beining RM. Dennis LK. Smith EM. Dokras A.
Authors Full Name
 Beining, Robin M. Dennis, Leslie K. Smith, Elaine M. Dokras, Anuja.
Institution
 Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242,
USA.
Title
 Meta-analysis of intrauterine device use and risk of endometrial cancer. [Review] [28 refs]
Source
 Annals of Epidemiology. 18(6):492-9, 2008 Jun.
Abstract
 PURPOSE: We sought to study the association between intrauterine device (IUD) use and
endometrial cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive search of literature published through April
2007 was conducted, studies reviewed, and data abstracted. Data from ten studies were pooled
and analyzed using both fixed- and random-effects models to examine the association of ever use
of an IUD and endometrial cancer. RESULTS: Based on the random effects model, a protective
crude association between IUD use and endometrial cancer was observed (odds ratio [OR] =
0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29-0.51; heterogeneity p < 0.001) with a pooled adjusted
risk of OR = 0.54 (95% CI, 0.47-0.63; heterogeneity p = 0.40). A decreased risk of endometrial
cancer also was seen for increased years of IUD use (OR for 5 years of use 0.88; 95% CI = 0.84-
0.92; n = 5; heterogeneity p = 0.14), increased years since last IUD use (OR for 5 years of use
0.91; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95; n = 4; heterogeneity p = 0.02), and increased years since first IUD use
(OR for 5 years of use 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95; n = 4; heterogeneity p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS:
Our results suggest that nonhormonal IUD use may be associated with a decreased risk for
endometrial cancer; however, the exact mechanism for this association is unclear. Future
investigations should address the difference in the proposed association by specific type of IUDs.
[References: 28]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Meta-Analysis. Review.


<10>
Unique Identifier
 18507610
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Fontenot HB. Harris AL.
Authors Full Name
 Fontenot, Holly B. Harris, Allyssa L.
Institution
 Maternal Child Health Department, Boston College, William F. Connell School of Nursing,
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA. holly.fontenot@bc.edu
Title
 The latest advances in hormonal contraception. [Review] [31 refs]
Source
 JOGNN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 37(3):369-74, 2008 May-Jun.
Abstract
 Millions of women each year start or continue to use some type of hormonal contraceptive
method. Choosing a method may be anxiety provoking. In this article, we review some of the
latest advances in and options for hormonal contraception, including extended-dose oral
contraceptives, the vaginal ring, injectable methods, and emergency contraception. Nurses can
facilitate women's decision making for healthy reproductive options. [References: 31]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<11>
Unique Identifier
 18283598
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Bastianelli C. Farris M. Benagiano G.
Authors Full Name
 Bastianelli, Carlo. Farris, Manuela. Benagiano, G.
Institution
 Department of Gynaecologic Sciences, Perinatology and Child Care, University la Sapienza,
Rome, Italy. carlo.bastianelli@uniroma1.it
Title
 Emergency contraception: a review. [Review] [67 refs]
Source
 European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care. 13(1):9-16, 2008 Mar.
Abstract
 Emergency contraception (EC), also known as 'the morning after pill', or post-coital
contraception, is a modality of preventing the establishment of a pregnancy after unprotected
intercourse. Both a hormonal and an intrauterine form are available. Modern hormonal EC,
with low side effects, was first proposed by Yuzpe in 1974. More recently, a new regimen,
consisting of levonorgestrel administered alone, was introduced and found in clinical trials to be
more effective (if taken as early as possible), and associated with less side effects than the Yuzpe
regimen, which it has gradually replaced. The WHO developed another regimen based on the use
of the selective progesterone receptor modulator (antiprogestin) mifepristone and conducted
trials with different dosages. Intrauterine EC was first proposed by Lippes in 1976. It has the
advantage of being applicable for almost a week and the disadvantage of a greater complexity. In
addition, this modality is solely interceptive, acting by preventing implantation. Pregnancy rates
reported following EC using an intrauterine device with more than 300 mm2 of copper are
consistently low (0.1-0.2%). [References: 67]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<12>
Unique Identifier
  18460943
Status
  MEDLINE
Authors
  Skjeldestad FE.
Authors Full Name
  Skjeldestad, Finn E.
Institution
  SINTEF Health Research and Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's
Health, Norwegian University of Technology and Science, Trondheim, Norway.
eskjelde@online.no
Title
  The impact of intrauterine devices on subsequent fertility. [Review] [41 refs]
Source
  Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 20(3):275-80, 2008 Jun.
Abstract
  PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To investigate the impact of intrauterine devices on subsequent
fertility. RECENT FINDINGS: Intrauterine devices are safe, well tolerated and used by millions
of women worldwide. Subsequent fertility is studied among women who remove the intrauterine
contraceptive device for planning pregnancy or among women who have removed the
intrauterine contraceptive device because of intrauterine contraceptive device-related
complications and later on have become pregnant. Study participants are recruited from
randomized clinical trials on intrauterine contraceptive device performance or in case series
among women who remove the intrauterine contraceptive device. Pregnancy rates after removal
are high and are similar to time-to-pregnancy rates in the general population. The birth rates are
high with a normal distribution of preterm deliveries, normal birth weight and sex ratio of
newborns. The ratio of extra-intrauterine pregnancies and the need for infertility work up are
low, and the distribution of infertility causes among fully investigated couples is as seen in the
general population. SUMMARY: Despite small sample size of studies investigating impact of
intrauterine contraceptive devices on subsequent fertility, the results are consistent and
reassuring on high pregnancy rates, and a normal distribution of pregnancy outcomes. There are
limited data on return of fertility after usage of medicated intrauterine contraceptive devices--
more studies are warranted among women who have used hormone-releasing intrauterine
contraceptive devices. [References: 41]
Publication Type
  Journal Article. Review.
<13>
Unique Identifier
 18400840
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 ESHRE Capri Workshop Group.
Authors Full Name
 ESHRE Capri Workshop Group.
Institution
 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Milano, Via Commenda 12,
20122Milano, Italy.
Title
 Intrauterine devices and intrauterine systems. [Review] [93 refs]
Source
 Human Reproduction Update. 14(3):197-208, 2008 May-Jun.
Abstract
 From a public health viewpoint, the intrauterine device (IUD) is the most widely used
contraceptive method in the world. Prevalence rates range among countries from 2 to 80% of
contraceptive users. During 5 years of IUD use, pregnancy occurs in less than 2 per 100
insertions. Bleeding and pain are the most common reasons for removal rates of 10% in the first
year and up to 50% within 5 years. The contraceptive effects of IUDs may be due to a sterile
inflammatory reaction in the endometrial cavity which interferes with sperm function, so that
fertilization is less likely to occur. IUDs also interfere with implantation but the extent to which
this contributes to their contraceptive action is unknown. In nulliparous women rates of
expulsion and removal for bleeding and/or pain are higher than in parous women. Effective use
of IUDs for up to 10 years has the same pregnancy rate as tubal interruption. Thus, the IUD may
be an alternative to female sterilization, especially in younger women who are more likely to
experience regret after sterilization. The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) reduces
bleeding and dysmenorrhoea, provides superior effectiveness to copper IUDs, and may be a
useful treatment for endometriosis or an alternative to hysterectomy for menorrhagia.
[References: 93]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Review.


<14>
Unique Identifier
 18221924
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Thonneau PF. Almont T.
Authors Full Name
 Thonneau, Patrick F. Almont, Thierry.
Institution
 Human Fertility Research Group, Toulouse University Hospital, France. thonneau.p@chu-
toulouse.fr
Title
 Contraceptive efficacy of intrauterine devices. [Review] [55 refs][Erratum appears in Am J
Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Apr;198(4):485 Note: Almont, Thierry E [corrected to Almont, Thierry]]
Source
 American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 198(3):248-53, 2008 Mar.
Abstract
 To compare the contraceptive efficacy of various types of intrauterine devices (IUD; copper
devices, Nova-T, intrauterine contraceptive systems, levonorgestrel-releasing devices), we
reviewed all relevant publications on this subject that have been published over the last 2
decades. The first point to be highlighted by this review is the excellent effectiveness of IUDs,
with a global cumulative pregnancy rate <2% at 5 years, whatever the type of device used. We
observed a large variation in efficacy rate according to the type of IUD and also according to
study design. Nevertheless, of all the types of IUDs, the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD and to a
lesser extent the TCu380A IUD seem to be the most effective, with a cumulative pregnancy rate
at 5 years of <0.5% for the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD and between 0.3% and 0.6% for the
TCu380A IUD. [References: 55]
Publication Type
  Comparative Study. Journal Article. Review.


<15>
Unique Identifier
 17544330
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Mansour D.
Authors Full Name
 Mansour, Diana.
Institution
 Graingerville Clinic, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
diana.mansour@newcastle-pct.nhs.uk
Title
 Modern management of abnormal uterine bleeding: the levonorgestrel intra-uterine system.
[Review] [61 refs]
Source
 Best Practice & Research in Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 21(6):1007-21, 2007 Dec.
Abstract
 Since its launch, more than 9 million women worldwide have used the levonorgestrel intra-
uterine system (IUS) for contraception, as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and as the
progestogen component of hormone-replacement therapy. For women in their reproductive
years, the IUS has become one of the most acceptable medical treatments for menorrhagia,
reducing referrals to specialists and decreasing the need for operative gynaecological surgery.
This article will outline the development of the IUS, highlighting the most important recent areas
of research covering its use to control menstrual blood loss and pain. [References: 61]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<16>
Unique Identifier
 17982331
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Chrisman C. Ribeiro P. Dalton VK.
Authors Full Name
 Chrisman, Camaryn. Ribeiro, Pricilla. Dalton, Vanessa K.
Institution
 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor,
Michigan 48109, USA.
Title
 The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: an updated review of the contraceptive and
noncontraceptive uses. [Review] [98 refs]
Source
 Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology. 50(4):886-97, 2007 Dec.
Abstract
 The levonorgestrel containing intrauterine system is an effective and safe form of long-term yet
reversible birth control. Intrauterine contraception use in the United States fell dramatically
after early studies reported an association between intrauterine contraception use and later tubal
infertility. Subsequent evaluation suggests that these early studies were biased. Users often
experience menstrual disturbances. Informing patients of these common side effects is important
to improve compliance. In addition to its contraceptive effect, the levonorgestrel intrauterine
system offers potential therapeutic benefits in other clinical contexts, including menorrhagia,
symptomatic fibroids, endometriosis, and endometrial suppression. [References: 98]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<17>
Unique Identifier
 17531622
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Hubacher D.
Authors Full Name
 Hubacher, David.
Institution
 Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
dhubacher@fhi.org
Title
 Copper intrauterine device use by nulliparous women: review of side effects. [Review] [25 refs]
Source
 Contraception. 75(6 Suppl):S8-11, 2007 Jun.
Abstract
 BACKGROUND: Nulliparity was once a relative contraindication to using the copper IUD.
However, new research and changes in product labeling have eased safety concerns. Side effects
remain a major problem with copper IUD use in this population. METHODS: A review of
published articles was undertaken to find information on expulsion rates and removals for
bleeding and pain among nulliparous women using a copper IUD; approximately 500 articles
and abstracts were found. RESULTS: In 15 studies comparing IUD performance in parous vs.
nulliparous women, nulliparous women had higher rates of expulsion and removals due to
bleeding and pain. Among 8 studies examining different types of copper IUDs in nulliparous
women, some evidence suggests IUD size and shape play a role in performance. CONCLUSION:
All existing copper IUDs are suitable for use by nulliparous women. However, more research is
needed to determine whether expulsions and removals due to bleeding and pain can be reduced
with improved copper devices. [References: 25]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S..
Review.


<18>
Unique Identifier
 17531621
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Nelson AL.
Authors Full Name
 Nelson, Anita L.
Institution
 Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Box 474, Torrance, CA 90509-2910, USA.
anitanelsonwhc@earthlink.net
Title
 Contraindications to IUD and IUS use. [Review] [42 refs]
Source
 Contraception. 75(6 Suppl):S76-81, 2007 Jun.
Abstract
 Contraindications to IUD or IUS use can be found on product labeling, in the guidelines of
various specialty groups and in recommendations from peer-reviewed articles. Overly restrictive
contraindications block access to this top-tier method for many women who would be candidates
based on current scientific evidence. Assuming that a condition should be listed as a
contraindication only if the risk of IUD/IUS use by a woman with that condition exceeds her risk
with pregnancy, the list of contraindications is reduced to pregnancy, active uterine infection,
malignancy in the uterus or cervix, an inability to place or retain the device, unexplained
abnormal bleeding and adverse reaction to product ingredients. [References: 42]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<19>
Unique Identifier
  17531620
Status
  MEDLINE
Authors
  Sivin I.
Authors Full Name
  Sivin, Irving.
Institution
  Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, NY 10021, USA.
sivin@popcbr.rockefeller.edu
Title
  Utility and drawbacks of continuous use of a copper T IUD for 20 years. [Review] [18 refs]
Source
  Contraception. 75(6 Suppl):S70-5, 2007 Jun.
Abstract
  This article examines interrelated questions concerning the extent of need for contraception in
women 40 years and older and the degree to which that need can be served when use of collared
T IUDs is initiated in women aged 25-35 years. Differentials in the impacts of intrauterine device
(IUD) use on health issues in the second decade of contraception are also addressed. Although
fertility of all women aged 40-44 years is below 100 per 1000 in all regions of the world today, the
risk of pregnancy among married or cohabiting women who do not use contraception is
estimated at 270-300 per 1000 or 27-30% per year. At ages 45-49 years, the annual risk of
pregnancy to women in union who do not use contraception lies at or above 10% per year. Data
from three studies show that users of collared copper IUDs who continued using the same device
beyond the completion of 10 years experienced no pregnancies through the end of 15 years. A
small number of women continued with the same IUD through 20 years and still experienced no
pregnancies. Use of collared copper T IUDs beyond 10 years was not associated with
intensification of side effects nor with an increase in the relative frequency of those effects, with
the exception of the experience of perimenopausal symptoms and problems. Neither increased
bleeding nor increased severity of pelvic disease was manifest in the second decade of continuous
use of the same IUD, as compared with the first decade of such use. Under our current
understanding of the duration of IUD effectiveness, only a small percentage of women complete
10 years of use. Even with revised understanding of the duration of effectiveness of long-acting
copper devices, average annual continuation rates must be quite high in order that 20% of
women aged 25-35 years initiate a second decade of continuous IUD use. Those who do so would
find considerable protection against pregnancy and reasonable economic benefits in continuing
to use the same device. [References: 18]
Publication Type
  Journal Article. Review.


<20>
Unique Identifier
 17531619
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Curtis KM. Marchbanks PA. Peterson HB.
Authors Full Name
 Curtis, Kathryn M. Marchbanks, Polly A. Peterson, Herbert B.
Institution
 Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
30341, USA. kmc6@cdc.gov
Title
 Neoplasia with use of intrauterine devices. [Review] [48 refs][Erratum appears in
Contraception. 2008 Feb;77(2):138]
Source
 Contraception. 75(6 Suppl):S60-9, 2007 Jun.
Abstract
 BACKGROUND: One of the mechanisms by which intrauterine devices (IUDs) prevent
pregnancy is the creation of a sterile inflammatory response in the endometrium. Additionally,
hormone-releasing IUDs or intrauterine systems (IUSs) release progestins or progesterone into
the uterus. Both of these mechanisms may affect users' risk for neoplasia. STUDY DESIGN: We
searched the PubMed database for studies on IUD use and risk for neoplasia conducted between
1960 and September 2006 and published in all languages. We excluded case reports and case
series. For the association between ever using an IUD and risk for endometrial cancer, we
conducted a meta-analysis using a Bayesian random-effects model to account for between-study
heterogeneity. RESULTS: We found no evidence of increased risk for neoplasia with IUD use.
Nine case-control studies and one cohort study found reduced risks for endometrial cancer with
having ever used an IUD (pooled adjusted odds ratio=0.6, 95% confidence interval=0.4-0.7). No
trend in associations was observed with characteristics of IUD use, type of IUD and histologic
type of cancer. Four case-control studies found no association between IUD use and risk for
cervical cancer. One study found no increased incidence of breast cancer among levonorgestrel-
releasing IUS users as compared with the general population in Finland. Finally, three studies
found no association between IUD use and occurrence of hydatidiform moles or malignant
sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an IUD does not appear to increase the risk for neoplasia.
While nearly all studies found that IUD use was associated with a decreased risk for endometrial
cancer, it remains unclear whether this association is causal. [References: 48]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<21>
Unique Identifier
 17531617
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Castano PM.
Authors Full Name
 Castano, Paula M.
Institution
 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York,
NY 10032, USA. pc2137@columbia.edu
Title
 Use of intrauterine devices and systems by HIV-infected women. [Review] [25 refs]
Source
 Contraception. 75(6 Suppl):S51-4, 2007 Jun.
Abstract
 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women have unique contraceptive needs. HIV
infection is now considered a chronic disease and contraceptive options have widened for HIV-
infected women. However, there are safety concerns regarding the use of intrauterine devices and
systems in HIV-infected women. Although studies are limited, intrauterine devices appear to be
safe for use by most HIV-infected women. This is a review of the available data and international
recommendations. [References: 25]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<22>
Unique Identifier
 17531612
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 d'Arcangues C.
Authors Full Name
 d'Arcangues, Catherine.
Institution
 UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research
Training in Human Reproduction, World Health Organization, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
darcanguesc@who.int
Title
 Worldwide use of intrauterine devices for contraception. [Review] [28 refs]
Source
 Contraception. 75(6 Suppl):S2-7, 2007 Jun.
Abstract
 The intrauterine device is the most widely used reversible method of contraception in the world
today, particularly in developing countries where it is used by 14.5% of women of reproductive
age. In the developed world, this percentage is only 7.6%. There are marked regional differences
with the highest use in Eastern Asia and the lowest in North America. Such differences between
regions and countries can be explained by a number of factors at the individual, service delivery,
program and policy levels. The situation in seven countries is briefly described to illustrate this
and to conclude that this method of contraception is largely underutilized in many parts of the
world, where it could play a significant role in improving women's health. [References: 28]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<23>
Unique Identifier
 17531611
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Inki P.
Authors Full Name
 Inki, Pirjo.
Institution
 Bayer Schering Pharma AG, D-13342 Berlin, Germany. pirjo.inki@schering.fi
Title
 Long-term use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. [Review] [42 refs]
Source
 Contraception. 75(6 Suppl):S161-6, 2007 Jun.
Abstract
 Since its launch in Finland in 1990, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS)
has become available in more than 100 countries throughout the world, with most countries also
having the approval for the treatment of idiopathic menorrhagia and protection from
endometrial hyperplasia during estrogen replacement therapy. After its introduction in Finland
and Scandinavian countries, the LNG IUS has been available in most European countries since
the mid to late 1990s and in the United States since 2001. Studies on the repeat use of the LNG
IUS with second and third consecutive IUSs have shown high continuation rates and low rates of
adverse effects. During repeat use of the LNG IUS, the bleeding pattern changes toward an
increasing amenorrhea rate. With regard to the menorrhagia indication, the 5-year follow-up
results of a randomized comparative trial of the LNG IUS and hysterectomy have shown equal
satisfaction and improvement in health-related quality of life with both treatments. Although a
proportion of women assigned to the LNG IUS group eventually underwent hysterectomy, the
continuation rate of the LNG IUS for menorrhagia is clearly superior to that of conventional
medical therapy (e.g., oral progestins). Use of the LNG IUS in combination with estrogen therapy
in women undergoing menopausal transition seems to be well tolerated and associated with a
favorable bleeding pattern. [References: 42]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<24>
Unique Identifier
  17531609
Status
  MEDLINE
Authors
  Sitruk-Ware R.
Authors Full Name
  Sitruk-Ware, Regine.
Institution
  Center for Biomedical Research Population Council, Rockefeller University, New York, NY
10021, USA. regine@popcbr.rockfeller.edu
Title
  The levonorgestrel intrauterine system for use in peri- and postmenopausal women. [Review]
[37 refs]
Source
  Contraception. 75(6 Suppl):S155-60, 2007 Jun.
Abstract
  The intrauterine system (IUS) delivering levonorgestrel (LNG; Mirena), initially developed as a
long-acting method of contraception, has demonstrated its efficacy and safety in a large number
of users all over the world. The local delivery of a small dose of a highly effective progestin in the
uterine cavity maintains the endometrium in a nonproliferative state and reduces the number of
bleeding days, thus preventing anemia, an important medical benefit, especially in developing
countries. In addition, the intrauterine delivery of a progestin allows the treatment of other
medical conditions and prevention of endometrial hyperplasia, in postmenopausal women
receiving estrogen therapy. During the perimenopausal years, the IUS provides an effective
contraception as occasional ovulations occur. In addition, by its direct effect on the endometrium,
it prevents the occurrence of menorrhagia, a frequent condition in the premenopause. After
cessation of the ovarian function, when estrogen therapy may be initiated, the IUS would ensure
endometrial protection as a transition to the menopause and as long as hormone therapy is
needed. Although the circulating levels of LNG are very low, minor side effects related to the
androgenic properties of LNG have been reported. In addition, the insertion of the system needs
a skilled health provider and may be difficult or painful when the uterus is small or atrophic. The
development of smaller devices is warranted for these specific situations. [References: 37]
Publication Type
  Journal Article. Review.


<25>
Unique Identifier
 17531605
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Bahamondes L. Petta CA. Fernandes A. Monteiro I.
Authors Full Name
 Bahamondes, Luis. Petta, Carlos A. Fernandes, Arlete. Monteiro, Ilza.
Institution
 Human Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine,
Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13084-971, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
bahamond@caism.unicamp.br
Title
 Use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in women with endometriosis, chronic
pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. [Review] [39 refs]
Source
 Contraception. 75(6 Suppl):S134-9, 2007 Jun.
Abstract
 OBJECTIVES: This report is a review of the medical literature on the use of the levonorgestrel-
releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in women with endometriosis, adenomyosis, cyclic
pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review was carried out using
the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to evaluate the use of LNG-IUS in women with
endometriosis and adenomyosis. RESULTS: Nine studies were identified, only two of which were
randomized clinical trials. One compared the insertion of LNG-IUS after surgery with expectant
conduct and the other compared the use of the device with a GnRH analogue (GnRH-a). All
studies reported an improvement in pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea, and a reduction in menstrual
bleeding. One study found an improvement in the staging of the disease at 6 months of use, and
the studies that evaluated the use of LNG-IUS in women with adenomyosis reported a reduction
in uterine volume. Furthermore, the only study in which women were followed up for 3 years
after insertion found improvement in pelvic pain at 12 months of use. However, there was no
improvement after that period. CONCLUSIONS: The use of LNG-IUS is an alternative for the
medical treatment of women suffering from endometriosis, adenomyosis, chronic pelvic pain or
dysmenorrhea, but experience is limited and long-term studies are necessary to reach definitive
conclusions. However, for women who do not wish to become pregnant, this device offers the
possibility of at least 5 years of treatment following one single intervention. [References: 39]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Review.


<26>
Unique Identifier
 17081937
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Morgan KW.
Authors Full Name
 Morgan, Katherine W.
Institution
 University of Utah College of Nursing, 10 South 2000 East, Salt lake City, UT 84112, USA.
Katie.morgan@nurs.utah.edu <Katie.morgan@nurs.utah.edu>
Title
 The intrauterine device: rethinking old paradigms. [Review] [39 refs]
Source
 Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. 51(6):464-70, 2006 Nov-Dec.
Abstract
 The United States continues to have one of the highest rates of unintended pregnancy and
elective abortion in developed countries. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) available today offer women
safe and highly effective contraception along with noncontraceptive benefits, yet IUDs remain
underutilized in part because of outdated and biased information about the risks associated with
this method of fertility control. New research demonstrates that IUD use does not increase the
risk of pelvic infections or subsequent infertility. IUD use decreases the absolute risk of ectopic
pregnancies. In light of this data, the IUD should be made available to women at low-risk for
sexually-transmitted infections and should not be denied to women on the basis of parity or
marital status. [References: 39]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<27>
Unique Identifier
 17054271
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Grimes DA. Hubacher D. Lopez LM. Schulz KF.
Authors Full Name
 Grimes, D A. Hubacher, D. Lopez, L M. Schulz, K F.
Institution
 Family Health International, Clinical Research Department, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle
Park, Durham, NC 27709, USA. dgrimes@fhi.org
Title
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for heavy bleeding or pain associated with intrauterine-
device use. [Review] [47 refs]
Comments
 Comment in: Evid Based Nurs. 2007 Apr;10(2):48; PMID: 17384100]
Source
 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (4):CD006034, 2006.
Abstract
 BACKGROUND: Heavy bleeding and pain are the most common reasons why women
discontinue IUDs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit prostaglandin synthesis,
have been shown to be effective in reducing menstrual bleeding and pain in women without
IUDs. OBJECTIVES: This review summarizes all randomized controlled trials studying use of
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for treatment of bleeding or pain associated with IUD use.
Trials of prophylactic use of these drugs around the time of IUD insertion were also included.
SEARCH STRATEGY: We performed searches of PubMed, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE,
LILACS, and CINAHL for relevant trials. We also wrote to the authors of all trials identified to
seek other published or unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all
randomized controlled trials in any language that tested one or more nonsteroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs for treatment or prevention of bleeding or pain associated with IUD
insertion or use. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently
abstracted data from relevant trials, and we entered data into RevMan for analysis. MAIN
RESULTS: We found 15 trials from 10 countries; the total number of participants was 2702.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen, suprofen, mefenamic acid, ibuprofen,
indomethacin, flufenamic acid, alclofenac, and diclofenac) were effective in reducing menstrual
blood loss associated with IUD use. This held true for women with and without complaints of
heavy bleeding. Similarly, these drugs were effective in reducing pain associated with IUD use. In
contrast, prophylactic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had mixed results; studies
with ibuprofen found no effect on pain after insertion on IUD discontinuation. No important
differences emerged in the one trial comparing the effect of different NSAIDs on bleeding.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce bleeding and pain
associated with IUD use. NSAIDs should be considered first-line therapy; if NSAIDs are
ineffective, tranexamic acid may be considered as second-line therapy. Prophylactic ibuprofen
administration with the first six menses after insertion appears unwarranted. [References: 47]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Meta-Analysis. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural. Research Support,
U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.. Review.


<28>
Unique Identifier
 16563872
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Farquhar C. Brosens I.
Authors Full Name
 Farquhar, Cynthia. Brosens, Ivo.
Institution
 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Womens' Health at Auckland, City
Hospital, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.
c.farquhar@auckland.ac.nz
Title
  Medical and surgical management of adenomyosis. [Review] [57 refs]
Source
  Best Practice & Research in Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 20(4):603-16, 2006 Aug.
Abstract
  Adenomyosis of the uterus is a common condition amongst women in their reproductive years.
It is defined as the presence of heterotopic endometrial glands and stroma in the myometrium
with adjacent smooth muscle hyperplasia. The common presenting symptoms are painful and
heavy periods and infertility, although many women are asymptomatic. Adenomyosis is thought
to affect 1% of women and is typically diagnosed in the 4th and 5th decades of life. The aetiology
is unclear, and until recently a diagnosis was made only after invasive and destructive surgery.
With the advent of improved imaging of the pelvic organs, and in particular magnetic resonance
imaging, the diagnosis of adenomyosis is being made more frequently. Unfortunately, because the
disease has been infrequently diagnosed prior to hysterectomy, there are few well-designed
studies of medical or surgical management. Management with hormonal treatment that aims to
reduce the proliferation of endometrial cells is promising, but there is a paucity of well-designed
studies to guide treatment. Hysterectomy or use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-
IUS) remains the mainstay of treatment. [References: 57]
Publication Type
  Journal Article. Review.


<29>
Unique Identifier
 16882450
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Paladine HL. Blenning CE. Judkins DZ. Mittal S.
Authors Full Name
 Paladine, Heather L. Blenning, Carol E. Judkins, Dolores Zegar. Mittal, Shashi.
Institution
 University of Southern California/Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Title
 Clinical inquiries. What are contraindications to IUDs?. [Review] [11 refs]
Source
 Journal of Family Practice. 55(8):726-9, 2006 Aug.
Abstract
 Based on limited evidence, use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) is not contraindicated for women
with HIV/AIDS (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C), multiple sexual partners (SOR: C),
previous actinomyces colonization (SOR: C), most types of fibroids (SOR: C), or previous ectopic
pregnancy (SOR: C). The risk to IUD users of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is similar to
women using no contraception (SOR: B). Nulliparous women may experience increased insertion
discomfort and higher rates of expulsion (SOR: B). IUD use of <3.5 years is not associated with
decreased fertility (SOR: B). [References: 11]
Publication Type
 Journal Article. Review.


<30>
Unique Identifier
 16413845
Status
 MEDLINE
Authors
 Mohllajee AP. Curtis KM. Peterson HB.
Authors Full Name
 Mohllajee, Anshu P. Curtis, Kathryn M. Peterson, Herbert B.
Institution
  Division of Reproductive Health, WHO Collaborating Center in Reproductive Health, Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Title
  Does insertion and use of an intrauterine device increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease
among women with sexually transmitted infection? A systematic review. [Review] [20 refs]
Source
  Contraception. 73(2):145-53, 2006 Feb.
Abstract
  Concerns exist as to whether the insertion of copper and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine
devices (IUDs) increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among women with
sexually transmitted infection (STI). We searched the MEDLINE database for all articles
published between January 1966 and March 2005 that included evidence relevant to IUDs and
STIs and PID. None of the studies that examined women with STIs compared the risk of PID
between those with insertion or use of an IUD and those who had not received an IUD. We
reviewed indirect evidence from six prospective studies that examined women with insertion of a
copper IUD and compared risk of PID between those with STIs at the time of insertion with those
with no STIs. These studies suggested that women with chlamydial infection or gonorrhea at the
time of IUD insertion were at an increased risk of PID relative to women without infection. The
absolute risk of PID was low for both groups (0-5% for those with STIs and 0-2% for those
without). [References: 20]
Publication Type
  Journal Article. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.. Review.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:3/16/2012
language:
pages:18
jennyyingdi jennyyingdi http://
About