muslim-brotherhood by engsheta


									              Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimeen:
              The Muslim
W        ITHOUT CLOSELY examining Al-Ikhwan
         al-Muslimeen (the Muslim Brotherhood)
founded in Egypt in 1928, it is impossible to try
                                                       commander, and Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al-Qaeda’s
                                                       political ideologue. The question for those study-
                                                       ing Islamic terrorism is, “To what extent did the
to understand modern Islamic radicalism. Al-           Muslim Brotherhood influence the suicide bomber
Ikhwan was the first of its kind to politicize Islam   Muhammad Atta and the blind cleric Shiekh
within the context of the colonial age and the first   Omar Abd-al-Rahman?”
to put into practice the theories
of Salafist thinkers such as                                               Understanding
Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani and                                                Hasasan-Al-Banna’s
Muhammad Abduh. These two                                                  Egypt
Muslim revivalists, who wrote                                                 Hassan-Al-Banna, born in
and preached during the begin-                                             1906 in the delta town of
ning of the 20th-century, es-                                              Mahmudiya, saw an Egypt com-
poused that Islam and modernity                                            pletely dominated by England.
are compatible and that Muslims                                            By 1919 he was participating in
lack control over their destinies                                          nationalist protests. He and his
because they have fallen into fa-                                          family witnessed nationalist
talism, abandoning the quest for                                           leader Saad Zaghloul calling for
understanding. According to Al-                                            the withdrawal of the British and
Afghani and Abduh, falling away                                            the granting of independence to
from their true faith has made                                             Egypt. British high commission-
Muslim lands vulnerable to                                                 ers in Cairo, including the distin-
Western colonialism.                                                       guished commissioner Lord
   From the Muslim Brotherhood ranks came Sayed        Horatio Kitchener, had governed the country since
Qutb, who wrote the jihadist pamphlet Ma’alim          1882. Despite being granted independence in 1922,
(Guideposts), and many members of the more mili-       Egypt retained a de facto British high commissioner,
tant Gammaa al-Islamiya (The Islamic Group) and        who continued to dictate policy to King Fouad and
Al-Jihad as well as Al-Takfir wal-Hijra (Excommu-      his son King Farouk. England continued to treat
nication and Migration). Most leaders of these mili-   Egyptians with contempt, using such racial epithets
tant organizations and their members were once         as “gyppos” and “camel jockey,” words that origi-
members of the Brotherhood. The history of the         nated with British and Australian troops serving tours
Brotherhood is intertwined with the events surround-   of duty in Egypt. Egyptians have typically been
ing Egypt’s 1952 founding as a Republic.               weaned on stories of English domination, some real,
   Al-Ikhwan members once included the late            others exaggerated. One such story is about an En-
Mohammed Atef, Osama bin-Laden’s military              glish hunter shooting pigeons on an Egyptian

26                                                                      July - August 2003   MILITARY REVIEW
                                                                                    MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD

farmer’s property. The farmer,                                                   Al-Banna, finding like-minded
seeing the birds he raised for                                                men at his school and other uni-
food being killed, tried to per-                                              versities, came under the influ-
suade the hunter to stop. The                                                 ence of Sheikh Al-Dwijiri, who
hunter refused to acknowledge                                                 argued that Al-Azhar clerics
the farmer, so the farmer struck                                              were not capable of stemming
the Englishman, killing him. In                                               the tide of Western influence.
relaliation, British troops razed                                             This idea was not new; it re-
the village, causing many deaths                                              flected the writings of Mu-
and casualties. Today, this town                                              hammad Abduh, saying that the
is called Damanhour (Flowing                                                  Al-Azhar clergy were corrupt
Blood) in commemoration.                                                      agents of the government and
   Al-Banna’s childhood educa-                                                that any cleric who helped main-
tion consisted of an Islamic el-                                              tain colonial rule was to be con-
ementary education and learning                                               sidered illegitimate. The most in-
watch repair, his father’s craft.                                             fluential person in Al-Banna’s
His father, a graduate of Al-                                                 life, however, was Sheikh
Azhar University, was the                                                     Muhibb al-Din Khatib, a Syrian
village’s Islamic leader. At the                                              reformer who ran the Salafiya
age of 12, Al-Banna was en-                                                   Library and helped found the
rolled in primary school and be-                                              Young Muslim Men’s Associa-
gan his association with Islamic                                              tion. From Khatib, Al-Banna
groups. He also became a mem-             Hassan-
                                                                              learned elements of organizing
ber of the Society for Islamic            Al-Banna                            the masses and mobilizing disaf-
Morality, whose members were                                                  fected youth.2 Al-Banna gradu-
to adhere to a strict code of                                                 ated from Dar-al-Ulum in 1927
Muslim behavior, with fines im-                                               and proceeded to teach at a post
posed on those who cursed,                                                    in the port city of Ismailiah.
drank, or smoked. This evange-
lism expanded to include a mem-                                               Al-Banna and the
bership in the Society for Pre-                                               Muslim Brotherhood
venting the Forbidden. At 16,                                                     In Ismailiah, a town on the
Al-Banna attended Dar-al-                                                      Suez Canal, Al-Banna’s influ-
Ulum, an Islamic teacher’s train-                                              ences caught up with him as he
ing college in Cairo where he fo-                                              witnessed the exploitation of
cused his studies on Tawheed                                                   Egyptian workers by foreigners
(theology), Fiqh (jurispru-                                                    who ran the Suez Canal Com-
dence), Arabic literature, and                                                 pany. In response, Al-Banna and
Kalam (modern Islamic ideology or theosophy). The         his colleagues founded Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimeen.
Hasafiya Order of Sufism also attracted Al-Banna          He declared that Egyptian poverty, powerlessness,
because of its strict observance of scripture, rituals,   and lack of dignity resulted from failing to adhere
and ceremonies. He found a sense of cause and im-         to Islam and adopting Western values and culture.
portance in joining the order, and he became its sec-     “Islam hooah al-hal” (Islam is the solution to all
retary, handling charitable social needs. However, his    Egyptian and mankind’s ills), a buzzword still ut-
activities were limited to upholding Islamic standards    tered today, represents a frustration with socialism,
and imposing them on others.                              capitalism, and a democracy manipulated to favor
   During his 5 years in Cairo, Al-Banna saw Egypt’s      the ruling party.
secular culture as immoral, decadent, and atheistic.         The first 10 years of Al-Ikhwan activities focused
He was alarmed also by the reforms of Kemal               on recruiting and establishing branches throughout
Attaturk, who abolished the Caliphate. Al-Banna           Egypt. Al-Banna called for a constitution derived
worried that the 1925 establishment of secular Egyp-      from the Quran and Sunnah, as well as the pre-
tian universities was the first step toward a Turk-       cedents set forth by the first four rightly-guided Ca-
ish-style abandonment of Islam.1                          liphs. He wanted the abrogation of secular law and

MILITARY REVIEW      July - August 2003                                                                      27
the introduction of Islamic law as                                           ship with the Egyptian Army.
the law of Egypt. Another as-                                                    When the Brotherhood began,
pect of Al-Banna’s message                                                   it included political, educational,
was the prohibition of vices such                                            and social arms. The organiza-
as gambling, prostitution, usury,                                            tion added a militant arm during
monopolies, books, and songs, as                                             World War II and established an
well as ideas not conforming to                                              Ikhwan quasi-judiciary that is-
Islamic law. Although Al-Banna                                               sued fatwas against those who
preached pan-Islamism, he was                                                were judged to have betrayed

not opposed to pan-Arabism and                                               faith and country. Once the ju-
Egyptian nationalism. In his pam-                                            diciary arm condemned a per-
phlet Diary of Dawa and                                                      son, the Brotherhood’s militant
Dai’iah, Al-Banna clearly out-                                               arm carried out the sentence.
lines the early years of the or-                                             Brotherhood activities also in-
ganization saying, “I prefer to                                              cluded the 1948 bombing of the
gather men than gather informa-                               Hassan-        Circurrel Shopping Complex and
tion from books.”3 He empha-                                  Al-Banna       the assassinations of internal se-
sized building the Ikhwanic orga-                                            curity officials, Judge Ahmed Al-
nization and established internal                                            Khizindaar, and Prime Minister
rules to keep it going beyond his                                            Noqrashi Pasha. In retaliation,
lifetime.4                                                                   King Farouk’s internal security
                                                                             apparatus assassinated Al-
Al-Ikhwan under Kings                                                        Banna in 1949, but the Brother-
Fouad and Farouk                                                             hood endured and has since be-
   In 1936, Al-Banna sent a let-                                             come intertwined in Egyptian
ter to King Farouk and Prime                                                 domestic politics.
Minister Nahas Pasha encourag-
ing them to promote an Islamic                                               Ikwan under Nasser
order. That same year Egypt                                                      Anwar Sadat played a pivotal
signed the Anglo-Egyptian                                                     role in bringing together the
Treaty, giving more control and                                               Brotherhood and members of
autonomy to local governments.                                                the Free Officers’ Association.
By 1938 Al-Banna called on                                                    As early as 1946, he saw that
King Farouk to dissolve Egypt’s                                               the two groups had common
political parties because of their corruption and the    aims (the overthrow of the monarchy blamed for the
division they caused within the country.5 The            military failure in Palestine) and that the recruitment
Brotherhood’s tactics began to change from work-         of officers and infiltration of troops was redundant
ing within the system to advocating an armed revo-       and often divisive.
lutionary struggle to facilitate change.6 Today, the        When Nasser finally met Al-Banna in 1948,
debate on whether Islamists should work within the       Nasser convinced Al-Banna that gaining a wide base
system or propagate violence continues within            of support among the military through his Free Of-
Ikhwan ranks, a debate that has led to the creation      ficers and uniting secular and Muslim officers un-
of such splinter groups as Gamaa al-Islamiya and         der the banner of Egyptian self-rule would be more
Tanzeem al-Jihad.                                        constructive and lead to a quicker revolution than a
   As early as 1940, guerrilla training camps were       purely Islamist one. Once liberated, Egypt could de-
established in the Mukatam Hills that overlook           termine the best way to govern the country.7
Cairo as well as in areas in southern Egypt, with           Nasser succeeded in overthrowing the monarchy
members of the Egyptian officer corps (some              in July 1952 and, with the help of the Muslim Broth-
affiliated with Nasser’s Free Officers’ Movement)        erhood, hoped to steer a course toward an Islamic
providing training. So organized was the Brother-        government. But the Brotherhood was rebuffed
hood’s militant wing that during the 1948 Arab-          when Nasser offered it only a ministerial post in the
Israeli War there was an increase in the types of        Awqaf (religious endowments) and an appointment
weapons in its arsenal. That same year several thou-     to the post of Mufti of Egypt. A deterioration of the
sand Ikhwan members fought in the Arab-Israeli           relationship between Nasser and the Ikhwan en-
conflict, increasing the organization’s stature and      sued. Nasser’s decision to set aside the Brotherhood
recruiting ability and further cementing its relation-   had much to do with the Coptic Christian and Mus-

28                                                                        July - August 2003   MILITARY REVIEW
                                                                                    MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD
lim secular members of his Free                                              would be an overstatement; they
Officers’ Association who did not                                            operate individually and collabo-
espouse Al-Banna’s vision of an                                              rate occasionally when the politi-
Islamic Egypt.8 Perhaps surpris-                                             cal opportunity warrants.
ingly, the Ikhwan talked directly
with the British Embassy in an                                               Ikhwan Ideologies
effort to find common ground in                                                  The Ikhwan, which has suc-
destabilizing Nasser’s regime,                                                cessfully infiltrated elements of
which both France and England                                                 the Egyptian Army and police,
saw as being hostile toward                                                   has also been successful in con-
them.                                                                         trolling lawyers’, pharmacists’,
   During Nasser’s regime, many                                               engineers’, and doctors’ unions in
Brotherhood members were                                                      Egypt. The organization also re-
driven underground, and thou-                                                 cruits technical university spe-
sands were jailed. Ikhwan writ-                                               cialists, which has been made
ings show that the level of its per-                                          easier by Mubarak’s complete
secution under Nasser was                                                     suppression of any political
greater than what they endured                                                expression in the universities.
during the monarchy. Qutb, influ-                                             In the 1950s and 1960s there
enced by Al-Banna, wrote Guideposts during               were a variety of student unions that have dis-
Nasser’s reign and formulated his ideas for militant     appeared under Mubarak’s regime. Students are
Islam in the jail cells of Nasser’s Egypt. Another       turning to the Brotherhood to express their discon-
side-effect of Nasser’s crack-down of the Ikhwan         tent with government policies and the economy.10
involved the dispersal of members to neighboring         In The Messages of Imam-ul-Shaheed Hassan Al-
Arab countries like Saudi Arabia. It was during this     Banna, Al-Banna characterizes the Ikhwan by
time that the strict Wahabi strain of Islam was in-      highlighting the following principles that unite
fused into Ikhwan ideology.                              organizations modeled on the original Egyptian
   Sayed Qutb’s Guideposts argues that leaders           version:11
should be accepted not merely because they are                 Following the Salaf, a complete rejection of any
Muslim. They must be selected by the Ummah, and          action or principle that contradicts the Sunnah and
the selected leader must be just, void of corruption,    Quran.
and not an oppressor. Qutb saw Nasser’s experi-                Striving to implement the Sunnah in every as-
mentation with socialism as leading the nation to-       pect of public life. The Egyptian court system
ward heresy. Qutb was executed on the gallows of         has been used successfully to bring suit against in-
Tura Prison in 1966.9                                    tellectuals and writers deemed heretics. The most
   Like Al-Banna, Qutb’s message left an important       famous case was that of Abu Ziad, an Islamic
legacy for militant groups. Muhammad Faraj, another      scholar, who was declared an apostate by the Court
member who split off to become a founding ideo-          of Cassations. He was forced to divorce his wife
logue of Gamaa al-Islamiyah, was, like Qutb, influ-      and after repeated threats, he fled to the Nether-
enced by repression and corruption. In 1982 Faraj        lands. A climate created by the Ikhwan may have
published Al-Farida al-Ghaiba (The Missing Ob-           stimulated another tragedy, the 1994 stabbing death
ligation), referring to Jihad. Faraj writes that aban-   of Egyptian Noble Laureate Naguib Mahfouz.
doning the holy war led Muslims to their plight. He            Increasing Iman (religiosity) by focusing on the
characterized Hosni Mubarak’s government as a            purity of hearts.
neo-colonialist regime that had rejected as futile             Working toward Islamizing the government and
Ikhwan’s efforts to work with the regime.                assisting in this goal outside the borders of Egypt
   Relations between the Ikhwan and Egypt’s re-          within the Islamic world.
gimes have been rocky, ranging from Nasser’s sup-              Forming sports clubs and commiting mem-
pression to Sadat’s liberalism before Camp David         bers to a life of physical fitness.
but suppression after and finally, to complete sup-            Enhancing the knowledge of Islam and the
pression under Mubarak. The Ikhwan have also             Shariah among Egyptians and others.
been influenced by Arab Afghans and have been a                Establishing a sound economic infrastructure
militant political voice of Islam in Egypt. Gamaa al-    through contributions of its members to sponsor Is-
Islamiyah (The Islamic Group), established in 1979,      lamic schools, healthcare, and other projects.
and Al-Jihad loosely pursued the organization’s mili-          Fostering links with other Ikhwan within the
tant agenda. To say the three are firmly connected       Islamic world and beyond.12

MILITARY REVIEW     July - August 2003                                                                      29
   These principles have                                                                 Halaqas from various en-
found their way into the                                                                 claves and villages meet
dialogues of modern lead-                                                                to discuss political and re-
ers like Omar al-Telmes-                                                                 ligious affairs. There are
sany, who ran the organi-                                                                also trips, camps, courses
zation during Sadat’s reign                                                              of study, Islamic work-
as well as into their news-                                                              shops, and conferences
paper Al-Dawa (The Call).                                                                that Ikhwan sponsors
Objectives                                                                               throughout Egypt and the
                                                                                         Islamic world. Each mem-

   Introduction to the
Dawa of the Ikhwan al-                                                                   ber is given a schedule
Muslimoon outlines the                                                                   with established goals to
organization’s main objec-                                                               complete that require the
tives. It begins with the self                                                           endorsement of key lead-
and ends with a united Is-                                                               ers. This description can
lamist world in their im-                                                                be found in Ali Abd-al-
age by advocating—                                                                       Haleem’s, Means of Ed-
      Building the Muslim                                                                ucation of the Ikhwan
individual. Building an or-                                                              al-Muslimoon.14
                                                     Gamal Abdel-Nasser (center)            As careful study
ganized person, strong in                            at his graduation from Egypt’s
body and mind, able to                               military academy, 1938.             shows, the Ikhwan have
earn a living, correct in                                                                articulated goals, which
worship, and possessing a                                                                resonate among Egyptian
self-struggling character.                                                               lower and middle-class
      Building the Muslim                                                                societies. In addition, the
family. Choosing a proper                                                                education system is orga-
spouse, educating child-                                                                 nized with the dual pur-
ren Islamically, and build-                                                              pose of mass mobilization
ing a community network                                                                  and control, much like a
of family support groups.                                                                military unit.
       Building a Muslim                                                                    In the realm of coun-
society. Creating a soci-                                                                terterrorism, there is
ety starting with individu-                                                              much to be gained by
als and families and ad-                                                                 careful analysis of the
dressing the problems of                                                                 Ikhwan. For example,
society honestly, realisti-                                                              looking at the 10 prin-
cally, and through open debate.                             ciples of Al-Banna, number three states, “Assume
      Building a Muslim State. The Ikhwan publicly          first that you are wrong, not your Muslim Brother,
espouses that preparing a society for an Islamic gov-       and see how you find the truth impartially.”15 The
ernment should be the first step toward Islamization.       10th principle states, “Have sympathy for those who
This means spreading Islamic culture, ideals, and           do not see the light; rather than being angry or ex-
policy through media, the mosque, and charitable            pose their shortcomings, I never attacked my accus-
works as well as through soliciting membership from         ers or detractors personally, but rather sought God’s
public organizations like unions, syndicates, and stu-      help in making His message clearer to those listen-
dent unions. This dogma is found in Ahmed Ar-               ing.”16 Such phrases contradict Al-Banna’s actions
Rasheed’s, The Path.       13                               during the violent phase initiated in the 1940s. Armed
       Building the Caliphate. This means building a        with this information one can begin to isolate and
united Islamic world.                                       delegitimize groups willing to work within Al-
      Mastering the world of Islam. Muslims should          Banna’s peaceful call and those wanting to resort
control their own destiny within Dar-ul-Islam (The          to violence.
Abode of Islam).                                               Sadly, the organization’s current theme has been
                                                            radicalized by Egyptian Ikhwan contact with Saudi
Methods of Education (Tarbiah)                              radicals and is expressed in the last two of the five
   Once a person becomes an Ikhwan member he                key phrases of the organization’s pledge:
participates in weekly study units known as Halaqas.               Allah is our objective.
There are also monthly Katibah in which several                    The messenger is our leader.

30                                                                            July - August 2003   MILITARY REVIEW
                                                                                                                                                                                  MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD
Courtesy Midshipman 2nd Class Samuel Boyd

                                                  Quran is our law.                                                           withdrawn. The journalist syn-
                                                  Dying in the way of God                                                     dicate threatened a shut down
                                            is our highest hope.                                                              and Mubarak bowed to pub-
                                                  Jihad is our way.17                                                         lic pressure. In 1995, the
                                               This was never part of Al-                                                     Mubarak regime manipulated
                                            Banna’s message. The coun-                                                        the general elections for as-
                                            terterrorism challenge will be                                                    sembly seats by changing the
                                            to foster the original message                                                    wording of the election laws
                                            of working toward peaceful                                                        that resulted in mass arrests on
                                            change as well as encouraging             Emblem of the Muslim Brotherhood
                                                                                                                              the eve of the election. This
                                            and acknowledging the social         (Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimeen) founded in 1928.    undermined Muslim funda-
                                            service provided to poor Egyp-                                                    mentalists wanting to work
                                            tians. Integrating the elements                                                   within the system and em-
                                            that work with the government                                                     powered jihadists calling for a
                                            and its political system should                                                   violent overthrow.18
                                            be part of an aggressive coun-                                                       The Muslim Brotherhood,
                                            terterrorism strategy. There is                                                   inadvertently through dissent
                                            blanket persecution of all Is-                                                    within its own ranks, spawned
                                            lamists by the Egyptian au-                                                       several militant groups. Group
                                            thorities, without truly delineat-                                                splits occurred as early as
                                            ing between violent militants                                                     1939 with the creation of the
                                            and fundamentalists. Exploiting                                                   “Youth of Our Lord Muham-
                                            the ideological differences be-                                                   mad Group,” which denounced
                                            tween those who want to ex-                                                       Al-Banna for his compromises
                                            press themselves politically                                                      with the Egyptian monarchy.
                                            through violence and others                                                       In 1973, students aligned with
                                            through peaceful means can                                                        the Brotherhood created
                                            be used to undermine those                                                        Gamaa al-Islamiyah, which
                                            really dangerous militants.                                                       gained popularity on college
                                               Egyptian democracy is erod-                                                    campuses, but was suppressed
                                            ing. Even as Mubarak tries to stem the challenge            by the government of Anwar Sadat.19 Today, this
                                            of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Ikhwan continues             group’s militant and social affairs function is to
                                            to dominate the lawyers’, doctors’, pharmacists’, en-       bring an Islamic government to Egypt. By pro-
                                            gineers’, and journalists’ unions known as niqabat.         viding technical guidance through its philosophies
                                            The government has stepped in to change the rules,          and techniques, the Brotherhood has been a source
                                            which allowed Islamists to be legally elected into po-      of inspiration to other Islamic militants in the Arab
                                            sitions of authority. Law 93 of 1995, which would           and Muslim world, which makes it an organization
                                            have allowed Egyptian authorities the right to arrest       worth tracking. Its history is one of sedition and
                                            anyone publishing false news, was issued and then           violence. MR
                                                1. Arabic material cited in this essay represents LCDR Aboul-Enein’s transla-           al-Khiyal Printers, 1997), 83-90.
                                            tions and understanding of the material; David Commins, “Hassan Al-Banna (1906-                 8. Ibid., 102-108.
                                            1949),” in Pioneers of Islamic Revival, ed. Ali Rahnema (London: Zed Books, 1994),              9. Ibid., 92-97.
                                            131-33.                                                                                       10. Saad Alfat, “Search into Education and Knowledge: The Ease of Influencing Young
                                                2. Ibid.                                                                                Minds,” Rose-El-Yossef, 4 April 2002, 27.
                                                3. Muslim Brotherhood Movement homepage, on-line at <                    11. Muslim Brotherhood Movement homepage.
                                            ikhwan>, accessed 14 April 2001.                                                              12. Ibid.
                                                4. The Muslim Brotherhood Movement Homepage seems to have been created in                 13. Ahmed Ar-Rasheed, the Path, Muslim Brotherhood pamphlet, undated.
                                            the United Kingdom, and the disclaimer illustrates that the maintainer of the page is not     14. Ali Abd-al-Haleem, Means of Education of the Ikhwan al-Muslimoon, Muslim Broth-
                                            a member of the Ikhwan and does not approve or agree with everything it espouses. The       erhood pamphlet, undated.
                                            page was created for educational purposes and has no connection to any organization.          15. Hassan Al-Banna, “The Messages of Iman-ul-Shaheed Hassan Al-Banna,” Muslim
                                            Nonetheless it is an excellent summary of Brotherhood objectives, themes, and history.      Brotherhood homepage, accessed 14 April 2001.
                                            No date or author appears on the website.                                                     16. Ibid.
                                                5. Commins, 131-33.                                                                       17. Muslim Brotherhood Movement homepage.
                                                6. Mir Zohair Husain, Global Islamic Politics (New York: HarperCollins Publishers,        18. Denis J. Sullivan and Sana Abed-Kotob, Islam in Contemporary Egypt: Civil Soci-
                                            1995), 53-54.                                                                               ety vs. the State (London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999), 132-34.
                                                7. Abdullah Imam, Abd-al-Nasser wa Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimoon: Al-Unf al-Deene fee            19. Gilles Kepel, Muslim Extremism in Egypt: The Prophet and the Pharaoh (Los An-
                                            Misr (Nasser and the Muslim Brotherhood: Islamic Violence in Egypt)(Cairo: Dar-             geles: University of California Press, 1985), 263-68.

                                                                            Lieutenant Commander Youssef H. Aboul-Enein, U.S. Navy, is a Middle East Foreign Area
                                                                        Officer currently serving in the Pentagon. For the past several years, he has been working
                                                                        with Military Review to bring Arabic topics of military interest to the pages of the journal.
                                                                        Aboul-Enein wishes to thank Midshipman 2d Class Samuel Boyd, a student of government
                                                                        at the U.S. Naval Academy for editing and providing technical help with this article.

                                            MILITARY REVIEW                   July - August 2003                                                                                                                        31

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