Phonological Awareness Phonics Spelling Melinda Carrillo Best Predictors of Reading Success • Letter Knowledge • Phonological Awareness • Knowledge About Print Terminology • Phonological Awareness The awareness of and the ability to manipulate language. • Phonemic Awareness The understanding that speech is composed of individual sounds and the ability to manipulate those sounds. • Phoneme The smallest unit of sound. • Phonics A system of teaching reading and spelling through sound-symbol relationships. • Morpheme The smallest meaningful unit of language. Letter Knowledge A child who can recognize most letters with thorough confidence will have an easier time learning about letter sounds and word spellings than a child who also has to work at distinguishing the individual letters. Adams, 1990 Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is more highly related to learning to read than are tests of general intelligence, reading readiness, and listening comprehension. Stanovich, 1993 Phonemic Awareness It is unlikely that children lacking phonemic awareness can benefit fully from phonics instruction since they do not understand what letters and spellings are suppose to represent. Juel, Griffith, & Gough, 1986 Phonological Awareness Activities Phoneme Deletion Rhyming Read Alouds Nursery Rhymes Sentence Completion “I see a frog, sitting on a ____.” Phoneme Blending All Oral Put the sounds together /c/ /a/ /t/ = cat Phoneme Segmentation All Oral Break the sounds apart Cat = /c/ /a/ /t/ Lake = /l/ /a/ /k/ Phoneme Deletion All Oral Drop a sound Say “cat”. Now drop the /c/. What do you have? Phoneme Change All Oral Drop a sound and add a sound. Say “dog”. Drop the /d/ and add a /l/. Drop the /g/ and add a /t/. 5 Tasks of Phonemic Awareness • Knowledge of nursery rhymes • Compare and contrast sounds • Orally blend words • Orally segment words • Phonemic manipulation tasks Knowledge About Print How books work. Text flows from left to right Read the page top to bottom Line sweep Concept of word Phonics and Decoding English Language 44 Phonemes (sounds) 25 Consonant Phonemes 19 Vowel Phonemes Over 200 ways to spell 44 sounds! Decoding Poorly developed word recognition skills are the most pervasive and debilitating source of reading difficulty. Adams, 1990 Phonics Instruction Should… Be daily Be completed by the end of 2nd grade Be built on a foundation of phonemic awareness Be systematic and explicit Be focused Provide practice with decodable texts Include regular assessment Provide for intervention Systematic Explicit Phonics Instruction • Phonemic warm-up • Teach sound/symbol • Practice blending • Apply to decodable text • Dictation and spelling • Word work 4 Ways To Read Words • Decoding – Reading words that are unfamiliar in print • Analogy – Recognizing how spelling is similar to known words • Prediction – Guess what the word might be • Sight – Using memory to read words that have been read before Types of Literature for Beginning Readers • Decodable Text • High Quality Trade Books • Predictable Texts Instructional Modifications for English Learners Decodables – with visual support preceded by ELD common vocabulary Student/Teacher Generated Text practice sound/symbol reinforce phonics High Quality Trade Books build academic language What To Do If They Don’t Get It? Re-teach 3 years of phonics? Focus on exactly what they need to learn and teach it!
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