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Phonological Awareness Phonics Spelling

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					Phonological Awareness

       Phonics

       Spelling
      Melinda Carrillo
   Best Predictors of
   Reading Success
• Letter Knowledge

• Phonological Awareness

• Knowledge About Print
            Terminology
• Phonological Awareness
  The awareness of and the ability to manipulate language.

• Phonemic Awareness
  The understanding that speech is composed of individual sounds
  and the ability to manipulate those sounds.
• Phoneme
  The smallest unit of sound.

• Phonics
  A system of teaching reading and spelling through sound-symbol
  relationships.
• Morpheme
  The smallest meaningful unit of language.
    Letter Knowledge
A child who can recognize most letters
 with thorough confidence will have an
    easier time learning about letter
sounds and word spellings than a child
 who also has to work at distinguishing
         the individual letters.
                       Adams, 1990
Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic awareness is more highly
 related to learning to read than are
tests of general intelligence, reading
       readiness, and listening
           comprehension.

                 Stanovich, 1993
   Phonemic Awareness
It is unlikely that children lacking phonemic
    awareness can benefit fully from phonics
    instruction since they do not understand
    what letters and spellings are suppose to
                     represent.

                     Juel, Griffith, & Gough, 1986
Phonological Awareness
      Activities



   Phoneme Deletion
                Rhyming
Read Alouds
 Nursery Rhymes
     Sentence Completion
          “I see a frog,
                sitting on a ____.”
Phoneme Blending
       All Oral

Put the sounds together
   /c/ /a/ /t/ = cat
Phoneme Segmentation
       All Oral

 Break the sounds apart
     Cat = /c/ /a/ /t/
    Lake = /l/ /a/ /k/
Phoneme Deletion
     All Oral
  Drop a sound
    Say “cat”.
 Now drop the /c/.
 What do you have?
    Phoneme Change
          All Oral
Drop a sound and add a sound.
         Say “dog”.
  Drop the /d/ and add a /l/.
  Drop the /g/ and add a /t/.
      5 Tasks of Phonemic
           Awareness
•   Knowledge of nursery rhymes
•   Compare and contrast sounds
•   Orally blend words
•   Orally segment words
•   Phonemic manipulation tasks
    Knowledge About Print
        How books work.

Text flows from left to right
 Read the page top to bottom
    Line sweep
         Concept of word
Phonics and Decoding
    English Language
44 Phonemes (sounds)
   25 Consonant Phonemes
   19 Vowel Phonemes


Over 200 ways to spell 44 sounds!
   Decoding
 Poorly developed word
     recognition skills
are the most pervasive and
    debilitating source
   of reading difficulty.

                  Adams, 1990
    Phonics Instruction Should…
Be daily
Be completed by the end of 2nd grade

Be built on a foundation of phonemic awareness

Be systematic and explicit

Be focused

Provide practice with decodable texts
Include regular assessment
Provide for intervention
    Systematic Explicit Phonics
           Instruction
•   Phonemic warm-up
•   Teach sound/symbol
•   Practice blending
•   Apply to decodable text
•   Dictation and spelling
•   Word work
      4 Ways To Read Words
• Decoding – Reading words that are unfamiliar in print

• Analogy – Recognizing how spelling is similar to known
  words


• Prediction – Guess what the word might be

• Sight – Using memory to read words that have been read
  before
       Types of Literature for
        Beginning Readers

• Decodable Text

• High Quality Trade Books

• Predictable Texts
  Instructional Modifications for
         English Learners
Decodables – with visual support
                 preceded by ELD
                 common vocabulary
Student/Teacher Generated Text
                  practice sound/symbol
                  reinforce phonics
High Quality Trade Books
                  build academic language
  What To Do If They Don’t
          Get It?

Re-teach 3 years of phonics?

Focus on exactly what they need to
 learn and teach it!

				
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