Docstoc

Proceedings Europ Edu Conference

Document Sample
Proceedings Europ Edu Conference Powered By Docstoc
					                      1


     GENERAL LYCEUM OF MELESES




EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE
         “FUTURE TEACHERS
 ACCORDING TO LISBON STRATEGY”

In the frame of the Long Life Learning Program
“Teachers Training Kit According to the Lisbon
      Strategy-Future European Teachers”




            PROCEEDINGS




      Peza of Heraklion Crete, Greece
          25 & 26 OCTOBER 2010
                                      2




Publishing GENERAL LYCEUM OF MELESES
Meleses, Heraklion, Crete, Greece 70300
mail@lyk-meles.ira.sch.gr


© February of 2010

Editing KALATHAKI MARIA
Krioneri, Ano Archanes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece 70100
Kalath04mar@yahoo.gr




ISBN 978-960-93-3780-9
                                      3


CONTENTS
CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT……………………………………………….1

NOTICES FOR THE AUTHORS …………………………………………………..2

COMMITTEES OF THE CONFERENCE …………………………………..……..6

PARTICIPATIONS OF THE CONFERENCE …………………………….……….8

TITLES OF THE PRESENTATIONS OF THE CONFERENCE…………….……10

WELCOME TO OUR CONFERENCE by Antigoni Plataki, Director of the Guest
Institution Meleses Lyceum …………………………………………………..……12

WELCOME TO THE EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE by Kalathaki
M., Coordinator of the Conference & Papastefanaki A., President of the
Organizational Committee …………………………………………………………13

BIODIVERSITY: ECOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONAL ASPECTS, HUMAN
EFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHIC AND
PROTECTION, by Joseph Lykakis, Peer Professor of Patras University, Department
of Biology……………………………………………………………………….…..14

UNIVERSITIES: A GATE TO INTRODUCE SCHOOL CHILDREN TO THE
MAGIC OF RESEARCH, by M.A. Efstratiou, Ass. Professor of Marine
Microbiology, Department of Marine Sciences, University of the Aegean …..……17

SUPPORT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATIONAL OFFICE TO THE
TEACHERS by Sfakianaki Maria and Apostolakis Dimitrios ……………………..19

IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF TEACHER EDUCATION ACCORDING TO
THE LISBON STRATEGY, by Rosella Mastodonti …………………...…………21

INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION, by Anca Niculae …………………….………27

TEACHER EDUCATION AS A COMPONENT OF THE REFORM PROCESS, by
Gabriela Iancic …………………………………………………………….………..29

CRITICAL THINKING IN ELT CLASSES, by Laura Nadaban ………………….31

EUROPEAN TEACHER IN POLISH SCHOOL, by Agnieszka Bobrowska …......35

THE CULTIVATION OF VALUES AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE RELATED TO
THE FUTURE SOCIETIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT, by Maria Kircheva ….41

THE CULTIVATION OF THE SKILLS OF COMMUNICATION TO THE
FUTURE TEACHER, by Mariyana Angelova……………………………….…….42

INITIAL TEACHER EDUCATION IN PORTUGAL, by Liseth Ferreira …..…….53
                                        4



TEACHERS IN THE SCHOOLS THAT ARE IN CONTACT TO THE WORK
LABOUR, by Vaida Aleknaviciene ………………………………….……………60

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING IN CYPRUS by
Savva koula ……………………………………………………………………..…..67

TEACHERS NEED GOOD EDUCATION TOO!, by Beyza Tipi ………….……..71

QUALIFICATIONS OF THE FUTURE EUROPEAN TEACHERS, by Beyza Tipi,
Cengiz Erser, Lale Ozbal ……………………………………………………..…….74

BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN THE WORLD OF EDUCATION, TRAINING
AND WORK: CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A TEACHING METHOD, by Marianne
Nygard……………………………………………………………………….……..78

YOUNG ENTERPRISE IN MOSJOEN UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL, by Massi
Oksendal …………………………………………………………………….……..80

PRE-DIAGNOSYS OF SPECIAL NEEDS IN SECONDARY EDUCATION, by
Amalio Verd ………………………………………………………………………..82

INTEGRATION OF IMMIGRATE PEOPLE ON THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM,
by Beatriz Tourón ………………………………………………………….……….85

HOW THE PROFESSION OF THE TEACHER CAN BECOME A MORE
ATTRACTIVE CHOICE OF CAREER, by Braulio Avila ………..………………87

IDEAL TEACHER: A SECONDARY SCHOOLS’ JOINTED SURVEY, by Tipi B.,
Angelova M., Tzurbakis S., Kalathaki M. ………………………………………….90

TEACHERS’ EDUCATION: FROM THE “LISBON STRATEGY” TO “EUROPE
2020”, by Kalathaki Maria …………………………………………………………93

EMERGING EDUCATIONAL ORIENTATIONS ΙN NIKOS KAZANTZAKIS’
WORKS, by 1Kalathaki M., 1Skivalaki C., 2Varitaki M. ……………………..….103

RIGID BODY’S MECHANICS OF SOLID BODY: CIRCULAR MOTION, by
Rodolphos Karaiskakis ………………………………………………………….…109

JOINTED EXEMPLARY TEACHING OF TEACHERS OF SECONDARY
EDUCATION WITH APPLICATION OF THE DIDACTIC METHOD OF
SOCRATES (OBSTETRICAL METHOD), WITH THEATRICAL ACTIVITIES, by
Kalathaki M, Karageorgiou N, Papastefanaki A ………………………………...…110

SYNOPSIS OF THE RESULTS OF THE CONFERENCE “AFTER THE LISBON
STRATEGY”, by Maria Kalathaki, President of the Scientific Committee ….........115
                                    5




                                        GENERAL LYCEUM OF MELESES

           EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE

   FUTURE TEACHERS ACCORDING TO LISBON STRATEGY
           In the frame of the Long Life Learning Program
    “Teachers Training Kit According to the Lisbon Strategy-Future
                         European Teachers”

     Peza of Heraklion Crete, Greece 25 & 26 OCTOBER 2010

                 CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT
This Conference takes place in the frame of our Long Life Learning
Comenius Program that has as subject the Lisbon Strategy of the Future
European Teachers, focusing on the Secondary Education.
By organizing and carrying on this Conference, we wish to promote and
disseminate the basic principles and directions of Lisbon Strategy for the
Future European Teachers’ preparation and establish partnerships and
experience exchanges on training issues and other education topics of
schools from all over the Europe.

THEME FIELDS OF THE CONFERENCE
A. Educational European Police for the Future Teachers
B. Skills and abilities of the Future European Teachers
C. Studies and Training of the Future European Teachers
D. Qualifications of the Future European Teachers

The Official Language of the Conference is English.

Registration is out of fee. The Local Municipality of N Kazantzakis
covers all expenses of the Conference.

The Conference Venue is the Municipality N Kazantzakis Hall Congress
at Peza of Heraklion Crete, Greece.

Contact Person: Kalathaki Maria, PhD.
Phones: 00302810751469, Fax: 00302810741356,
Mobile: 00306946500408
E-mail: kalath04mar@yahoo.gr
                                         6


IMPORTANT INFORMATION
The works must be sent by email to the Conference Coordinator
1. The title of the speech and the names of the participants - by the 10th of
June.
2. Abstract submission by the end of June.
3. Full paper submission until 15th of September (Word article, Word
presentation, Power Point Presentation)

Your experience is very important to us! We shall be very honoured with
                          your participation!

                                                      With Our Best Regards
                            Rosella Mastodonti, President of the Conference
                           Antigoni Plataki, Director of the Guest Institution

NOTICES FOR THE AUTHORS
This Conference takes place in the frame of our Long Life Learning Comenius
Program that has as subject the Lisbon Strategy of the Future European Teachers,
focusing on the Secondary Education.
So, the bibliography for our conference works should be based on the documents of
the European Commission. Additionally, it would be very interesting, to have the
results of our content analysis of the European documents discussed and compared to
results of similar surveys that have been reported.

THEME FIELDS OF THE CONFERENCE:
A. Educational European Policy for the Future Teachers
B. Skills and abilities of the Future European Teachers
C. Studies and Training of the Future European Teachers
D. Qualifications of the Future European Teachers

SUGGESTED SUBJECTS ON THEME/ FIELD

A. Educational European Policy for the Future Teachers
1 POLICY-MAKING PROCESSES AT EUROPEAN AND NATIONAL LEVELS
BY DEVELOPING A SOLID BASE FOR THE FUTURE TEACHERS’
EDUCATION AND TRAINING

2 THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE TEACHERS IN THE LONG-TERM VIABILITY
OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL

3 THE CULTIVATION OF VALUES AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE RELATED
TO THE FUTURE SOCIETIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT

4 EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: DEMANDS AND
CHALLENGES IN THE PREPARATION OF THE FUTURE TEACHERS
                               7


5 TEACHERS IN THE SCHOOLS THAT ARE IN CONTACT TO THE WORK
LABOUR

6 THE LIFELONG LEARNING PROGRAMME: ONE UMBRELLA FOR
EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR EUROPEAN TEACHERS

7 SOCIAL ACTION AND SOCIAL INTERVENTIONS RELATED ΤΟ THE
CULTURE OF THE ACTIVE CITIZEN-TEACHER

8 TEACHERS IN ENHANCING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AT ALL LEVELS OF
EDUCATION AND TRAINING


B. Skills and abilities of the Future European Teachers
1 CO-OPERATION AND PARTNERSHIP IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND
IMPLEMENTATION OF LIFELONG LEARNING STRATEGIES TO THE
FUTURE TEACHERS

2 THE PROMOTION OF THE CROSS-CULTURAL SKILLS, THE
DEMOCRATIC VALUES, THE RESPECT FOR FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND
THE FIGHTING AGAINST DISCRIMINATIONS

3 THE DEVELOPMENT       OF   THE   TEACHERS’   CREATIVITY    AND
INNOVATION

4 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SKILLS OF THE CRITICAL THINKING AND
THE PROBLEM SOLVING TO THE FUTURE TEACHERS

5 THE CULTIVATION OF THE SKILLS OF COMMUNICATION TO THE
FUTURE TEACHERS

6 THE CULTIVATION OF THE SKILL OF USING ICTs’ TECHNOLOGIES

7 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SKILL OF COLLABORATION OF THE
TEACHERS IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS

8 TEACHERS AS PROMOTERS OF GOOD PRACTICES

9 SKILLS DEFICITS OF THE TEACHING WORK

C. Studies and Training of the Future European Teachers
1 BEST GRADUATES, HIGH QUALITY INITIAL TRAINING AND
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEACHERS FOR A
HOPEFUL FUTURE

2 THE EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF THE TEACHERS IN A WELL-
FUNCTIONING KNOWLEDGE TRIANGLE EDUCATION — RESEARCH —
INNOVATION
                                        8


3 TRAINING OF THE FUTURE TEACHERS ON EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES,
METHODS, TECHNIQUES AND ACTIVITIES

4 EQUITY AND SOCIAL COHESION AS THEMATIC AXES OF THE
EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICY OF THE FUTURE TEACHERS

5 THE TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY OF TEACHERS AS ESSENTIAL
ELEMENT OF THE LONG LIFE LEARNING PROCESS

6 THE TEACHERS AS EVALUATORS IN THEIR PROFESSIONAL WORK

7 THE EVALUATION IN THE STUDIES AND TRAINING OF THE TEACHERS

8 OUTDOOR TRAINING OF THE                   FUTURE      TEACHERS,       IN   THE
COMMUNITIES AND IN THE NATURE

9 PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE TRAINING OF THE FUTURE TEACHERS

10 IMPROVING THE QUALITY AND EFFICIENCY OF EDUCATION AND
TRAINING OF THE FUTURE TEACHERS

D. Qualifications of the Future European Teachers
1 THE PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT                             OF THE
TEACHERS        THROUGH        THE    MATERIALIZATION OF               VARIOUS
EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS

2 THE EVALUATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL WORK

3 NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS’ FRAMEWORKS THAT CONCERN THE
TEACHERS, LINKED TO THE ESTABLISHMENTS OF THE NEW EUROPEAN
QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK (In Portugal,in 2000 there was created a
national network of centres for the recognition, ratification and certification of
qualifications, RVCC)

4 HOW THE PROFESSION OF TEACHER CAN BECOME A MORE
ATTRACTIVE CHOICE OF CAREER

THEMES FOR INVITED PERSONS OF THE CONFERENCE

1 THE CHALLENGES IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF
TEACHERS THAT POSSESS DISTINGUISHED PLACE IN THE NATIONAL
PROGRAMS OF REFORMS OF THE MOST STATES MEMBERS, ACCORDING
TO THE LISBON STRATEGY.

2 THE EVALUATION OF THE POLICIES, AS A DRIVER OF IMPROVING
PROGRESS TO THE FULL USE OF RESEARCH RESULTS AND OF CREATION
OF A CULTURE OF EVALUATION

3 THE EDUCATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL ΕΓΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΟΥ CITIZEN:
FROM THE TEACHERS TO STUDENTS
                                           9



The papers must have the following features: format A4, 20mm equal sides in Times
New Roman 12 justify, Word files. The file name must be the name of the author and
the letter of the Theme Field (for example C Kalathaki M). The name of the author is
written in the follow way: Surname and the first letter of her/his name. The title of the
paper must be in Times New Roman 11 Bold Central. The name of the author and the
names of the school and the Country must be written bold, one row below, central,
and one row below the work paper must begin. Inside the text, the references must be
written in parenthesis (for example Papaste A., 1998). The paper can include
maximum 2 pictures.
The first page of the paper must contain the title, the name of the author, the name of
the school, the name of the Region and the Country, the email address of the author,
the abstract and the key words. The work paper must begin on the second page. The
final structure of each paper must be according to the academic manuscripts’ format:
introduction, methodology of research, results, discussion, conclusions and
references.

The paper must end with Bibliography/References in the following order: the author’s
name, the title of the work, publishing journal and house, year of publication. If the
reference is from Internet we write it by the following way:
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education:
    New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures.
    Pulled out at 24 Αυγούστου 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for
    Learning Technologies Web site:
 http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html

Each final presentation must consist of
I. A Word document of the full paper not more than 12 pages. The structure of this is
suggesting the type of academic manuscripts: introduction, methodology of research,
results, discussion, references
II. A Word document of a 10 minute presentation
III. A Power Point file with the slides of the presentation

All your works will appear in the Conference Timetable and the CD of the
Conference. You will also receive a certificate of participation to this Conference.
All the papers must be submitted in the email address: kalath04mar@yahoo.gr and
then will be delivered to the 4 persons responsible for each theme field.

All the teachers, members of the Comenius meeting at Crete, can choose and prepare
one subject of the suggested fields or a new one of their own wish. We can choose
one from the above titles, to change it or to make a new one by ourselves.
After this, we have to prepare our presentations.

Contact Person: Kalathaki Maria, PhD, Coordinator of the Conference
Phone: 00302810751469, Fax: 00302810741356, Mobile: 00306946500408
E-mail: kalath04mar@yahoo.gr


                                                                         With Honour
                                       Maria Kalathaki, Coordinator of the Conference
                                         10


     EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE “Future Teachers
                 According to Lisbon Strategy”


President of the Conference: Rosella Mastodonti, Istituto Magistrale Statale "F.
Angeloni", Terni, Italy
Vice-President/ Conference-holder: Antigoni Plataki, Director of the Guest
Institution

Coordinator of the Conference: Maria Kalathaki




EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE “Future Teachers According to
                    Lisbon Strategy”
             ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITTEE
     SITE          NAME              SCHOOL/COUNTRY
PRESIDENT                ANNA                   GENERAL     LYCEUM     OF
                         PAPASTEFANAKI          MELESES, HERAKLION, CRETE,
                                                GREECE
VICE-PRESIDENT           ANTIGONI               GENERAL     LYCEUM     OF
                         PLATAKI                MELESES, HERAKLION, CRETE,
                                                GREECE
SECRETARIAT              ALBERTO DIAZ
                         AMALIO VERD            INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN
                                                SECUNDARIA A SANGRIÑA, A
                                                GUARDA, SPAIN
MEMBERS                  ROSELLA                ISTITUTO MAGISTRALE
                         MASTODONTI             STATALE "F. ANGELONI",
                         CHRYSOVALANTI          TERNI, ITALY
                         SKIVALAKI              GENERAL      LYCEUM    OF
                         IRENE PAHAKI           MELESES, HERAKLION, CRETE,
                                                GREECE
                                  11



  EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE “Future Teachers According to Lisbon
                                     Strategy”
                            SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
        SITE              NAME                     SCHOOL/COUNTRY
PRESIDENT         MARIA KALATHAKI, GENERAL LYCEUM OF MELESES,
                  ph.D School Teacher of HERAKLION, CRETE, GREECE
                  Biology
VICE-             MARIYANA                105 SREDNO OBSHTOOBRAZOVATELNO
PRESIDENT         ANGELOVA, ph.D,         UCHILISHTE “ ATANAS, DALCHEV”,
                  University and School   SOFIA, BULGARIA
                  Philosophy Teacher
A MEMBER ON LAURA NADABAN,                LICEUL PEDAGOGIC “DIMITRIE
THEME FIELD       English Teacher         TICHINDEAL”, ARAD, ROMANIA
A.Educational
European Policy
for the Future
Teachers
B MEMBER ON       MARIA VARITAKI,         GYMNASIUM OF MELESES, HERAKLION,
THEME FIELD       English Teacher         CRETE, GREECE
B. Skills and
abilities of the
Future European
Teachers
C MEMBER ON       MARIA KIRCHEVA          105 SREDNO OBSHTOOBRAZOVATELNO
THEME FIELD       Msc English Teacher     UCHILISHTE “ ATANAS, DALCHEV”,
C. Studies and                            SOFIA, BULGARIA
Training of the
Future European
Teachers
D MEMBER ON       BEATRIZ TOURON,         INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN
THEME FIELD       Ph.D on Spanish         SECUNDARIA A SANGRIÑA, A GUARDA,
D. Qualifications Language                SPAIN
of the Future
European
Teachers
OF GENERAL        DRAKAKIS                GENERAL LYCEUM OF MELESES,
DUTIES            NIKOLAOS, ph.D          HERAKLION, CRETE, GREECE
                  Sociology School
                  Teacher

OF e-DUTIES      TZURBAKIS             GENERAL LYCEUM OF MELESES,
                 STAVROS Msc in        HERAKLION, CRETE, GREECE
                 ICTs
                                12


              PARTICIPATIONS OF THE CONFERENCE

    “FUTURE TEACHERS ACCORDING TO LISBON STRATEGY”
       In the frame of the Lifelong Learning Comenius Programme
 “FUTURE EUROPEAN TEACHERS:TRAINING KIT ACCORDING TO THE
    LISBON STRATEGY-ESkillsKit” 2009-2011 Multilateral Partnership
        25 & 26 of October 2010, Peza of Heraklion, Crete, Greece

UNIVERSITY OF PATRAS, DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY
  Peer professor Joseph Lykakis

AEGEAN UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF MARINE BIOLOGY
  Professor Diamanti Eustratiou

    ISTITUTO MAGISTRALE STATALE "F. ANGELONI", TERNI, ITALY
    (Coordinator)
1. Rosella Mastodonti
2. Albano Scalise

    MOSJØEN VIDEREGÅENDE SKOLE DEPT. KIPPERMOEN, MOSJØEN,
    NORWAY
1. Massi Oksendal (f)
2. Marianne Nygard (f)

    INSTITUTO DE EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA A SANGRIÑA, A
    GUARDA, SPAIN
1. Beatriz Tourón (F)
2. Amalio Verd (M)
3. Alberto Díaz (M)

    ÖZEL DOĞUŞ LISESI, ISTANBUL, TURKEY
1. Beyza Tippi (F)
2. Cengiz Erser (Headmaster) (M)
3. Lale Ozbal (F)

    LICEUL PEDAGOGIC “DIMITRIE TICHINDEAL”, ARAD, ROMANIA
1. Laura Nadaban (F)
English
2. Anca Niculae (F)
Chemist
3. Gabriela Iancik (F)
Primary School
….Mirela Aldescu Computer Science School Inspector

     JONISKIO ZEMES UKIO MOKYKLA, JONISKIS-LIETUVA,
     LITHUANIA
1. Irena Grigenciene (F)
History
2. Grazina Kalnaite (F) Projects’ Manager
                                    13


    105 SREDNO OBSHTOOBRAZOVATELNO UCHILISHTE “ ATANAS,
    DALCHEV”, SOFIA, BULGARIA
1. Mariyana Angelova (F), PhD -University and school Philosophy teacher
2. Maria Kircheva (F) - English teacher

    ESCOLA BASICA E SECUNDARIA PADRE MANUEL ALVARES,
    RIBEIRA BRAVA-MADEIRA, PORTUGAL
1. Alda Almeida (f)
2. Liseth Ferreira (f)
3. Gil Carvalho (m)

    IX LICEUM OGÓLNOKSZTAŁCĄCE CENTRUM EDUKACJI W
    ZABRZU, ZABRZE, POLAND
1. Agnieszka Bobrowska
English teacher
2. Joanna Hajduga
English teacher
3. Marian Kitel
Headmaster, history teacher

    LICEUL TEORETIC “GEORGE CALINESCU”, CONSTANZA,
    ROMANIA
1. Alexandrina Vlad
2. Andrea Artagea

    LYCEUM OF POLEMIDION, LEMESSOS, CYPRUS
1. Rodolphos Karaiskakis
2. Anna Zografou
3. Koulla Savva
4. Nandia Karagiorgi

     GENERAL LYCEUM OF MELESES, MELESES HRAKLION CRETE,
     GREECE
1. Antigoni Plataki, director
2. Maria Kalathaki
3. Anna Papastefanaki
4. Stavros Tzurbakis
5. Valia Skivalaki
6. Irene Pahaki
7. Eleftheria Pantelaki
                                        14


        TITLES OF THE PRESENTATIONS OF THE CONFERENCE

INVITED DISCUSSANTS
Joseph Lykalis
University of Patras, Department of Biology
BIODIVERSITY: EDUCATIONAL NEED OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS

Diamanti Efstratiou
Aegean University, Departments of Sciences of the Sea
CHILDREN TO THE MAGIC OF RESEARCH

ROMANIA
Anca Niculae
Dimitrie Tichindeal Pedagogical Highschool, Arad, Romania
INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION

Gabriela Iancic
Dimitrie Tichindeal Pedagogical Highschool, Arad, Romania
TEACHER EDUCATION AS A COMPONENT OF THE REFORM PROCESS

Laura Nadaban
Dimitrie Tichindeal Pedagogical Highschool, Arad, Romania
CRITICAL THINKING IN ELT CLASSES

POLAND
Agnieszka Bobrowska
Centrum Edukacji in Zabrze, Poland
EUROPEAN TEACHER IN POLISH SCHOOL

BULGARIA
Mariyana Angelova
THE CULTIVATION OF THE SKILLS OF COMMUNICATION TO THE
FUTURE TEACHER

Maria Kircheva
105 Sou “Atanas Dalchev”, Sofia, Bulgaria
THE CULTIVATION OF VALUES AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE RELATED TO
THE FUTURE SOCIETIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT

PORTUGAL
Liseth Ferreira,
Escola Básica e Secundária Padre Manuel Álvares, Portugal
INITIAL TEACHER EDUCATION IN PORTUGAL

LITHUANIA
Vaida Aleknaviciene
Joniskis Agricultural School, Lithuania
TEACHERS IN THE SCHOOLS THAT ARE IN CONTACT TO THE WORK
LABOUR
                                       15


NORWAY
Marianne Nygard
Mosjøen videregående skole Dept. Kippermoen, Mosjøen, Norway
BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN THE WORLD OF EDUCATION, TRAINING
AND WORK: Challenges for the future vocational education and entrepreneurship as
a teaching method

Massi Oksendal
Mosjøen videregående skole Dept. Kippermoen, Mosjøen, Norway
Mosjøen Upper Secondary School, Norway

CYPRUS
Savva koula,
Polemidhia Lyceum, Limassol, Cyprus
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING IN CYPRUS

SPAIN
Braulio Avila
Instituto de Educación Secundaria A Sangriña, A Guarda, Spain
HOW THE PROFESSION OF THE TEACHER CAN BECOME A MORE
ATTRACTIVE CHOICE OF CAREER

Beatriz Tourón
Instituto de Educación Secundaria A Sangriña, A Guarda, Spain
INTEGRATION OF INMIGRATE PEOPLE ON THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

Amalio Verd
Instituto de Educación Secundaria A Sangriña, A Guarda, Spain
PRE-DIAGNOSYS OF SPECIAL NEEDS IN SECONDARY EDUCATION

TURKEY
Beyza Tipi,
Özel Doğuş Lisesi, Istanbul, Turkey
TEACHERS NEED GOOD EDUCATION TOO!

Beyza Tipi, Cengiz Erser, Lale Ozbal,
Özel Doğuş Lisesi, Istanbul, Turkey
D. QUALIFICATIONS OF THE FUTURE EUROPEAN TEACHERS

ITALY
Rosella Mastodonti, Coordinator of the LLP Comenius,
Istituto Magistrale Statale "F. Angeloni", Terni, Italy
THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION ACCORDING
TO THE LISBON STRATEGY (Key tone Lecture)

GREECE
Maria Kalathaki,
General Lyceum of Meleses, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
TEACHERS’ EDUCATION: FROM THE “LISBON STRATEGY” TO “EUROPE
2020”
                                          16



                      WELCOME TO OUR CONFERENCE

     By Antigoni Plataki, Director of the Guest Institution Meleses Lyceum


The teachers of Meleses Lyceum and I personally welcome you in our place, in N
Kazantzakis and Socrates birthplace and wish you a pleasant and creative stay.
We hope that their perspectives on Education will enlighten and guide you to
productive educational roads. We have them as Mentors in our professional
development.

I wish to address a great “Thank You” to all the members of the Scientific and
Organizational Committees who worked hardly in order this Conference to become a
reality today. Special thanks to Professor Joseph Lykakis and to the responsible of the
Environmental Education Mrs Maria Sfakianaki. Especially, we thank the Mayor of N
Kazantzakis Municipality Mr Rousos Kypriotakis who sustained our effort.
It’s a great honor of us the presence of 4 teachers from Polemidion Lyceum, of
Cyprus who contributed a lot to the preparation of this Conference.

I also, thank you all for your participation to this Conference and welcome you to our
European Educational Conference.
                                         17


        WE WELCOME YOU TO THE EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL
                            CONFERENCE
                                   by
                  Kalathaki M.1 & Papastefanaki A2.
                    1Coordinator of the Conference
              2President of the Organizational Committee



Maria and I welcome you in our European Educational Conference which takes place
in the frame of our Comenius program. We have 39 participations from 12 schools
and 2 Universities.
This Conference has been a reality today because many people worked hardly, such as
our colleagues, our families, our friends.
I wish to address a great “Thank You” to all the members of the Scientific and
Organizational Committees who worked hardly during the last months and specially
Rosella for her contribution in this.
I am thanking also the Local Municipality of N Kazantzakis, and specially the Mayor
Roussos Kypriotakis and the Vice-Mayor Manthos Politakis for their exceptional
collaboration, support and sustain that offered to us.
Professor Lykakis, thank you for your honored participation!!
I also, thank all of you, for your participation to this Conference and welcome all of
you to our European Educational Conference with the prediction that your aspects
will immerse a new, improved type of the “Future Teacher” who can guide the young
Europeans to the success and the happiness in a Europe without boundaries and social
exclusions, with a sustainable prospect.
                                          18


   BIODIVERSITY: ECOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONAL ASPECTS, HUMAN
  EFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHIC
                      AND PROTECTION

By Joseph Lykakis, Peer Professor of Patras University, Department of Biology


1. THE CONSTRUCTIVE EVOLUTION OF THE CONTINENTS: The rind of the
Earth was created before 4.6 billion years. The continents were connected in a huge
land called Pangea. Last 100 million years, Pangea split into continents as we know
them today.

2. FOOD WEBS OF A MARINE ECOSYSTEM: The illustration of a food mesh of a
marine ecosystem of the παλιρροιακής tidal area of the benthic zone expresses
characteristically the site of the human specie in the biodiversity of the ecosystem.
Human, as the unbreakable link of all the ecosystems, possesses the top of many food
chains, so in the future, human is going to affect the constructional and functional
balance of the global ecosystems.

3. ECOLOGICAL BALANCE OF THE POPULATION SIZE: The size of a natural
population is effected to a small or large extent of 4 functions:
The birth rate and the migrations contribute in the enlargement of the population,
while mortality and immigration reduce this size. Of course the human population is
not subject to this automatic increases and decreases because it has the possibility of
making choices.

4. CONJUGATED DEMOGRAPHIC FLUCTUATIONS OF NATURAL
POPULATIONS: Here is a characteristic example of conjugated demographic
fluctuations of two species which have the relation of predator–prey: the lynx (Lynx
Canadensis) and of its prey, the hare (Lepus americanus). These demographic
fluctuations are more intensive at ecosystems of polar and under-polar areas.

5. FOOD PYRAMIDS OF ENERGY: The Food Pyramids of Energy illustrate the
total amount of energy of the biomass of all the organizations, per food level, usually
per year. The energy that is enclosed in the biomass of one food level of an Energy
Pyramid is consumed for the functions of the organizations and it converts into heat
which can not be utilized by the organizations again. The rest amount of the original
is about 10% and it is available to the organizations of above level of the Pyramid.
The total number of the levels of the Energy Pyramids do not exceed the 5 because of
the extremely small of the remaining energy for transportation in upper levels.

6. STROMATILITHI: They are alive fossils of Cyanophicus. When hydrological
conditions encourage the presence of Nimatoedes Cyanophicus give birth to
stromatolithi, trapping sediments at the same time. Cyanophicus are the primary types
of life on the Planet, which were appeared before 3.5 billion years. Interesting
presence of stromatolithi is at Shark Bay of Australia.

7. PHYLOGENETIC TREE OF HOMINIDAE (PRIMARIES MAMMALS): The
phylogenetic tree of the African origin of apes comes is the result of DNA analysis of
the content species. The family of Hominidae which has now 23 pairs of chromosome
                                           19


and Africans apes, who have 24 pairs of chromosome seem to had common ancestor
and divorced before 7-5 million years. After this divorce, the human specie followed
an evolutional route according to anagenisis model.

8. ASTEROIDES AND KRATIRAS SINGRUSIS: The crater which was shaped
50.000 years ago from the collision of a 300.000-tone asteroid in Arizona), is 250 m
deep and 1 mile wide and caused dramatic environmental changes in that period.

9. GREAT INTERCHANGES OF HOT AND COLD PERIODS IN PLISTOKENOS:
From the measurements of Oxygene isotope 16 and 18 and of differenced proportions
of their percentages in the shells of trimatophores, reveal the existence temperatures
during hot and cold periods of the Earth.

10. GREENHOUSE PHENOMENON (GLOBAL WARMING): A percentage of the
he solar radiation which reaches on the Earth surface returns back to the space and a
law percentage arrives on the ground, the half of this becomes infra-red radiation. The
clouds and the “green-house’ gazes (carbonate dioxygen, methane and nitrate
oxydians) absorb the greater amount of this reflected radiation from the Earth surface,
and as a result, this trapped energy is re-radiated back to the earth surface and warm it
more.

11. THE FULL MELTING OF THE FROZEN SUBSOIL IN THE TUNDRA is
expected with global warming. This melting is going to release large quantities of
methane, now trapped in these ecosystems, and cause the dissociation of the trapped
turf which is going to emit carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

12. DISORDER OF THE NATURAL GREENHOUSE PHENOMENON: large
quantities of carbon dioxide emitted in the atmosphere affect its cycle. Carbon dioxide
concentration is over 350 ppm nowadays. Average global temperature, for land and
sea, is increasing constantly and the prognostics for the next 50 years expect 1-50 C
rise in global temperature.

13. EXTINCTION OF MEGA-FAUNA: In the Plistokenos period took place
extended climatic changes of iced centuries. For the extinction of Mega-Fauna, the
“man-hunter” was the mainly responsible of big herbivore mammals’ and big birds’
extermination. In the cemetery of the Mega-Fauna’s superior distinguished position
possesses the first victim of biodiversity, the Mammuthus Primigenius, close relation
of the African elephant (Loxodonta Africana). It’s extinction is the herald of the
following dramating decrease of the Biodiversity of the Ecosystems, which now is on
the top following the rapid increase of the human population.

14. CORAL REEFS are ecosystems of high biodiversity and in this term they are
similar to rainforests. They consist of marine polypodes. The negative factors that
undermine their sustainment are numerous: the rise of the sea and ocean temperatures,
increasing pollution and tourism. Due to these reasons corals are left without
protection from solar radiation which leads to their depression and death. The dead
symbiotic algae has white colour.

15. ECOTOURISM is an important investment for a lot of countries and is an
alternative means of income for local communities, for example in the case of Zaire in
                                           20


Africa. It is more prosperous than agriculture, when organized carefully and properly,
both for the flora and fauna and for the people.

16. ELEPHANT POACHING reached its peak in the 70’s when 20.000 elephants
were killed within just one year. In the 80’s, 90% of tusk and ivory trade was a
product of poaching. A measure against tusk poaching was the decision of Kenya to
incinerate a large number of tusks.

17. BLUE FIN TUNA: within 20 years there was a 95% fall in the population of the
blue fin tuna due to over fishing in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Ρapid reduction of natural fisheries reserves for preparing the famous Japanese
“SUSI”

18. BIG MARINE ECOSYSTEMS produce 95% of global fish harvest and they are
critical. Therefore, they are the centre of scientific research attention by international
organizations in terms of fish population decrease, pollution and over fishing. The rise
in human population, land waste, industry pollution and intensive coastal agriculture
are some of the reasons for the loss of appropriate ecological βιότοποι (dwelling)
which are used by fish and other animals as hatcheries.

19. Also BIG MARINE ECOSYSTEMS, numeric illustration

20. NATURAL SHELTER IN CORAL REEFS It has designed for retaining the
fisheries resources, avoiding the intensive fishery.

21. TROPICAL FORESTS’ DESTROY. An example of extreme deforestation is that
of Brazil, where they deforest massively in order to grow soya.

22. RUINATION OF THE TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS: full deforestation of rain
forests for timbering and other natural products of such ecosystems, for the
construction of highways and new built-up areas leads to global warming and this
deforestation is underestimated in all major meetings for the interception of global
warming.

23. ACID RAIN: this kind of atmospheric pollution harms coniferous trees affecting
their leaves and photosynthesis making them extremely vulnerable to insects and
finally leads to their desiccation. Acid rain also affects monuments, marbles and
statues and leads to their plastering (carbonate calsium).
                                            21


UNIVERSITIES: A GATE TO INTRODUCE SCHOOL CHILDREN TO THE
                    MAGIC OF RESEARCH

                                   By M.A. Efstratiou
                         Ass. Professor of Marine Microbiology
                            Department of Marine Sciences
                                University of the Aegean

        Different levels of education (elementary, secondary, colleges and
universities) have distinct target groups and distinct roles to play. The traditional and
well established practice of teaching / being taught within your narrow age limit has
proven successful and is time honoured. Nevertheless the last few decades we come
across incidents of young pupils visiting university settings and gaining benefit from
the interaction with environment, practices and knowledge far beyond their assumed
level, both in science and arts.
        In this presentation I would like to discuss the benefits school visits to
universities offer to the schoolteacher and the teaching outcomes.
        Having fun and learning away from the classroom and local community are
excellent aids in children’s education, as they aim to broaden a young person’s
outlook and experience of life which can often become so insular and narrow. Getting
children to visit a University surrounding seeks to nurture creativity,
entrepreneurialism and lateral thinking as well as developing a young person’s love
and thirst for learning. A University aims to develop young people wanting to learn,
in order to create independent lifelong learners. Together with a positive, optimistic
and confident approach it is possible to induce young people to develop a mentality
and realise that they all possess a special talent and should never miss an opportunity
to use it.
        Invitation to visit a university attracts all sorts of teachers, volunteering to do
extra work escorting their class because they enjoy it and see a purpose and incentive
for learning. It provides an opportunity for them to help their pupils discover and
unleash their skills and talents in ways in which they thought impossible.
        University provides learning experiences for young people either supporting
schools in their delivery of the national curriculum or in simply introducing them to
aspects of science or arts that broaden their perspectives in life. A visit in the different
educational surrounding of a university and listening to a lecture by a university
professor can offer a child opportunities for self determination and self direction. It
can broaden contexts and opportunities for learning, allow children to experience
fulfilment and empowerment which come from experiencing success in understanding
notions they probably thought well beyond their abilities. Venturing beyond school
and beyond the immediate neighbourhood is the first step for many children into a
world previously closed to them. Universities are described as ‘learning destinations’
because they can offer an emotional and mind expanding experience if they are
appropriately structured to engage and challenge.
        In the University of the Aegean, Department of Marine Sciences, we have in
the last decade offered lectures and laboratory visits to a great number of school
children. We invited visits and had positive responses from teachers of all levels
(primary through to 6-grade classes). The invitations were given mostly during
seminars we organised to explain to teachers methods of making environmental
education palatable to pupils already heavily loaded by the demands of the national
curriculum.
                                           22


        The result is admittedly overwhelming success. Teachers reported delighted
by the opportunity a visit offered to the children. Pupils we could hardly cope with
their endless questions and interest. Laboratory visits always produced great
participation and inquisitiveness from children. We find that such visits inspire young
people to take an interest in science. We feel certain that visits to a college of Arts or
to a Department of History would equally inspire children to take an interest in the
respective fields.
        May I finish this presentation reminding and stressing just how strong and
significant is the case for provision of learning opportunities beyond the school
curriculum. Also by prompting teachers to seek opportunities to take their classes to
visit university departments whenever possible.
                                          23


       SUPPORT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATIONAL OFFICE TO
                        THE TEACHERS

                     By Sfakianaki Maria and Apostolakis Dimitrios

       On behalf of the Environmental Education Office of the Directorate of
Secondary Education of Heraklion I welcome you to our area and I wish you a
pleasant stay in our island.
I would like to congratulate for the initiative of this organization, the teachers of
Meleses Lyceum , especially the Director Antigone Plataki and my collaborators
Anna Papastefanaki and Maria Kalathaki, who support for many years actions for the
environment and inspire our students.

Environmental Education began in our country in the early ’90, and in nowa days has
been established in the mind of teachers and students. It’s not a particular subject at
school, but it’s implemented through projects, applying the basic principles of
environmental education such as the interdisciplinary approach, the experiential
approach, the teamwork, the opening of school in the society, the development of
democratic dialogue and the cultivation of critical thinking.
Environmental projects last about 5 months with a teacher as coordinator and a group
about 25 students participating. During the implementation of the projects, teachers
and students explore environmental issues within the curriculum subjects (physics,
biology, mathematics, literature, etc). The students participate actively, take
initiatives, explore the local environment, collaborate with local stakeholders,
scientists, volunteers and nongovernmental environmental organizations. At the same
time they visit Environmental Education Centers, organize school events, exhibitions,
publish leaflets and perform various activities. Thus they are sensitized and adapt
environmental behavior with values, knowledge, skills and new approaches for the
protection of environment.
The implementation of Environmental Projects in the curriculum of Primary
Education it’s an optional process and these projects are integrated either through the
different subjects or in the frame of “flexible zone”, a new innovation where teachers
and pupils can choose a theme and work on it from 2 – 4 hours every week.
They are supported by the Coordinators of Environmental Education, located in the
Directorates of Education of all prefectures, as well as by the Environmental
Education Centers. Last school year in Heraklion 150 projects in Primary Education
and 110 in Secondary Education were implemented, with a big variety of topics for
the environment.
The objectives of Environmental Education Offices are: the active participation of
teachers and students, the continuous training of teachers, the effective
implementation of projects , the disposal of educational material, the dissemination
of good practices, the emergence of local environmental problems, the collaboration
with local stakeholders and the opening of school in society. Linking schools with
daily life, prepares students to be active and responsible citizens in the future and of
course initiatives like this connect school and local authorities (municipality and
stakeholders of the region). And we have to thank them because they always support
the actions of school community.

Now days Environmental Education transformed into Education for Sustainable
Development, which is none other than the development that meets the needs of
                                       24


present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs. Following the Unesco decade, 2005 to 2015, each thematic year, teachers and
students work on similar issues.
This school year is dedicated to education and human Rights. The connection with
sustainability includes the involvement, awareness and finding solutions to the
problems of poverty, health, democracy, human rights and peace.
    I wish you every success in the conference.
                                           25


  IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF TEACHER EDUCATION ACCORDING
                 TO THE LISBON STRATEGY

                                by Rosella Mastodonti

There are around 6.25 million teachers in Europe. Teachers play a vital role in helping
people develop their talents and fulfil their potential for personal growth and well-
being, and in helping them acquire the complex range of knowledge and skills that
they will need as citizens and as workers. It is school teachers who mediate between a
rapidly evolving world and the pupils who are about to enter it.
The profession of teaching is becoming more and more complex. The demands placed
upon teachers are increasing. The environments in which they work are more and
more challenging. Many Member States are reviewing the ways in which teachers are
prepared for the important tasks they perform on behalf of European society.
The council of the European Union and the Representatives of the Governments of
the member states, meeting within the council, in October of 2007 had regard to the
improving of the quality of teachers’ education. The main points were:

1. The Lisbon European Council conclusions of 23-24 March 2000, which
emphasised that investing in people was crucial to Europe's place in the knowledge
economy, and which called upon Member States to "take steps to remove obstacles to
teachers' mobility and to attract high-quality teachers".
2. The Education Council's February 2001 report to the European Council on the
concrete future objectives of education and training systems, which emphasised the
changing role of teachers who, while continuing to impart knowledge, "also function
as tutors, guiding learners on their individual pathway to knowledge".
3. Objective 1.1 of the 'Education & Training 2010' work programme - Improving
education and training for teachers and trainers, which highlights the importance of
attracting and retaining well-qualified and motivated people to the teaching
profession, of identifying the skills that teachers require to meet the changing needs of
society, of providing conditions to support teachers through initial and in-service
training, and of attracting recruits to teaching and training who have professional
experience in other fields.
4. The Council Resolution of 27 June 2002 on lifelong learning, which invited the
Member States to improve the education and training of teachers involved in lifelong
learning so that they acquire the necessary skills for the knowledge society.
5. The joint interim report of the Council and the Commission of 26 February 2004 on
progress towards the Lisbon objectives in the fields of education and training, which
gave priority to the development of common European principles for the competences
and qualifications needed by teachers in order to fulfil their changing role in the
knowledge society.
6. The joint interim report of the Council and the Commission of 23 February 2006 on
the implementation of the 'Education & Training 2010' work programme, which
emphasised that "investment in the training of teachers and trainers and the
strengthening of leadership for education and training institutions are crucial to
improving the efficiency of education and training systems".
7. The conclusions of the Council and the Representatives of the Governments of the
Member States, meeting within the Council, of 14 November 2006 on efficiency and
equity in education and training, which stated that "the motivation, skills and
competences of teachers, trainers, other teaching staff and guidance and welfare
                                           26


services, as well as the quality of school leadership, are key factors in achieving high
quality learning outcomes" and that "the efforts of teaching staff should be supported
by continuous professional development".
8. The conclusions of the Council and the Representatives of the Governments of the
Member States, meeting within the Council, of 14 November 2006 on the future
priorities for enhanced European cooperation on vocational education and training,
which emphasised the need for highly qualified teachers who undertake continuous
professional development.
9. Decision n° 1720/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15
November 2006 establishing an action programme in the field of lifelong learning,
which includes, under the Comenius Programme, the specific objective of enhancing
the quality and European dimension of teacher education.
10. The Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18
December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning, which sets out the
minimum knowledge, skills and attitudes which all pupils should have acquired by the
end of initial education and training in order to take part in the knowledge society and
which, given their transversal nature, imply a greater degree of collaboration and
teamwork between teachers, as well as an approach to teaching that goes beyond
traditional subject boundaries

In the welcome of the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 23
August 2007 on improving the quality of teacher education, which identifies the
quality of teaching and teacher education as key factors in raising educational
attainment levels and achieving the Lisbon goals, and accordingly, sets out proposals
aimed at maintaining and improving these. Reaffirmed that, while responsibility for
the organisation and content of education and training systems and the achievement of
objective 1.1 of the 'Education and Training 2010' work programme rests with
individual Member States, and while schools in many Member States enjoy a
considerable degree of autonomy, European cooperation has a useful role to play in
helping the Member States to meet common challenges, particularly by means of the
open method of coordination, which involves the development of common principles
and goals, as well as joint initiatives such as peer learning activities, the exchange of
experience and good practice and mutual monitoring.
They considered that
1. High quality teaching is a prerequisite for high-quality education and training,
which are in
turn powerful determinants of Europe's long-term competitiveness and capacity to
create more jobs and growth in line with the Lisbon goals and in conjunction with
other relevant policy areas such as economic policy, social policy and research.
2. Equally importantly, teaching provides a service of considerable social relevance:
teachers play a vital role in enabling people to identify and develop their talents and to
fulfil their potential for personal growth and well-being, as well as in helping them to
acquire the complex range of knowledge, skills and key competences that they will
need as citizens throughout their personal, social and professional lives.
3. The ability of teachers to meet the challenges of increasing social and cultural
diversity in the classroom is crucial for the development of more equitable education
systems and for progress towards providing equal opportunities for all.
4. The education and training of teachers is a crucial element in the modernisation of
European education and training systems, and future increases in the overall level of
educational attainment and the pace of progress towards the common objectives of the
                                           27


'Education and Training 2010' work programme will be facilitated by the existence of
effective systems of teacher education.
5. In view of the above considerations, Member States should give high priority to
sustaining and improving the quality of teacher education within a career-long
perspective.

They agreed, within the framework of their responsibilities, to
1. Endeavour to ensure that teachers:
- hold a qualification from a higher education institution which strikes a suitable
balance between research-based studies and teaching practice
- possess specialist knowledge of their subjects, as well as the pedagogical skills
required
- have access to effective early career support programmes at the start of their career
- have access to adequate mentoring support throughout their careers
- are encouraged and supported throughout their careers to review their learning needs
and to acquire new knowledge, skills and competence through formal, informal and
non-formal learning, including exchanges and placements abroad.
2. Endeavour to ensure that teachers with leadership functions, in addition to
possessing teaching skills and experience, have access to high quality training in
school management and leadership.
3. Aim to ensure that provision for teachers' initial education, early career support and
further professional development is coordinated, coherent, adequately resourced and
quality assured.
4. Consider the adoption of measures aimed at raising the level of qualifications and
the degree of practical experience required for employment as a teacher.
5. Encourage closer links and partnerships between schools - which should develop as
"learning
communities" - and teacher education institutions, whilst ensuring that those
institutions provide coherent, high quality and relevant teacher education programmes
which respond effectively to the evolving needs of schools, teachers and society at
large.
or, in the case of those working in the field of initial vocational education, are highly
qualified in their professional area and hold a suitable pedagogical qualification
6. Promote during initial teacher education, early career support and through
continuous professional development the acquisition of competences which will
enable teachers to:
– teach transversal competences such as those outlined in the Recommendation on
key competences,
– create a safe and attractive school environment which is based on mutual respect
and cooperation,
– teach effectively in heterogeneous classes of pupils from diverse social and cultural
backgrounds and with a wide range of abilities and needs, including special education
needs,
– work in close collaboration with colleagues, parents and the wider community,
– participate in the development of the school or training centre in which they are
employed,
– develop new knowledge and be innovative through engagement in reflective
practice and research,
– make use of ICT in their various tasks, as well as in their own continuing
professional development,
                                           28


– become autonomous learners in their own career-long professional development.
7. Provide appropriate support for teacher education institutions and teacher
educators, so as to enable these to develop innovative responses to the new demands
on teacher education.
8. Support mobility programmes for teachers, student teachers and teacher educators
which are designed to have a significant impact on their professional development, as
well as to foster better understanding of cultural differences and an awareness of the
European dimension of teaching.
9. Take any appropriate steps to make the teaching profession a more attractive career
choice. Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18
December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning - OJ L 394, 30.12.2006.

The Lisbon European Council in March 2000 stressed that people are Europe’s main
asset and that “investing in people … will be crucial both to Europe's place in the
knowledge economy and for ensuring that the emergence of this new economy does
not compound the existing social problems."
The Barcelona Council in March 2002 adopted concrete objectives for improving
Member States’ education and training systems, including improving education and
training for teachers and trainers. The Council in March 2006 noted that 'Education
and training are critical factors to develop the EU's long-term potential for
competitiveness as well as for social cohesion'; it added that 'Reforms must also be
stepped up to ensure high quality education systems which are both efficient and
equitable.' However, progress has been insufficient towards goals such as reducing
the number of early school leavers, expanding the share of young people who finish
upper-secondary school, or reducing the number of 15-year-olds with poor reading
skills. The quality of teaching is one key factor in determining whether the European
Union can increase its competitiveness in the globalised world. Research shows that
teacher quality is significantly and positively correlated with pupil attainment and that
it is the most important within-school aspect explaining student performance (its
effects are much larger than the effects of school organisation, leadership or financial
conditions).
Furthermore, other studies have found positive relationships between in-service
teacher training and student achievement and ‘suggest that an in-service training
program … raised children's achievement …(and) suggest that teacher training may
provide a less costly means of increasing test scores than reducing class size or adding
school hours’.

In 2004, the Council and Commission Joint Report on progress towards the Lisbon
Objectives in the fields of Education and Training called for the development of
common European principles for the competences and qualifications needed by
teachers and trainers. The Council in November 2006 stated that 'the motivation,
skills and competences of teachers, trainers, other teaching staff and guidance and
welfare services, as well as the quality of school leadership, are key factors in
achieving high quality learning outcomes' and that 'The efforts of teaching staff
should be supported by continuous professional development and by good
cooperation with parents, pupil welfare services and the wider community.' Improving
the quality of Teacher Education is, therefore, an important goal for Europe's
education systems if quicker progress is to be made towards meeting the common
objectives that have been established under the Education and Training 2010
programme. Ensuring a high quality of Teacher Education is also important, of
                                          29


course, to secure sound management of national resources and good value for money:
approximately two thirds of expenditure on schools is allocated to teacher
remuneration.

Changes in education and in society place new demands on the teaching profession.
For example, as well as imparting basic knowledge, teachers are also increasingly
called upon to help young people become fully autonomous learners by acquiring key
skills, rather than memorising information; they are asked to develop more
collaborative and constructive approaches to learning and expected to be facilitators
and classroom managers rather than excathedra trainers.
These new roles require education in a range of teaching approaches and styles.
Furthermore, classrooms now contain a more heterogeneous mix of young people
from different backgrounds and with different levels of ability and disability. They are
required to use the opportunities offered by new technologies and to respond to the
demand for individualised learning; and they may also have to take on additional
decision-taking or managerial tasks consequent upon increased school autonomy.
These changes require teachers not only to acquire new knowledge and skills but also
to develop them continuously. To equip the teaching body with skills and
competences for its new roles, it is necessary to have both high-quality initial teacher
education and a coherent process of continuous professional development keeping
teachers up to date with the skills required in the knowledge based society.
As with any other modern profession, teachers also have a responsibility to extend the
boundaries of professional knowledge through a commitment to reflective practice,
through research, and through a systematic engagement in continuous professional
development from the beginning to the end of their careers. Systems of education and
training for teachers need to provide the necessary opportunities for this.
However, systems for Teacher Education are not always well equipped to meet these
new demands.

The challenges facing the teaching profession are, in essence, common across the
European Union. It is possible to arrive at a shared analysis of the issues and a shared
vision of the kinds of skills that teachers require.
The Common European Principles for Teacher Competences and Qualifications,
referred to above, were written on the basis of the experience of teachers and teacher
educators across Europe and validated by stakeholders. It describes a vision of a
European teaching profession that has the following characteristics:
– it is well-qualified profession: all teachers are graduates from higher education
institutions (and those working in the field of initial vocational education are highly
qualified in their professional area and have a suitable pedagogical qualification).
Every teacher has extensive subject knowledge, a good knowledge of pedagogy, the
skills and competences required to guide and support learners, and an understanding
of the social and cultural dimension of education.
– it is a profession of lifelong learners: teachers are supported to continue their
professional development throughout their careers. They and their employers
recognise the importance of acquiring new knowledge, and are able to innovate and
use evidence to inform their work.
– it is a mobile profession: mobility is a central component of initial and continuing
teacher education programmes. Teachers are encouraged to work or study in other
European countries for professional development purposes.
                                            30


– it is a profession based on partnership: teacher education institutions organise their
work collaboratively in partnership with schools, local work environments,
workbased training providers and other stakeholders.
Initial education cannot provide teachers with the knowledge and skills necessary for
a life-time of teaching. The ideal approach would be to set up a seamless continuum
of provision embracing initial teacher education, induction into the profession, and
career-long continuing professional development that includes formal, informal and
non-formal learning opportunities. This would mean that all teachers:
- take part in an effective programme of induction during their first three years in post
/ in the profession;
– have access to structured guidance and mentoring by experienced teachers or other
relevant professionals throughout their career;
– take part in regular discussions of their training and development needs, in the
context of the wider development plan of the institution where they work.
Teachers have a key role to play in preparing pupils to take their place in society and
in the world of work. At every point in their career, teachers need to have, or be able
to acquire, the full range of subject knowledge, attitudes and pedagogic skills to be
able to help young people to reach their full potential. In particular they need the skills
necessary to:
– identify the specific needs of each individual learner, and respond to them by
deploying a wide range of teaching strategies;
– support the development of young people into fully autonomous lifelong learners;
– help young people to acquire the competences listed in the European Reference
Framework of Key Competences;
– work in multicultural settings (including an understanding of the value of diversity,
and respect for difference); and work in close collaboration with colleagues, parents
and the wider community.
Teachers help young people to take responsibility for mapping out their own learning
pathways throughout life. Teachers should be able to take charge of their own
learning pathways also. Furthermore, as with members of any other profession,
teachers have a responsibility to develop new knowledge about education and
training. In a context of autonomous lifelong learning, their professional development
implies that teachers:
– continue to reflect on their practice in a systematic way;
– undertake classroom-based research;
– incorporate into their teaching the results of classroom and academic research;
– evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching strategies and amend them accordingly
– assess their own training needs.
The incentives, resources and support systems necessary to achieve this would need to
be put in place.

                                   REFERENCES
COM(2007) Improving the Quality of Teacher Education Communication from the
Commission to the Council and the European Parliament 392 final DOCUMENTO2
Brussels, 3.8.
COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (2007) Draft conclusions of the Council
and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within
the Council, on improving the quality of teacher education, No. prev. doc. : 13930/07
EDUC 161 SOC 371 Brussels, 26 October 2007
                                            31


                         INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION

                                    By Anca Niculae

          Culture is the result of dynamic cohabitation between the dominant culture
and various subcultures. A subculture could represent groups like: ethnical minorities,
religious minorities, special needs people, people practicing a specific trade, the
employees of a corporation or members of an entire generation.
         Intercultural communities are groups of different, ethnic or religious
background, living in the same space that interact and respect the values, traditions
and way of life of everyone. Contacts and exchanges between cultures are not done
programmatically, but through interactions of individuals.
         The contemporary world is increasingly multicultural. There is an ongoing
debate to establish if the methods used by educational systems from kindergarten until
university , methods that deal with interculturalism are adequate.
         Teachers could consider intercultural preparation unnecessary as being just
artificially pursuing the fashionable euro-atlantic trends. There are plenty of studies
stressing the importance for the preparation of teachers in the intercultural spirit.
         We could identify two levels of action for achieving the intercultural
preparation for the teachers. The first level implies the cooperation between different
cultures and countries. The second level requires the collaboration between different
cultural and ethnical segments envisaging integration of all the members of the
society regardless ethnicity but with respect to the cultural individuality of the group.
         The intercultural schools policies should ensure the equality of chances for all
students. For a better understanding of cultural diversities, those could be transformed
in pedagogical resources used in curriculum. Promoting a natural process of tolerance
and acceptance between peers, recognitions and respect for the cultural differences
based of equality are few of the intercultural education goals.
         The school should encourage cherishing the multicultural values. There are
not superior or inferior values, there are only specific values that should not be judged
applying ethno-centrist criteria but only appreciate for enhancing and adding nuance
to the culture they interact with. In school, it is necessary to preach moderation for
the predominant group ethnic pride and to encourage the self esteem for minorities.
         It is imperative that the teachers will become the messengers of change. In this
context it is important for the teachers to assimilate theories and concepts regarding
stereotypes, prejudice, and ethnocentrism. The teaching strategies should be tailored
to fit the cultural background for each student hence the importance of understanding
the characteristics for different ethnic or social groups. The teacher should be fully
aware of his or her own cultural identity and should understand the interaction with
the cultures of different social or ethnical groups. If necessity arises the teacher should
work as a mediator for solving social or ethnic groups clashes by using a positive
attitude and strategies based on understanding and accepting the differences between
groups.
         Intercultural education is not a compensatory education for foreigners. More
often the challenges are not created by the immigrant student but especially by the
educational establishments that have difficulties coping with cultural diversity.
         Intercultural education is not a new academic discipline, or an extension of the
curriculum by "teaching the others". It is important for teachers to take advantage of
the different origins of the students to highlight aspects of their culture and create
awareness of cultural diversity. Intercultural education pedagogy takes a differential
                                           32


approach for each student, approach based on previous knowledge accumulation and
cultural particularities.
    Banks JA distinguished in his Introduction to multicultural education (1999), the
following features found in multicultural schools:
    • Teachers have high expectations from all students and a positive attitude
        towards each of them.

   •   Teaching styles used by teachers meet the learning styles and different
       motivations of students.

   •   Teachers treat with respect the first languages and dialects of their students.

   •   Educational materials used reflect events, situations and concepts from the
       perspective of several ethnic and cultural groups.

   •   Evaluation and assessment procedures applied in school take account of
       different cultural identities.

   •   The school environment and the school curriculum reflect the ethnic and
       cultural diversity.

   •   School counselors encourage and help each student, not considering race,
       ethnicity or language to aim for a career and to achieve it.
        Intercultural education should have an interdisciplinary approach and not be
limited exclusively to the transmission of specific content within a particular
discipline. Also the intercultural education should reach beyond the school
environment by involving family, social groups, institutions, communities and mass
media.


                                  BIBLIOGRAPHY

   •   UNESCO Guidelines on Intercultural Education, 2006

   •   C. Cucoş - Educaţia. Dimensiuni culturale şi interculturale, Ed. Polirom, Iaşi,
       2000
                                           33


TEACHER EDUCATION AS A COMPONENT OF THE REFORM PROCESS

                                  By Gabriela Iancic

As already known, the reform of the teacher training system is a priority. In fact, it is
an urgent matter for at least two reasons: (i) the need for a consolidated
consciousness, according to which teacher education is a vital factor in the success of
reform. It does not matter how complex and elaborated the reform is as a project, if it
is not accompanied by a change of mentalities, attitudes, and behaviours, very little
will change.
(ii) The system of teacher training has registered a slower development, a certain
discrepancy of rhythm and efficiency, as compared with the other elements of reform,
particularly curriculum and instruction, evaluation, and management.
Recent research (Vlasceanu et al., 2002) shows that the large majority of teachers
adhere to the spirit of the reform, but one-third of them fail to acquire the “codes” of
reform. They are not sufficiently familiar with the concepts and methodological
principles of reform. For this reason, they fail to apply them consistently. The delays
in the design and implementation of a new teacher education system have certain
causes.
There is a gap, natural to a certain extent, between the consolidation of the principles
of the strategies and goals of reform and the renewal of the teacher education system.
The Universities, that were particularly concerned to acquire and to consolidate their
autonomy and to realize academic and managerial changes, failed to grant much
importance to
teacher training. The National Council for Teacher Training began its activity later
than the other reform Councils began theirs.
A rather passive reaction has been observed on the part of the teachers, confronted, as
they are, with changes resulting from reform and with difficulties of assimilating their
new roles. The professional identity of teachers needs to be reconsidered.
Currently, there are signs that the vision and structure of teacher education will pass
through important changes, both at theoretical and conceptual level, and in regard to
the teacher training practice. Some of these signs are presented below
In February 2001, the Teacher Training Department of the Faculty of Psychology and
Educational Sciences of the University of Bucharest organized a seminar on
“Priorities for Teacher Training Policies in Romania”. The strategic directions for
teacher training and career development were identified. Internal and external factors
affecting teacher education were identified: global changes in society, educational
reform in all sectors, achievements of scientific research in relevant fields, European
and international
standards of teacher education, and the recommendations of international institutions
(The World Bank, the European Commission, and UNESCO). The concept of
professionalism was linked to the teaching career, and the emergence of a new type of
professionalism was forecasted (Paun, 2001). The participants discussed the
legitimacy and importance of national standards for teacher education, and a
framework for building them was presented (Potolea, 2001).
A discussion on teacher education based on credit points, initiated by the work of Iucu
and Pacurari (2001), had some influence on certain decisions taken by the Ministry.
Curriculum projects for teacher training were also drawn up. The conclusion was that
the “voice” of the University has to be clearer and stronger in proposing and running
teacher education projects. An important part of the recommendations of this seminar
                                           34


were integrated into official policy documents of the Ministry of Education and
Research.
As mentioned above, higher education plays an important role in continuing/in-
service teacher training. However, as the free market in the field is under
development, some other actors have become important in this regard.
University pedagogical colleges and teacher training departments have the most
important responsibilities regarding in-service teacher training. They provide
methodological and psycho-pedagogical training. For training in specialized subjects,
they co-operate with the corresponding faculties. Both the pedagogical colleges and
the teacher training departments are autonomous entities in universities and function
in close co-operation with faculties of educational sciences.
“Teachers’ Houses” are regional documentation and training centers financed by the
Ministry of Education and Research. They provide in-service training courses for
teachers in their respective areas, according to the priorities of reform and local needs.
Schools are involved in continuing training through their discipline-based
departments. In the cases of larger schools, so-called catedre and methodological
commissions serve groups of smaller schools. At county level, under the co-
ordination of the School County Inspectorate, a “pedagogical round-table” (cerc
pedagogic) is organized, with regular meetings of speciality teachers in all subjects.
In the case of in-service training, most of the respondents replied to this question;
however, only 4.01 percent were highly satisfied; 28.76 percent were highly satisfied;
46.48 percent were fairly satisfied; 16.72 percent were not very satisfied; and 4.03
percent were not satisfied at all. The conclusion was that reform is needed, and that
there is a great deal of room for improvement at both levels of teacher training.


                                  REFERENCE
Dan Potolea & Lucian Ciolan,
Emergence of New Policies For the Reform of Teacher Education
                                           35



                    CRITICAL THINKING IN ELT CLASSES

                                  by Laura Nadaban

         “Man is only a reed, the weakest to be found in nature, but he is a thinking
reed. All our dignity consists in thought. It is upon this that we must depend, not on
space or time, which would not, in any case, be able to fill. Let us labor, then , to
think well”.
                                                                           (Blaise Pascal)
         Where do our ideas come from and what factors shape our interpretation of the
world? The question is too complex to investigate in its details, but scientists have
reached an agreement which can very well serve the purpose of this paper. According
to scientists, the attitudes, beliefs and customs we abosorb from our families and our
social and cultural environments, the languages we speak, the emotions we feel, all
these affect the way we view the world. However, no matter where our ideas come
from and no matter what influences shape our ideas and views of the world, this much
is clear: there is nothing , absolutely nothing we can know unless it is first sifted
through and interpreted by the human mind. Any knowledge of the world outside us
or any knowledge of ourselves depend upon complex mental processes. We combine
ideas, we compare, contrast, analyze them, and through these mental operations new
ideas are generated.
         Furthermore, all communication skills depend on the special powers of the
human mind, and yet we are unaware of the mental activities that make all these skills
possible. Generally, the human mind works spontaneously:”we think without stopping
to think about how we are thinking”.(1) For instance, we compare and contrast
people, events, places or we analyze causes and effects without consciously saying to
ourselves: I am comparing and contrasting now or I am analyzing now. We simply
use these patterns of thinking naturally and automatically. However when we choose
to do so, we can focus on our own thinking activities and become aware of how our
minds operate. Although other creatures perform many remarkable feats, only human
beings have the power of self reflection. They are especially endowed not only with
the power to think, but also with the power to turn the light on their thinking on
themselves.In other words we can think without thinking.
         What is critical thinking? Why is it important? There has been much talk
recently about the importance of critical thinking in the process of teaching and
learning. The word”critical” in the term ‘critical thinking’ is ambiguous as it has
several different meanings. In everyday speech, this word suggests disapproval: a
critical person is one who finds fault or point out to errors and failures (1).
         The word ‘critical’ can also suggest a crisis situation; to complicate matters.
In the phrase’critical thinking’ the word is related to the word ‘criticism’, another
word with multiple meanings. In its narrowest sense’criticism’ suggests ‘faultfinding’.
It also has a broader meaning,’ a particular critique, involving the exploration and the
analysis of an issue, or idea in order to promote understanding’. (2)
         As we begin to understand how our mind works and becomes aware of our
thinking patterns and activities, our critical skills improve. And when they improve,
so do our reading or writing skills that depend on them. By understanding the nature
of thinking, we are better able to analyze and comprehend what we read. Similarly,
when we write, if we are conscious of our mental activities, we are more likely to
monitor our thinking patterns and writing strategies, thus bringing them under
                                           36


conscious control and using them more effectively. However, in order to reach such
goals we need to consider the following questions: Is it possible to understand the
workings of our mind? And if it is, what thinking patterns seem more likely to be used
in the process of developing critical thinking? Finally, how are we going to teach
pupils to think critically?
         The answer to the first question can be found in the works of most
contemporary researchers from every walk of life from virtually every profession or
academic discipline. According to the latest research, the human mind can be read and
the human intelligence can be enhanced and amplified. Moreover, intelligence is a
multiple reality – there are many forms of intelligence – many ways by which we
know, understand and learn about our world. As for the thinking patterns that seem
more likely to occur in the process of developing critical thinking in ELT classes, it is
difficult to establish a hierarchy based on their frequency and use since choices are
subjective and they may vary according to the purpose and intent of the instructor.
Nevertheless a closer look at the five major skills may help us clarify a couple of
problems in this respect. The five major thinking skills are: analysis, comparison and
contrast, evaluation and response, interpretation and synthesis. All of them are used in
ELT classes, and their importance is invaluable. For instance, in a literature class the
five major skills already mentioned constitute themselves into five headings for the
rest of the skills belonging to the same category:
ANALYSIS – analyzing characters, stories, the writers’ attitudes, the writers’
techniques, humor, plot (cause and effect), themes and points of view.
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING – stories, themes, characters, techniques,
seeing connections.
EVALUATION AND RESPONSE – evaluating titles, themes, characters, content,
generalization, images, plot, setting, tone, point of view, expressing an opinion,
responding to theme, to style, to tone, to figures of speech.
INTERPRETATION – explaining an opinion, theme, plot, point of view, identifying
generalizations, loaded words, inferring an explanation, a generalization, paraphrasing
a passage, relate a passage to ordinary life.
SYNTHESIS – conducting a debate, predicting outcomes, supporting generalizations,
supporting an issue.
         Since we cannot know the world in any immediate way, since everything we
experience is always filtered through our own minds we can never be totally certain
that we have an accurate picture of the world, be it real or fictional. Although we
cannot expect total certainty, this does not mean that the five major skills we have
mentioned are arbitrary. The problem we face is this: how can we decide which idea
to accept as more valuable, or valid, or true. As critical thinkers we can organize the
complexity of the world and the uncertainty of our knowledge of it. We realize that
we must look for evidence to support our interpretations while trying to avoid the
dogmatism of those teachers who think that somehow only they know what is true or
right, and try to force everyone else to agree with them. Accepting the complexity of
life, we should allow ourselves to agree to disagree – with courtesy, tolerance and
compassion. Then and only then we can move ahead to celebrate the richness of life
that depends upon a free flow of ideas, open discussion and the exploration of many
points of view (2).
         The last issue to be discussed is perhaps the most difficult for teachers: how
can be thinking be taught? What does teaching for thinking imply? Reasearch in the
field has shown that it is necessary to build skilful thinking in the classroom on two
preconditions: the teacher’s mastery of the content and the teacher’s effectiveness in
                                           37


creating and managing positive conditions for thinking. Without a teacher who has
mastered the subject, the work is a vacuum, they are not content free. They are
immersed in some content. The pupils’mastery of thinking skills is imbedded in the
content and a skilled teacher introduces the right skill at the right time to his/her
pupils. A second important element is the teacher’s skill as an effective manager. The
most effective thinking skills instruction will not cure a chaotic or disruptive
classroom. Nor will it bring to life a classroom that is controlled only by fear. At the
very least, the teacher must be conducting a classroom in which pupils know and
follow basic rules and there is a strong, on-task atmosphere well-grounded in respect
and responsibility.
        Given these preconditions, the soil is ready to plant the seed for critical and
creative thinking. The thinking classroom is a classroom in which the teacher
purposely gives priority to teaching pupils multiple ways to think about what they are
learning. In a
concrete sense, this means that the teacher will structure opportunities for guided
practice of the skills and teach pupils how to transfer these skills into more difficult
content. The teacher will shift the emphasis in the classroom from “a content product
orientation to a content thinking process approach”. (3)
         In reality, in Romanian schools things are more complicated. We live in a
time of information overload. Faster than we can grasp the information that rains
down on us every day, radical new discoveries are uprooting traditionally accepted
theories. While the work, home and leisure worlds have changed in the last decades
more radically than we could anticipate, only one world has remained essentially the
same. Almost immune to the improvement and innovation, the Romanian school
seems forever trapped in the information acquisition model. Using a pre-chip
mentality schools change curriculum solely by adding more and more information,
more courses, more of everything. Most Romanian teachers are frustrated with the
cover-up mentality, which has resulted from the more the better mentality.
        To prepare our pupils for the responsabilities and probabilities of the future the
wisest course seems to be a curriculum that triggers their critical and creative
thinking. By causing pupils to think, question, wonder, explore, analyze, hypothesize,
create and use widely the avalanche of information they will encounter every day, an
in-depth curriculum that focuses on thinking skills will provide more fertile ground
for the intellectual growth in a high-tech world. Given such a curriculum, every
teacher will have a major responsibility to promote every pupil’s skill for thinking.
The teaching technology exists and if used wisely we will be able to change our
classroom from the present pool of pasivity to an action lab of active thinking. It is
possible. Engilsh language teachers have already taken major steps in this respect by
implementing a new curriculum which meets the requirements of the Common
European Framework of Refference for Languages, adopted by the Council of
Europe(3).


                                BIBLIOGRAPHY
   1. Byram, Martin.Sociocultural Competences in Foreign Language Teaching
      and Learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1997
   2. Dickinson, David. The Artistry of Teaching with Multiple Intelligences,
      Sacramento, Intercultural Press Inc, 2006
   3. Moulton, Eugene R. Thinking Critically. New York: Harcourt, Brace& World,
      Inc.2004
                                    38


4. Richards, J.C.Platt, J&Platt, H.Longman Doctionary of Language Teaching
   and Applied Linguistics.London: Longman,2005
5. Rosemberg, Vivian. The Thinking Class. Jacksonville: The Academic Press,
   2002, p 62. (2)
6. Hill,John. Creative and Critical Thinking. An Integrated Approach.New York:
   Noble& Noble, 2004,p41 (3).
7. Boostrom, Robert. Developing Creative and Critical Thinking.
   Chicaago:NTC Publishing Group,p 54 (1)
                                          39


                 EUROPEAN TEACHER IN POLISH SCHOOL
                             By Agnieszka Bobrowska
1. INTRODUCTION
        Contemporary civilization makes us, teachers, face a lot of new challenges.
More and more attention is paid to our work, because not only are we supposed to
improve our knowledge, but we are also required to become “universal, European
teachers”. It is connected with the changes that take place in Europe and the whole
world generally. The process of globalization, that we are all witnessing, urges very
radical transformations both in the way we think and act. We may wonder why, but in
fact the answer is very easy. Z. Bauman in his book Globalization gives a very simple
answer. The process that Europe is undergoing unites and parts people at the same
time, people like and dislike it. Because of many historical and political reasons
Poland, for many years, had to count on itself. People were not used to appreciating
different cultures, religions or philosophies of life, since they had their own, which
they were used to. We were closed within our own country, what is more within our
own region or area. But with the notions of European Economic Community, NATO
and European Union everything has changed. People had to learn how to accept
changes and submit to them. Education too. Education is no longer a matter of
teaching the subject. It should express the identity of each country but at the same
time it should be universal for all Europe, so that a young person who starts his/her
life in Poland, for example, could be able to do that in other European countries as
well.
2. EUROPEAN TEACHER
        In Europe the topic of education has become very important since 2000 when
Lisbon Strategy was worked out. Nevertheless, it does not “force” teachers to any
radical changes, it rather suggests the path of development of educational systems and
teachers so that they would be able to prepare young people for Europe. But what
does it mean in practice? Within the last 10 years a lot of conferences, publications
and papers have been devoted to the issue of teacher competences and qualifications.
In Common European Principles for Teacher Competences and Qualifications we
read that, among others, the most important are:
-“a well-qualified profession: high quality education systems require that all teachers
are graduates from higher education institutions and those working in the field of
initial vocational education should be highly qualified in their professional area and
have a suitable pedagogical qualification. Every teacher should have the opportunity
to continue their studies to the highest level in order to develop their teaching
competences and to increase their opportunities for progression within the profession.
Teacher education is multidisciplinary. This ensures that teachers have extensive
subject knowledge, a good knowledge of pedagogy, the skills and competences
required to guide and support learners, and an understanding of the social and cultural
dimension of education.
- a profession placed within the context of lifelong learning: teachers should be
supported in order to continue their professional development throughout their
careers. They and their employers should recognise the importance of acquiring new
knowledge, and teachers should be able to innovate and use evidence to inform their
work. They need to be employed in
                                          40


institutions which value lifelong learning in order to evolve and adapt throughout their
whole career. Teachers should be encouraged to review evidence of effective practice
and engage with current innovation and research in order to keep pace with the
evolving knowledge society. They should be encouraged to participate actively in
professional development, which can include periods of time spent outside the
education sector, and this should be
recognised and rewarded within their own systems.
- a mobile profession: mobility should be a central component of initial and
continuing teacher education programmes. Teachers should be encouraged to
participate in European projects and spend time working or studying in other
European countries for professional development purposes. Those who do so should
have their status recognised in the host country and their participation recognised and
valued in their home country. There should also the opportunity for mobility between
different levels of education and towards
different professions within the education sector.
- a profession based on partnerships: institutions providing teacher education should
organise their work collaboratively in partnership with schools, local work
environments, work-based training providers and other stakeholders. Higher
education institutions need to ensure that their teaching benefits from knowledge of
current practice. Teacher education partnerships, which have an emphasis on
practical skills and an academic and scientific basis, should provide teachers with the
competence and confidence to reflect on their own and others’ practice. Teacher
education, in itself, should be supported and be an object of study and research.

Teachers should be able to:
- work with others: they work in a profession which should be based on the values of
social inclusion and nurturing the potential of every learner. They need to have
knowledge of human growth and development and demonstrate self-confidence when
engaging with others. They need to be able to work with learners as individuals and
support them to develop into fully participating and active members of society. They
should also be able to work in ways which increase the collective intelligence of
learners and co-operate and collaborate with colleagues to enhance their own learning
and teaching.
- work with knowledge, technology and information: they need to be able to work
with a variety of types of knowledge. Their education and professional development
should equip them to access, analyse, validate, reflect on and transmit knowledge,
making effective use of technology where this is appropriate. Their pedagogic skills
should allow them to build and manage learning environments and retain the
intellectual freedom to make choices over the delivery of education. Their confidence
in the use of ICT should allow them to integrate it effectively into learning and
teaching. They should be able to guide and support learners in the networks in which
information can be found and built. They should have a good understanding of
subject knowledge and view learning as a lifelong journey. Their practical and
theoretical skills should also allow them to learn from their own experiences and
match a wide range of teaching and learning strategies to the needs of learners.
- work with and in society: they contribute to preparing learners to be globally
responsible in their role as EU citizens. Teachers should be able to promote mobility
and co-operation in Europe, and encourage intercultural respect and understanding.
They should have an understanding of the balance between respecting and being
aware of the diversity of learners’ cultures and identifying common values. They also
                                           41


need to understand the factors that create social cohesion and exclusion in society and
be aware of the ethical dimensions of the knowledge society. They should be able to
work effectively with the local community, and with partners and stakeholders in
education – parents, teacher education institutions, and representative groups. Their
experience and expertise should also enable them to contribute to systems of quality
assurance. Teachers’ work in all these areas should be embedded in a professional
continuum of lifelong learning which includes initial teacher education, induction and
continuing professional development , as they cannot be expected to possess all the
necessary competences on completing their initial teacher education.”
        Yet, another important European organization UNESCO does not try to define
the competences, but, on the other hand, it defines the aims of the process of
education for a human being: to learn so as to be, so as to know, so as to act, and so as
to live together with other people in the world. Regardless of the terminology, all
those documents highlight one important thing. The role of a teacher is to prepare the
new generations to life in a modern, computerized and open world, therefore as much
as teaching, his/her self learning is important. But it cannot be simply a matter of
learning by heart the subject, since such kind of knowledge may appear not interesting
for both sides of the didactic process. Conversely, European teacher should be just
like Europe: open, interesting, multicultural, cooperative, but also intelligent,
motivating, curios and eager to travel.
3. POLISH REALITY – THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS
        Today each teacher faces a difficult choice whether to use only the resource of
knowledge obtained during one’s studies or to constantly improve oneself, so that
one’s development was full and conscious. The moment of making the decision is
definitely crucial for every teacher because not only the professional career is
dependent on it but also personal satisfaction and students’ future. That is why every
discussion or action which will help any teacher to become a good teacher is vital and
worth listening and applying. It is obvious that every teacher apart from the
theoretical knowledge obtained during one’s studies needs to have also the practical
one. Our task is, thus, not to make our students memorize certain data or facts for
several days, weeks or maybe months. We want them to perceive the knowledge as a
high mountain which they should and could easily reach using their ability to think
logically, to seek the information and use all the materials possible. We want them to
be the explorers. On the other hand we, teachers, should not be only the supervisors,
but rather leaders, who are good and nice but fair and responsible at the same time
and that is connected with teacher’s competences.
         The notion of teacher competences is very much present in Polish scientific
world since 1995-1999 when Ministry of National Education of the Polish Republic
started a project called “Creator”. Its task was to work out the list of key competences,
which would be a kind of common denominator between European and Polish points
of view. At the same time this project was a trial to “improve” the face of Polish
education, which was often blamed for its conservatism and narrow-mindness.
According to that project the key competences are the following:
       -planning, organizing and evaluating of one’s own learning,
       -effective communicating in different situations,
       -effective team working,
                                           42


       -creative problem solving,
       -using ITC tools in one’s work
In the light of those assumptions in 2004 Ministry of National Education
of the Polish Republic concluded the requirements, competences and skills of a Polish
teachers, and included them into the decree which defines a profile of a model
teacher. According to that decree the teacher ought to posses the following
competences:
       -didactical,
       -organizing and psycho-pedagogical (recognizing students needs and
       cooperative skills),
       -creative (including innovation, self-education, flexibility, mobility and
       adaptative skills),
       -planning (planning, organizing, monitoring of didactical processes),
       -communicative (both verbal and non verbal in different situations),
       -informative and media (the usage of ITC tools in the didactic process),
       -knowledge of foreign languages.
The decree is a good way of proving that Polish education is not standing still, that we
understand the processes that are going on in Europe and that we want to follow them.
But how exactly does a Polish teacher meet the European requirements? Let me
analyse each point of the European document separately. Let me start with: a well-
qualified profession. This is definitely the easiest condition since already the Polish
decree about the competences of the teachers assumes that every single teacher must
be a holder of the higher education degree. Unfortunately, because of some recent
socio- political changes in Poland all the pedagogical universities or academies have
been turned into regular universities and their didactical character almost vanished.
This situation makes the potential teachers complement their education during some
post graduate studies, which, on the other hand, contribute much to their psycho-
pedagogical competences, because they focus only on the process of teaching and on
the psychology of the future student, and not on acquiring knowledge. The second
competence: a profession placed within the context of lifelong learning is also
something that a Polish teacher constantly does. It is not that our education finishes
the moment we get our certificate. The multitude of new situations, contexts and
problems make us seek new solutions and assistance in the form of either some post
graduate studies, some complementary courses or methodical conferences. Moreover,
it is every headmaster’s duty to provide his/her teachers with constant access to
different forms of trainings raising qualifications and competences. A mobile
profession: is the most difficult of all the points, because it is some novelty for Polish
teacher. Ideally, it should be the central point of teacher’s education, moreover, we
should be encouraged to use all the opportunities to master our workshop in some
other European countries but it practice it does not work that way. Of course there
exist European programs supporting teachers such as Commenius, Leonardo, LLP,
but they should not be the only opportunity. Finally, a profession based on
                                           43


partnerships, work with others and work with and in society. In Polish reality
educational system works as if in the circle. One institution cooperates with and
supports the other. Even the very process of educating future teachers relies on people
who already work at school. In practice it means that the trainee, academic teacher
and the hosting teacher have to meet to draw conclusions, improve mistakes and work
out the tactics of the further work. However, Polish teacher has to cooperate also with
students’ parents, different types of organizations, clubs, associations and with the
local community. We find equally important teaching our subject as teaching
tolerance, communication, respect and understanding. If the student observes
interaction of his/her teacher and parents, community, and other people he/she
discovers his/her confidence, virtues, values and possibilities. Moreover, they learn to
respect diversity and appreciate traditions. Finally work with knowledge, technology
and information allows to choose the means of delivering or supporting theoretical
knowledge. The more creative the teacher is the greater interest of students he/she
receives. In reality it does not only mean preparing a test in printed version, but also
enriching the structure of the lesson with some extra material that audio-visual or
some on-line tools give us. Almost every school has one or more computer labs where
some interesting lessons can be led. Similarly, with TV sets, DVD players, CD
players or others.
4. STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVE – PRACTICAL ASPECT
        The discussion on the nature of any teacher is, however, vague without
students’ opinions, since there would be no schools and teachers without them. I
realize that little do the students think about the competences and skills of any teacher
in purely scientific terms. They care about their own knowledge and “well-being” at
school, and they usually like certain type of the teacher better than the other. To find
out what are their preferences I conducted a survey among 50 random students of my
school. The survey contained 39 adjectives and phrases of either positive and negative
meaning, put into alphabetical order. Students’ task was to choose and put into a list,
maximum ten adjectives from the list. They were not only to focus on the positive
features but also on the negative ones, that is why I asked them to put the adjectives,
they would not like to find in their perspective teacher, in the right hand column, and
the ones they would like in their future teacher, in the left hand side column. The
results of my investigations are the following:
Chart 1: Features that the students disapprove
Chart 2: Features that the students approve
Both charts show clearly that the students have got very precise and not very
exorbitant expectations. Moreover, they are very practical and I assume that the
majority of present teachers had similar in the past. If I were to put their expectations
on the scale of occurrence the most popular results would be the following:
- the students like when the teacher explains things clearly (86% of students)
- the teacher must be friendly (62% of students)
- the teacher must be open to discussion (62% of students)
- the teacher must be patient (60% of students)
                                          44


- the teacher must be entertaining (60% of students)
And, on the other hand:
- the teacher must not be mocking (92% of students)
- the teacher must not lack confidence (72% of students)
- the teacher must not be lazy (70% of students)
- the teacher must not be able to solve discipline problems (60% of students)
But how do the students’ outlooks refer to the national and international documents
concerning teachers? Probably not much because learners perceive the teachers by the
pentaprism of their own needs and hopes, paying less attention to teachers’ own
development. Nonetheless, they are aware of what kind of skills and features of
personality and character of their teachers help them to achieve the highest tops.
5. CONCLUSIONS
        Maybe Polish schools are not so well equipped as schools in other European
countries, but I think those are people who constitute a real school. Thanks to them
the whole process of teaching and learning is possible, the majority of Polish teachers
are people with passion, who try to face all the difficulties and obstacles with a great
deal of optimism, creativity and passion. They try to do their work well because they
realize the burden of responsibility, which is no longer teaching Biology, Polish or
Mathematics. We know that we are shaping the society and future citizens of Europe,
that is why we do our best to be the real European teachers.
                                  BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Bauman, Z.: Globalizacja. PIW Warszawa 2000, p.6 (title translation mine)

2. Granica, T.: O programie KREATOR. Pulled out on 23 July 2010, Web site:
http://www.coveria.com.pl/nauczyciel/materialy/artykuly/artykul0006.htm

3. European Comission: Common European Principles for Teacher1 Competences
and Qualifications. Pulled out 06 Sep 2010,
http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/doc/principles_en.pdf

4. Ministry of National Education of the Polish Republic. :The decree of The Ministry
of Education and Sport on the Standards of Teachers Education. Pulled out on 18
February 2010, web site http://www.kul.pl/files/391/rozp_MEN_B2.pdf
                                         45


THE CULTIVATION OF VALUES AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE RELATED
      TO THE FUTURE SOCIETIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT

                                By Maria Kircheva

ABSTRACT
Teachers’ and students’ attitude to the environment and its protection can be formed
in class work and in extracurricular one. In language learning on any stage there are
different materials in environmental contexts – themes, vocabulary, graphics, general
knowledge and special questions to discuss orally, in essays & project reports on
environmental dilemas that focus opposite values and analyse the moral development
level.
One view connected with scientific and technological knowledge postulate that “the
environment has value only as far it’s economically profitable”. Don’t we have to
think about unbridled exploration of natural resources and of the contamination of the
environment by various pollutants? Can Man – no matter young or addult - use Nature
irresponsibly without counting the natural equilibrium?
Some good practices in the curricular and extracuriicular activities in school No 105
“At.Dalchev” in Sofia will be presented with the overview and conclusions for the
future society on the local and regional level.
 KEY WORDS: environment, environmental protection, environmental education,
values in environmental education, environmental attitudes
                                          46


  THE CULTIVATION OF THE SKILLS OF COMMUNICATION TO THE
                     FUTURE TEACHER

                               By Mariyana Angelova




SUMMMARY
As it is mention in the Lisbon Strategy communication is one of the major skills for
the future teachers. Languages / mother and foreign / and new technologies skills have
a key role in process of preparing pupils to take their place in the society and
successfully in the labour market. At every point in their career, they need to have, or
be able to acquire, the full range of subject knowledge, attitudes and pedagogical
background to be able to help young people to reach their full potential.
Communication on a mother tongue, knowing more than one foreign language, to be
familiar and to use new advance technologies in their practice at school are the
highlights of the conference presentation using the Bulgarian educational experience.
 In this context
 - To identify the specific needs of each individual learner,
 - To support the development of young people into fully autonomous lifelong
learners,
 - To work in multicultural settings and in close collaboration with colleagues, parents
and the      local community and
 - to take responsibility for mapping out their own learning pathways throughout life
and not on the last place
 - to be more competitive on the European labour market future teachers need to
develop their own communication skills.
                                          47


As it is mention in the middle report of our Project, we the partners of different
European school, made the conclusion “that language skills are the key vehicle for a
European future teacher”.

The importance of the communication skills we can see trough the results of the
analysis “EUROPEAN CHARTER FOR REGIONAL OR Minority Languages'.
Aware of the need to aim for the definition of the kit of skills, the possession of
communication skills in European languages and technologies communication play a
key role in the education of the future European teachers. These abilities are major
also in a view of future teachers to experience placements in Europe labour market.

The main issue of this pepper is to present how communication, as a basic human skill
turn to socialized skill of the future European teacher. As we know, communication,
as an ability to apply the knowledge and use know-how, is going to complete the tasks
and to solve the problems. Communication is often recognized as a cornerstone of
modern society—it would be hard to conceive of modern life without it.Commonly
communication defined as a process of shearing symbols over distances in time and
space.

 Recently, I heard someone to say, "Communication is easy." I disagree. Talking is
easy; communication, which means an exchange or communion with another, requires
greater skill. An exchange that is a communion demands that we listen and speak
skillfully, not just talk mindlessly. And interacting with fearful, angry, or frustrated
people can be even more difficult, because we're less skillful when caught up in such
emotions. So, communication skills are way to the other person, the most important
course of action, method to understand each other. Communication skills are the tools
we use to let others know what we think, feel, need and want. And they are also, how
we let others know that we understand what they think, feel, need and want.So we can
say that the communication skills are complex aria for training, formulation and
translation of announcement.

If there is one unifying theme that crosses all levels and disciplines in Educational
system / pre-school, school and high education/ it is communication. Communication
is our window to basic literacy and academic excellence.

Communication skills development is a life-long challenge.It is a process of
cultivation the skills to live and understand with the others.

BACKGROUND

 In his 1909 Social Organization: a Study of the Larger Mind, Cooley defines
communication as “the mechanism through which human relations exist and
develop—all the symbols of the mind, together with the means of conveying them
through space and preserving them in time.” This view, which has subsequently been
largely marginalized in sociology, gave processes of communication a central and
constitutive place in the study of social relations. Public Opinion, published in 1922
by Walter Lippmann, couples this view of the constitutive importance of
communication with a fear that the rise of new technologies and institutions of mass
communication allowed for the manufacture of consent and generated dissonance
between what he called ‘the world outside and the pictures in our heads’ on a scale
                                          48


that made democracy as classically conceived almost impossible to realize. John
Dewey’s 1927 The Public and its Problems, drew on the same view of
communications, but coupled it instead with an optimistic progressive and democratic
reform agenda, arguing famously “communication can alone create a great
community”.

Cooley, Lippmann, and Dewey capture themes like the central importance of
communication in social life, the rise of large and potentially powerful media
institutions and the development of new communications technologies in societies
undergoing rapid transformation, and questions regarding the relationship between
communication, democracy, and community. All these remain central to the discipline
of communication studies. Many of these concerns are also central to the work of
writers such as Gabriel Tarde and Theodor W. Adorno, which has been central to the
development of communication studies elsewhere.
The 1960s and 1970s saw the development of cultivation theory, pioneered by George
Garbner at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of
Pennsylvania.*
Potter (1993) notes Gerbner's intentions for using "cultivation" as an academic term to
define his interest in "the more diffuse effects on perceptions that are shaped over a
long period of exposure to media messages". "Cultivation, or " long-term effects"
indicates the emphasis on the constant nurturing, exposure, and consistent
incorporation the public experiences through communication skills development
changes.

 Main forms of communication skills are expressed in the society through the
alphabet, body language, emotion, image and symbol. Types of communication skills
- encompass a range of interpersonal and intrapersonal communication competencies.
In the teaching/learning process and organizational human relations, the emphasis is
on social-emotional awareness, self-presentation, management, getting along with
others, negotiation, conflict resolution and decision-making.

Interpersonal skills include effective prosocial interaction, empathy, understanding
personalities and ability to work cooperatively as part of a group or team. Influential
components are cultural awareness, conversational language and non-verbal
communication.

The intrapersonal, or inner dimension, includes forms of self-communication and
understanding personal emotions, goals and motivations. Self regulation of attention
skills depend largely on self-communication (inner imagery and self-talk.)

EXPOSE

As it was mention above, for the purpose of this paper, we shall understand
communication skills, as a way to reach the other person, as a method to understand
each other and as a tool to let others know what we are thinking, feel, need and want.
In the European manifest 2009 was mention that “Schools and universities need to be
reinvented in partnership with teachers and students so that education prepares people
for the learning society. Retrain teachers and engage parents so that they can
contribute to an education system that develops the necessary knowledge, skills and
                                          49


attitudes for intercultural dialogue, critical thinking, problem-solving and creative
projects. Give a strong emphasis to design in education at different levels. Establish a
major European-wide research and development effort on education to improve
quality and creativity at all levels.Into the Global world thinking globally EU has a
task to turn on” at the world-wide forefront in terms of science, culture and
competitiveness.” /Action 6/
* Garbner George, / 1919-2005 / was a professor of Communication and one of the
founders of cultivation theory

In the recommendation of the european parliament and of the council on key
competences for lifelong learning / Brussels, 10.11.2005 COM(2005)548 final was
mention very clear that: ‘The Lisbon European Council in March 2000 recognised
that Europe faces challenges in adapting to globalisation and the shift to knowledge-
based economies”. It stressed that "Every European citizen must be equipped with the
skills needed to live and work in this new information society" and that "a European
framework should define the new basic skills* to be provided through lifelong
learning: IT skills, foreign languages, technological culture, entrepreneurship and
social skills".
The recognition that people are Europe's most important asset for growth and
employment was clear in 2000, and has been regularly restated, most recently in the
relaunched Lisbon Strategy and at the European Council of March 2005, which called
for increased investment in education and skills.”
As far as the progress of the implementation of this task, given into The Lisbon
Strategy, was not reached in a satisfactory way “The mandate was reiterated and
developed in the "Education and Training 2010" work programme (ET2010) adopted
by the Barcelona Council in March 2002, which also called for further action to
"improve the mastery of basic skills"* and to strengthen the European dimension in
education. This work was to focus on identifying the basic skills and how,together
with traditional skills, they can be better integrated in the curricula, learned, and
maintained through life. Basic skills should be genuinely available for everyone,
including for those with special needs, school drop-outs and adult learners. Validation
of basic skills should be promoted to support further learning and employability. The
Commission Communication on lifelong learning (2001) and the subsequent Council
Resolution (June 2002) also stressed the need to provide lifelong learning
opportunities for all, particularly to acquire and update basic skills.

Based on this political mandate, context of Education and Training 2010 work
programme, has developed a framework of key competences** needed in a
knowledge society and prepared with a number of recommendations on ensuring that
all citizens can acquire them***. The 2004 Joint Interim report of the Council and the
Commission on the progress of the Education and Training 2010 work
programme**** made the case for common European references and principles to
support national policies, facilitate and encourage reform, and gave priority to the key
competences framework.
 As a reference tool European Reference Framework***** facilitate national and
European level effort towards commonly agreed objectives.

Further a 2006 CEDEFOP report suggested that by 2010 only 15 % of newly created
jobs will be for people with basic schooling, whereas 50% will require highly skilled
                                          50


workers. International surveys such as IALS (the International Adult Literacy Survey)
show that in many European countries a considerable share of the adult population
does not have the reading and writing skills necessary to function in society, and early
school leavers are

* ‘Basic skills’ is generally taken to refer to literacy and numeracy; the Lisbon
Council called for adding the new skills needed in a knowledge society such as ICT
and entrepreneurship.
** The Working Group preferred the term ‘competence’ that refers to a combination
of knowledge, skills and attitudes and ‘key competence’ to define competences
necessary for all. It thus includes basic skills, but goes beyond them.
***Working group on Basic skills, progress reports 2003, 2004:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/policies/2010/objectives_en.html#basic
**** Joint Interim Report, Council document 6905/04 of March 2004.
***** The annex of the Recommendation, the ‘Key Competences for Lifelong
Learning – A European Framework’ is a revised version of the key competences
framework developed by the Working Group on basic skills.
Although rates of illiteracy in Europe appear relatively low, no society is immune to
this phenomenon and there are a number of minorities among whom illiteracy is a
major problem. The 2005 data on European reference levels (‘benchmarks’), adopted
by the Council in May 20036, show no progress since 2000 in reducing the
percentage of low achievers in reading literacy at age 15, or in raising the completion
rate for upper-secondary education. Progress towards achieving other reference levels
is also too low: at current rates early school leaving would drop to 14% by 2010 while
the reference level is 10%. Adult participation in education and training is growing
only by 0.1-0.2 percentage points a year which will not lead to achieving the reference
level of 12.5% by 2010. Moreover, data show that low skilled people are less likely to
participate in further training, making it harder to support those who need it most.
So, the ‘Key Competences for Lifelong Learning – A European Reference
Framework’ includes knowledge, skills and attitudes that lead people to be more
involved in both sustainable development and democratic citizenship.
The Communication of the Commission on lifelong learning and the subsequent
Council Resolution of 27 June 2002 on lifelong learning identified “the new basic
skills” as a priority, and underline the fundamental basic skills of language, literacy,
numeracy and ICT as an essential foundation for learning, and learning to learn
supports all learning activities.
On the first place in the European Reference Framework of eight key competences* is
mention
- Communication in the mother tongue. * * This skill is described as “an ability to
    express and interpret thoughts, feelings and facts in both oral and written form
    (listening, speaking, reading and writing), and to interact linguistically in an
    appropriate way in the full range of societal and cultural contexts — education
    and training, work, home and leisure.
The future teachers should have the skills to communicate in oral and written forms in
a variety of communicative situations and to monitor and adapt their own
communication to the requirements of the situation.This skills also includes the
abilities to write and read different types of texts, search, collect and process
information, use aids, formulate and express one’s own arguments in a convincing
way appropriate to the context.
                                           51


All levels of educational system in Bulgaria communicating in Bulgarian language.
Bulgarian language is official for all citizens of the country. But minorities are
encouraged to learn their own mother tongue at school level. In the curricula there are
lessons on different minority’s languages as a separate subject and student from this
ethnic society can choose to learn his own mother tongue. Bulgarian language is
compulsory for all levels of educational system.
Knowledge of societal conventions, and the cultural aspect and variability of
languages is important. That’s way next key competence in the Framework is
Communication in foreign languages. These skills should be broadly shares the main
skill dimensions of communication in the mother tongue: it is based on the ability to
understand, express and interpret thoughts, feelings and facts in both oral and that
ability to communicate in an official language is a pre-condition for ensuring full
participation of the individual in society. Measures to address such cases are a matter
for individual Member States according to their specific needs and circumstances.
- and written form (listening, speaking, reading and writing) in an appropriate range
    of societal contexts — work, home, leisure, education and training — according to
    one’s wants or needs. Communication in foreign languages also calls for skills
    such as mediation and intercultural understanding.
Learning additional foreign languages requires knowledge of vocabulary and
functional grammar and an awareness of the main types of verbal interaction and
registers of languages.

These skills consist of the ability to understand spoken messages, to initiate, sustain
and conclude conversations and to read and understand texts appropriate to the
personal’s needs.
Individuals should also be able to use aids appropriately, and learn languages also
informally.
Learning more foreign languages, future European teachers will be more informed
about other European culture and history, will have an explanation of cultural
differences and diversity, and will developed their interest and curiosity in languages
and intercultural communication.
____________________________________________________
*http://europa.eu/legislation
summaries/education_training_youth/lifelong_learning/c11090en.htm
**It is recognised that the mother tongue may not in all cases be an official language
of the Member State,

Language learning In view of the importance of learning two foreign languages from
an early age, as highlighted in the March 2002 Barcelona European Council
conclusions, the Commission is invited to submit to the Council – by the end of 2012
- a proposal for a possible benchmark in this area, based on the ongoing work on
language skills as a possibility to be more flexible on the European labour market
In the Programme for Developing the Bulgarian Educational System 2007-2013 was
written that one of the strategic goals and challenge is “Encouraging young people to
remain in education or training after the end of compulsory schooling, motivating and
enabling adults to participate in learning more foreign languages and gain experience
in initial digital skills throughout life.” Future teachers in Europe have to be ready to
communicate not only in their mother tongue, but to know and use one or more
languages and to exchange good practices and work together with colleagues form
                                          52


other European countries. Learning languages and getting computer skills are main
tasks of Bulgarian educational system on the pre-school and the school level.
As a method to reach this aim is suggesting
- Encouraging everyone to learn two or, where appropriate, more languages in
    addition to their mother tongue, and increasing awareness of the importance of
    foreign language learning at all ages;
- Encouraging schools and training institutions to use effective teaching and training
methods, and motivating continuation of language learning at a later stage of life.
As it was mention above, education plays a key role in transforming the European
Union (EU) into a world-leading knowledge-based society and economy. Since the
adoption of the Lisbon Strategy in 2000, political cooperation in education and
training has been strengthened – first by the “Education and Training 2010” work
programme, followed-up by the strategic framework for European cooperation in
education and training “ET 2020”. . Through education, training and youth
programmes, the European Union is developing the European dimension, promoting
mobility and encouraging cooperation. The Union supports and complements Member
States’ actions in accordance with articles 165 and 166 of the Treaty on the
Functioning of the European Union.
But all we know that, the future European teachers have the key role in this ambitious
project relating to the school level of the Educational system. They have to prepare
student on all levels for the labour market and to realize their own abilities in the
society. Teachers have to identified the specific needs and respond to them, support
their development to fully autonomous persons and help young people to reach their
potentions. Meanwhile, future teachers have to develop their own carrier abilities and
stay tune to all good practice in their subject, to be more flexible for the labour
market. And here, the most important is, to prepare to work in close collaboration
with colleagues, partners and the wider communities in different countries. To reach
this goals future European teacher have to cultivate his own communication skills,
bought in language and digital level.

As all we know, the information society is synonymous with what is meant by "new
information and communication technologies" (ICT). Since the beginning of the 90s,
the new ICT have been booming. The universal use of electronic exchanges of
information, convergence towards digital technologies, the exponential growth of the
Internet and the opening up of telecommunications markets are all signs of this
change.
The information society is revolutionising many areas of everyday life, particularly
access to training and knowledge (distance learning, e-learning related services), work
organisation and mobilisation of skills (teleworking, virtual companies), practical life
(e-health services) and leisure. It is also providing new opportunities in terms of
participation of citizens by making it easier to express opinions and points of view.
However, these positive advances go hand-in-hand with new concerns: mass use of
the Internet means that steps have to be taken against new criminal behaviour,
pirating, and questions of protection of personal data and intellectual property.
Moreover, the information society may contribute to the marginalisation of certain
sections of society by emphasising social inequalities.
In the light of these potential benefits and threats, the European Union has placed the
information society at the heart of its strategy for the 21st century.
Having in mind this here you will see as next communication skills
                                          53


-   Digital communication or digital literacy. These skills involve the confident and
    critical use of Information Society Technology (IST) for work, leisure and
    communication. It is underpinned by basic skills in ICT: the use of computers to
    retrieve, assess, store, produce, present and exchange information, and to
    communicate and participate in collaborative networks via the Internet.

Digital competence requires a sound understanding and knowledge of the nature, role
and opportunities of IST in everyday contexts: in personal and social life as well as at
work. This includes main computer applications such as word processing,
spreadsheets, databases, information storage and management, and an understanding
of the opportunities of Internet and communication via electronic media (e-mail,
network tools) for leisure, information sharing and collaborative networking, learning
and research. Individuals should also understand how IST can support creativity and
innovation, and be aware of issues around the validity and reliability of information
available and the ethical principles of in the interactive use of IST.
Skills needed include: the ability to search, collect and process information and use it
in a critical and systematic way, assessing relevance and distinguishing real from
virtual while recognising the links. Individuals should have skills to use tools to
produce, present and understand complex information and the ability to access, search
and use internet-based services; they should also be able use IST to support critical
thinking, creativity, and innovation.
Use of IST requires a critical and reflective attitude towards available information and
a responsible use of the interactive media; an interest in engaging in communities and
networks for cultural, social and/or professional purposes also supports competence.

Use mother tongue and foreign language as well as digital communication skills to
interact effectively and responsibly in a multicultural context as strategic goal in a
multicultural European context to work collaboratively, solve problems, and perform
tasks. Only this skills and strategies can organize to communicate intercultural.

Now we can say that the communication as a target skill of the future European
teachers is very important, because trough it they can:
    • make informed choices to adjust learning and career paths to the labour
       markets and their own needs
    • - combine different education and training types and levels, work and life
       experience and have them assessed and recognised their own interest.
    • - easily understood, reflect and value varied learning experiences.
    • - get the good practice and collaborate with the colleagues from other
       European schools in partnerships as projects, internships, conferences,
       workshops, etc.
    • -this way their knowledge, skills and competence became their treasure
       capital/ or ‘currency’ values.
    • - improve the European linguistic diversity in the Educational system and to
       encourage the small languages and dialects to develop.
    • - use the ICT technologies as a method for innovation of new didactic creative
       practices.
    In the end we can say that communication skills are kind of social skills.90 % of
    our time is mainly communication with students, colleagues and the society.
    These social skills are affected very little by the nature or genetic personal
                                         54


   characteristics. They are such kind of skills, which we can cultivate in specific
   social conditions. Lisbon strategy is giving the methodology how to achieve this
   formally:
   • - cultivating ability to speak and read in mother tongue meaning small
       languages and dialects
   • - cultivating interest in learning more than one foreign languages
   • - cultivating digital professional skills
These way communication skills for the future European teachers become not only a
skills but powerful value. Communication skills help to develop our critical thinking
and understand Global process and world reality.
We need to strengthen those communication skills required to engage in further
learning and the labour market which are often closely interrelated. This means
further developing communication skills as key competences approach beyond the
school sector, in VET and adult learning, and ensuring that higher education outcomes
are more relevant to the needs of the labour market. It will set up the communication
as a target skill to reach the flexible mobility of the future European teachers.
As we see, the strategic goal standing here is to make better use of existing
communication skills for the future European teachers, to expand them according to
the new global changes in the World, to up- skill the present teachers to be ready to
face the future. Because the communication skills are linking our present and the
future!
Partnership between education institutions and the wider world, especially the world
of work, should be enhanced at all levels through development of the communication
skills/ verbal, non-verbal and digital/. Such partnerships would gather education and
training practitioners, businesses and civil society bodies, national and regional
authorities with a common agenda and within a lifelong learning perspective.
Partnerships would also create new opportunities for learning mobility.
Cultivate communication skills of our future European teachers will help them to
think globally and communicate more open!

Thank you for your attention!




                                 BIBLIOGRAPHY
DOCUMENTS

   •   Decision No 1720/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of
       15 November 2006 establishing anaction programme in the field of lifelong
       learning [Official Journal L 327 of 24 November 2006].
                                         55


   •   "Education and Training 2010" The success of the Lisbon strategy hinges on
       urgent reforms - Joint interim report of the Council and the Commission on
       the implementation of the detailed work programme on the follow-up of the
       objectives of education and training systems in Europe [Official Journal C 104
       of 30 April 2004].
   •   Communication from the Commission - "Education and Training 2010": The
       success of the Lisbon Strategy hinges on urgent reforms (Draft joint interim
       report on the implementation of the detailed work programme on the follow-
       up of the objectives of education and training systems in Europe) COM(2003)
       685 final - Not published in the Official Journal].
   •   Communication from the Commission of 20 November 2002 on European
       benchmarks in education and training: follow-up to the Lisbon European
       Council [COM(2002) 629final - Not published in the Official Journal].
   •   Detailed work programme on the follow-up of the objectives of education and
       training systems in Europe [Official Journal C 142/01 of 14.06.2002].
   •   2010 joint progress report of the Council and the Commission on the
       implementation of the “Education & Training 2010” work programme – ‘Key
       competences for a changing world’ [Official Journal C 117 of 6.5.2010].
   •   PROPOSAL FOR A DECISION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT
       AND OF THE COUNCIL CONCERNING THE EUROPEAN YEAR OF
       CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION (2009) , Brussels, 28.3.2008
       COM(2008) 159 final 2008/0064 (COD)
       (PRESENTED           BY       THE       COMMISSION)           EXPLANATORY
       MEMORANDUM
   •   http//eur-
       lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.douri=COM20080159FINENPD
   •   Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 18
       December 2006, on key competences for lifelong learning [Official Journal L
       394 of 30.12.2006].
   •   Council conclusions on the European Indicator of Language Competence (OJ
       C 172,
   •   25.7.2006, p.
Resources

   •   The American Communication Journal (American Communication
       Association)
   •   Communication Institute for Online Scholarship
   •   Mind, Culture, and Activity (UCSD)
   •   CIOS Communication Institute for Online Scholarship Journal Index System
   •   Readings in Mass Communication Theory (Denis McQuail)
   •   Communication Theory (Bob Craig)
   •   Communication Studies (Bob Craig)
   •   Communication Studies (Mick Underwood) related links
   •   Communication Theory (Ron Wright and Mary Flores)
   •   CogWeb (Francis Steen) review (by Bianca Floyd)
   •   Studies in Communication Science (Eddo Rigotti, editor-in-chief)
   •   Focus on Communications Theory (Allyn & Bacon Puplishers)
   •   Bybee (2001) Communication Theory and Criticism
   •   Lever-Duffy, McDonald, and Mizell. What is Communications Theory?
                                        56


   •   Roth (1999) The Evolution of Umwelt and Communication PDF
   •   Carey, James. 1988 Communication as Culture.
   •   Cohen, Herman. 1994. The History of Speech Communication: The
       Emergence of a Discipline, 1914-1945. Annandale, VA: Speech
       Communication Association.
   •   Packer, J. & Robertson, C, eds. 2006. Thinking with James Carey: Essays on
       Communications, Transportation, History.
   •   Peters, John Durham and Peter Simonson, eds. 2004. Mass Communication
       and American Social Thought: Key Texts 1919-1968.
   •   Wahl-Jorgensen, Karin 2004, 'How Not to Found a Field: New Evidence on
       the Origins of Mass Communication Research', Journal of Communication,
       September 2004.

See also: History of Communication Research Bibliography
http://www.historyofcommunicationresearch.org/about/
                                           57


               INITIAL TEACHER EDUCATION IN PORTUGAL

                                  By Liseth Ferreira

ABSTRACT
        The new generation is growing up in a rapidly changing world, and will live
and work in fundamentally different ways from their parents. The student population
is increasingly diverse, and in many cases teachers are expected to achieve the same
predetermined goals for every student regardless of their different learning needs,
starting points and prior experiences. Thus teachers have to be both knowledgeable in
their content areas and extremely skilful in a wide range of teaching approaches to
cater for the diverse learning needs of every student.
        Teacher’s education must be in the position to prepare teachers to work in
emerging, and yet to be known contexts, and to select entrants most likely to develop
as much quality teachers with the ability to work effectively within the rapidly
changing societal and schooling context of teacher’s work.
        The teacher training program provides conditions for trainees to practice in a
school the roles of teacher, being closely monitored by local supervisors and scientific
coordinators. So due to the challenges of rapid transformation of society, new
technologies, new work places, new citizenships and the need for pedagogical and
curriculum innovation all actors of the educational process must be prepared to face
them.

Keywords: teacher education, internship, university and school relationship.

INTRODUCTION
        Nowadays young people are growing up in a rapidly changing world, and will
live and work in fundamentally different ways from their parents. Traditional notions
of nation and community, work, citizenship and family are changing. Hence, the work
of teachers, the process of schooling, and the preparation of new entrants to the
profession as well as the ongoing development of those in the profession, are all
changing.
        Teachers are charged with providing a foundation for life in these new,
complex, diverse and uncertain economic and social environments. They must address
issues relating to the emergence of new citizenships and identities, and the impact of
new technologies and new economies. They need to help students develop skills and
knowledge for the economy and for lifelong learning (OCDE, 1996). In addition, they
aim to provide intellectual challenge and connect student work to their biographies
and to the world outside the classroom.
        Therefore teacher’s work is increasingly becoming embedded in communities,
both inside and external to the school. Being a teacher in the 21st century goes beyond
work in the classroom; it requires an understanding of the multiple contexts of
teaching, the multiple players in education, and the diverse roles of the teacher. It also
involves ongoing professional learning in the form of further study, participation in
professional development programs, and engagement in professional school-based
learning communities.

The relevance of the teacher training program on teacher’s education
       To become a teacher in Portugal it must be done the two-year teacher training
program which combines educational, professional and academic studies with one
                                           58


year of school-based teaching practice (internship) on their respective scientific
specialty. Since trainee teachers are ‘insiders’ who already have a strong sense of
what it means to be a teacher, they begin their programs with well established and
resilient beliefs about teaching and learning (Britzman D., 1991; Wideen M., 1998).
Therefore, from their exposure to the programme, trainees gain an understanding of
the theoretical foundations for good teaching practice in which they learn to develop
strategies to deal with diverse student’s needs and also teach those to approach
designing units for effective instruction, having the opportunity to apply those in
practice in the last year of the training program.
        A better adequacy of the program depends largely on increasing the quality of
teacher’s training pedagogical methods. This improvement involves a focus on
general teaching practice and in particular to the program itself, pursued through
different activities including observation, analysis and accountability of trainee’s
teaching activities which are targeted for their skill’s development, understood not as
a set of micro-skills acquired but as a holistic reality where knowledge, capabilities,
attitudes and adequacy levels of intent are evaluated, additionally all expressed in a
set of interpersonal and institutional relationships that will determine a competent
performance of the teaching career.
        Nobody will deny that having education at the scientific specialty
corresponding to the discipline of teaching (or disciplines) is indispensable. However,
along university education the future teachers do not always recognize the importance
of pedagogical training, including the competency to teach and relationship skills with
students. They only (or almost only) recognize its critical importance when faced with
the multiple and complex situations of the school where the internship takes place. As
referred by Ponte et al. (Ponte J. et al., 2000) "is not enough for a teacher to know
theories, perspectives and research findings. Must be able to build appropriate
solutions to the various aspects of their professional role, which requires not only the
capacity of mobilization and articulation of theoretical knowledge, but also the ability
to deal with practical situations”, which trainees contact for the first time during their
internship.
        Training programs often include site-, problem- and enquiry-based approaches
in an attempt to address the so called theory-practice divide, and use information and
communication technologies to enhance teaching and learning processes. The
knowledge base for teaching typically encompasses knowledge of content, learners
and learning, general pedagogy, pedagogical content knowledge, curriculum, context,
and self (Grossman P., 1994) although being definitive about this is somewhat
problematic (Hiebert J. et al., 2002).
        Consequently, the training program creates conditions for autonomy given that
provides different possibilities of approaching to the educational context where
trainees develop the necessary skills of the practice through the participation in
multiple activities at the school, by acquiring experience in the field of didactics and
also, trough the review and critical evaluation of the various educational strategies
adopted. The program is also essential for the construction of the professional identity
of the future teacher since allows the integration of theoretical knowledge and
procedures and its necessary approach to situations arising the professional practice.
Consequently the personal and relational dimension, as well as the institutional and
organizational are appreciated.
        Thus the training program is important since provides conditions for trainees
to practice in a school the roles of teacher, which are closely monitored by local
supervisors, who are teachers from the same scientific specialty of the school where
                                            59


the internship takes place, all supervise by university PhD professors (called as
scientific coordinators, counsellors or supervisors, where each designation is adopted
according to the use and not with the law).
         However, it must be recognized that the practical component of training
overshadows, in an undesirable way, the theoretical component. Some of the key
criticisms of initial teacher education often referred are:
- The relevance and quality of the course work provided by universities (‘theory’)
     as distinct from the component of practical experience in schools (‘practice’);
- The lack of preparedness by many trainees to handle the complexities of student’s
     behaviour, the diversity of individual student’s learning needs, including
     combined year level classes and culturally different groups, relations with parents,
     assessment and evaluation, and the capability required to quickly mobilise classes
     into effective centres of enthusiastic learning;
- The trainees supervision is done more directly by school supervisors in which, by
     the condition of everyday practice, tend to put more emphasis on finding solutions
     to immediate problems than the theoretical reflection on educational issues;
- The lack of institutional recognition for the training coordination tasks developed
     by university professors, which are probably better prepared to foster pedagogical
     reflection.
         Despite the negative aspects referred above, the training program is important
for universities because “force” this institution to relate with other levels of education,
with whom, before legally take the initial teacher’s education, relationships were
almost nonexistent. The observation and evaluation of trainee’s activities in loco by a
scientific coordinator provides an unique opportunity where some of the deficiencies
in the scientific and pedagogical skills previously acquired can be shown and may be
taken into consideration (or rather should be) for restructuration of university
curriculum. So, schools are vital communities of learning and drivers of change that
universities should have to take into consideration.

MACRO-STRUCTURAL CONDITIONS OF THE SCHOOL-BASED TEACHING
TRAINING (INTERNSHIP)
       Among the macro-structural conditions are noted the inadequacy of law
regarding the human resources at schools, highlighting in this framework, the
ambiguity of the status of the trainee teacher, the need for a deeper reflection about
“numeri clausi” of university courses offering teacher education and also the
conditions for recruitment and respective profile of a supervisor and scientific
coordinator.

    Inappropriateness of current legislation
        At beginning of the seventies, when universities legally took initial teachers
education the proliferation of regulatory legislation have been then initiated. Although
universities didn’t adopt a single model for teacher training, between that diversity
remained one characteristic in common: the existence of one academic year or
equivalent, for the school-based teaching training (internship). In all cases it is about
teaching practice, not remunerated, in a school (Basic Education and/or Secondary
Education) at their respective scientific specialty disciplines which concludes all the
knowledge obtained in previous years in an integrative way (knowledge from
scientific specialty, disciplinary didactics and pedagogical training).
        The status of the trainee teacher is another complex problem which needs to be
addressed. Currently trainees are both university students and teachers, which create
                                           60


an ambiguous situation. At university they have the rights and obligations as all other
students, at school they are like all other teachers on the beginning of career, with the
same obligations and additionally unpaid. This situation arises, most likely from the
establishment of this model by other precedent models in which the trainee must
compulsorily be graduated and nominated by the administration as a contracted
teacher. The situation of teachers on initial training is nowadays distinct since they
maintain a relation with the university which didn't happen with the precedent models.

     Number of trainees versus numerus clausus
        Another important problem faced by universities is related to the rupture of the
relationship between the numbers of vacancies opened to tender by the Ministry of
Education, dictated by the number of students attending these disciplines (scientific
specialty) in primary and secondary education and also, related to the number of
students attending university courses in a given scientific specialty.
        Over the past 30 years, and especially in the last 20 years, there were profound
structural changes in Portugal’s educational system, wherein are highlighted the
significant demographic decrease at ages of compulsory education (and even
secondary) and the expansion of access to a higher education which has brought
complex problems to initial teacher education. The general recession of the school
population, plus the disentanglement of old schools in which the 3rd cycle of basic
education was separated from secondary education leads to a serious imbalance, since
it wasn’t considered the restructuring of the human resources, namely teachers. This
situation is echoed necessarily on the organization of internships. The regulations, that
still are outdated, determine that each school must have three different groups of
scientific specialties with a core of three to five trainees maximum in which each
trainee must teach (preferably) two different levels (3rd cycle of basic education and
secondary education) in their local supervisor’s classes and also to participate at
school’s multidisciplinary activities.
        It must be considered that universities will face strong pressure from its
students; since an overwhelming number of students choose the teaching career and
most of them have the inability to obtain a vacancy for an internship. In the case of
undergraduates who have specialization in education, the problem is even worse since
the internship is an integral part of the course, thus without undertaking it, students do
not obtain the degree. Therefore, the numeri clausi can not be set for the internship,
but early in the beginning of the degree. Being a problem indirectly related to
internships, this topic couldn’t be ignored in this document.

    Profile and recruitment of school advisors and scientific coordinators
        The internship training is in charge of local supervisors (school teachers, from
their respective scientific specialty) and to scientific coordinators (university PhD
professors).
        Universities are fully responsible for the enrolment of scientific coordinators
as for the assessment of their pedagogical activity. It is noted that their tasks are not
clearly defined by law and that they vary greatly from institution to institution, and
within each one, from course to course. As a general rule, coordinators are required to
attend trainee’s classes and observe their pedagogical and scientific performance
closely, while in other cases its main function is to coordinate at distance and to
instruct of local supervisors. The intent to assign internship’s scientific coordination
to PhD professors, expressed by governmental order (Law n. º 85/2009 from august
27th) and in internal regulations of some universities is not always fulfilled because
                                           61


some are regular school teachers requested by universities with a precarious
association and, in some cases, without adequate theoretical and pedagogical
education.
        The selection of local supervisors is defined by laws that regulate initial
teacher’s education in various universities, although it is necessary to specify the
basic conditions that are essential so recruitment can be done. Indeed, talking about
recruitment it is implied a good fit to a certain function, but universities are placed in
front of offers for supervisors that they don’t even realize. In accordance with the 14th
article, 2nd item from diploma n.º 659/88 of Setember 29th, local advisors are
appointed by order of the “Regional Education Directorate” once obtained the consent
of the teacher and the school where he will perform such duties. The involvement of
universities on the choice of local supervisors happens when those are informally
invited to apply for the position, or to keep those functions when they are already
linked to previous internships. However these informal invitations are not always
accepted for three main reasons: Most of schools don’t have timetables to offer for
trainees; second Regional Departments of Education do not always consider
university’s choices, not often giving to know the criteria they use and, finally, it must
take into consideration the competition between public and private universities, since
those offer a better monetary compensation (nearly triple what is received by
scientific coordinators from public universities).
        The important role of local supervisors on teacher’s training has to be
emphasized. Along the university courses, none professor accompanies the students
(future teachers) so closely or even have as much as a direct intervention on their
training (for good or bad) in addition, it must be considered the enormous importance
of their evaluation on internship.
        In order to solve this impasse concerning the selection, profile’s definition and
the maintenance of school counsellors, partnerships can be done between universities
and certain schools.

    Articulation between Universities and Schools
         As already emphasized, one of the advantages of internships, is the fruitful
interaction between Schools and Universities. There is strong, general agreement that
a greater concentration on the school experience component would be beneficial; this
reflects contemporary views and developments in many industrialised countries as
reported in a study by the OECD (OECD, 2004) on attracting, developing and
retaining effective teachers. What is not clear is how this can be achieved under
present arrangements. Arguably, more radical solutions are needed, including new
models of teacher education grounded in equal and fully operational partnerships
between schools, universities and Employers.
         These partnerships, which should lead to the drafting of joint work, would
necessarily have validity periods longer than one year, being offered by universities
counterparts to these schools. It must be considered that this contribution has many
advantages since would contribute for the stability of internships, but the progressive
reduction of the number of students and classes, the mobility of faculty and the lack of
tradition from universities to organize scientific and educational projects with schools
may place difficulties on its settlement. In addition, this situation creates a several
institutional disjoint due to the diversity of actors involved in the educational process
(Ministry of Education with emphasis to the Regional Departments of Education
involved in the choice of local supervisors and for the placement of trainees,
Departments of the Ministry, Schools and through these, other participants such as
                                            62


parents and others are social partners) and to the lack of habit on those relationships
that force to break longstanding inertia. It is clear that over the years some of the
obstacles have been overcome, however, remains indispensable to the universities that
instruct teachers to enclose the necessary internal and external conditions for such.
         The modification of this elitist attitude from universities, adapted to its role as
socially useful, is not simple. It is being imposed externally by the creation of
INAFOP (National Institute of Accreditation and Education of Teachers) and legal
recognition of its competence which have not yet been internalized by most
institutions of higher education. Should be INAFOP to impose the necessary
discussion of how the path of training teachers, with many implications that flows
from it? It seems desirable that Universities should take a more responsible attitude
towards the assignment of training teachers, which is far from being achieved. The
CRUP (Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities) might have a decisive role in
inducing and promoting reflection about teacher’s training in universities, including in
this component (perhaps the most crucial for professional practice) the school-based
practice which shouldn’t be regarded exclusively as the year of internship but along
the course.

CONCLUSION
         The quality, responsiveness and satisfaction levels of Portugal´s future
teachers are heavily dependent on their experience of initial education and training. It
is increasingly clear that teachers have to be successful with a wide range of learners
in order to prepare future citizens with the sophisticated skills needed to participate in
a knowledge-based society. Within this rapidly changing environment, teacher
education must be in the position of preparing teachers to work in emerging and yet to
be known contexts, and to select entrants most likely to develop as quality teachers
with the ability to work effectively within the rapidly changing societal and schooling
context of teacher’s work.
         Like teachers in schools, scientific coordinators face the challenges of rapid
change, new technologies, new work places, new citizenships and the need for
pedagogical and curriculum innovation. In order to achieve this, universities must
have to work in partnerships with schools and redefine the work of university and
school-based teacher education. These include funding, internal decision-making
procedures that may be university-wide, organisation of supervision, and gaining the
active involvement of a sufficient number of suitable schools for placement of student
teachers. This collaboration involves several aspects previously discussed, in which
are highlight:
         The urgent restructuring of initial teacher education, being adapted to new
realities of primary and secondary education, and standardizing as far as possible
several models of initial teaching education courses and training programs,
particularly the aspects related to the duration of the teacher training program;
         The improvement of schools where internships are held; actors and
attributions from entities responsible for the assignment of internships supervisors and
scientific coordinators; local supervisor’s and scientific coordinator’s profiles (also
their duties and remuneration); trainee’s statutes; forms of progressive integration of
future teacher trainees in schools along the academic education; numerus clausus of
initial teacher education courses and conditions under which trainees can access to the
training program and their respective evaluation.
         Because the initial teacher education is very important for some universities is
also imperative to obtain reliable indicators about teacher’s needs in a short to
                                           63


medium term, and also its wide dissemination among the candidates to and within
universities.
        The solution of these problems related to initial teacher education is still on
the diversification of career opportunities and restructuring university courses in
larger extent, with the possibility of a bi-disciplinary training for teachers and better
opportunities for teacher’s mobility between levels of education.
        And finally, advocating an education of excellence, carefree about quantity,
but concerned to a broad debate about the role of social institutions responsible for
teacher education.
        As a final note, while there are strong grounds for confidence overall about the
future of the teaching profession, there are many specific weaknesses to address
through collective, collaborative action. This is also a rare opportunity, due to the
coming separation rate, for more fundamental reflection about who can and should
teach and the ways in which the formation of teachers and high quality teaching can
contribute to shaping the career’s future.

                                     REFERENCES*
   -           Britzman, D. (1991). Practice makes practice: A critical study of
       learning to teach. Albany NY: State University of New York Press.
   -           Grossman, P. (1994). Teacher’s knowledge. Oxford: T. Husen & T. N.
       Postlethwaite (Eds.), The international encyclopaedia of education, 6117-6122.
   -           Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Stigler, J. (2002). A knowledge base for the
       teaching profession: What would it look like and how can we get one?
       Educational Researcher, 31(5), 5-15.
   -           Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - OECD
       (1996). Lifelong Learning for All. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-
       operation and Development (OECD).
   -           Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - OECD
       (2004). Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers. Mimeo.
   -           PONTE, J., JANUÁRIO, C., CRUZ, I., ALARCÃO, I. (2000). Por uma
       formação inicial de qualidade. Lisbon: Essay document from “ad hoc” council
       from CRUP for teacher’s education.
   -           Wideen, M., Mayer-Smith, J., Moon, B. (1998). A critical analysis of the
       research on learning to teach: Making a case for an ecological perspective on
       inquiry. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 130-178.
                                          64



TEACHERS IN THE SCHOOLS THAT ARE IN CONTACT TO THE WORK
                        LABOUR

                              By Vaida Aleknaviciene


ABSTRACT
This paper describes the importance for schools and teachers to keep contact with
various companies. It gives some advice how teachers can cooperate with associated
partners and at the same time some advice why is it good for a teacher and a school. A
short survey presents why employers reject young workers and what do they hope
from schools. Teachers place in vocational schools and their work.
Proefesionalization-what does it mean nowadays. Policy of Vocational Education and
Training.

Key words: teachers, work labour, associated partners,                      employers,
professionalization, VET (vocational education and training).

        Nowadays it is very important for each school to prepare a child for labour
market. People working at school should inform students from early childhood about
different professions that children could see and get acquainted with most of them.
That would help them to find out what they are most interested in and what they
would like to do in future. It is possible to devide teachers into two groups: the ones
who work in General Education Schools (Primary Schools, High Schools,
Gymnasiums) and the ones who work in Vocational Schools.
Teachers from general Education Schools should not only teach pupils but try to
inform them with all possible professions (through various projects, meetings with
various people, visiting different companies, etc)
Teachers who work in vocational schools are more related with work labour. There
come students who already have chosen what to study. For a teacher working in such
a school it is very important to keep contact with employers in order to prepare good
employees. The National Assocciation of Manufacturers (NAM) conducted a survey
why so many young applicants are rejected by companies (NAM, 2006):

        From the survey you can see that even 69% of employers marked “Inadequate
basic employability skills (attendance, timeliness, work ethic, etc.)”. 34% marked
“Insufficient work experience”. It means that we should take care of helping students
to get some work experience while they are studying. Some of them lack reading,
writing, math skills. 12% marked “Inability to work in a team environment”. 11%
marked “Inadequate problem-solving skills” and “Inadequate technical/computer
skills”.The worst thing here is that even 8% marked “Lack of degree or vocational
training”. It means that teachers do not prepare students for labour market quite good.
In order to prepare good workers schools and teachers have to keep in contact with
various companies constantly.
                                                                                      65


                          69,00%

  70,00%


  60,00%


  50,00%
                                       34,00%
                                                  32,00%
  40,00%

                                                             21,00%      20,00%
  30,00%
                                                                                      18,00%
                                                                                               12,00% 11,00%         11,00%
  20,00%
                                                                                                                                   8,00%   7,00%
                                                                                                                                                   4,00%
  10,00%


  0,00%

   Inadequate basic employability skills (attendance, timeliness, work ethic, etc.)        Insufficient work experience
   Inadequate reading/writing skills                                                       Inadequate math skills
   Poor references from previous employers                                                 Inadequate oral-communication skills
   Inability to work in a team environment                                                 Inadequate problem-solving skills
   Inadequate technical/computer skills                                                    Lack of degree or vocational training
   Problems with citizenship/immigration status                                            Other



The ways to keep in contact with companies;
    1. To invite various employers from you region to the school to meet students;
    2. To make good relations with companies where students do their practice;
    3. To involve employers to school’s social life;
    4. to find out if there are employers who some years ago were your students;
    5. To make excursions to various companies;
    6. To involve companies as associated partners in various projects;
    7. To encourage teachers to keep in contact with companies;
Why is it good for a teacher to keep in contact with various companies:
    1. It helps to get acquainted with real work situation nowadays;
    2. It helps to find out what is needed in labour market;
    3. It motivates to increase one’s knowledge and keep up to date;
    4. You can get new material for teaching;
    5. You can visit the company with your students;
    6. You can help your students to find a place for practice training;
    7. You better know what skills are required from young workers, etc
    As we see teachers get a lof of benefit from being in contact with companies. And
they should do it because:
    • Teachers should develop career-focused instruction that links school-based
       learning with work opportunities.
    • Teachers should emphasize career development activities and provide
       foundation skills, which help prepare students for transition to work and
       further education.
    • Teachers should participate in the planning of work-based learning programs.
    • Teachers should work with employers to develop the learning potential.
    As we can see to be a teacher in a vocational school requires some different
challenges. First of all if people want to be hired in the field of vocational education,
teachers must have mastered the trade to be taught. They are often recruited from the
world of industry and business. People who choose to become vocational education
                                           66


teachers have generally completed some kind of vocational or technical training, and
have mastered their trade or specialty on the job. When they move to teaching, they
do not always have access to pedagogical support or skills upgrading, whether in a
vocational education centre or an industrial setting. But the recruitment of qualified
staff to teach in the vocational education sector involves several difficulties, mainly
connected with the lack of qualified teachers in several training areas, the precarious
nature of the positions available in vocational education, and the gap, often large,
between the wages paid in the business sector and those paid in the field of education.
But we all understand that we need professionals as the face of teaching has changed
several times during the centuries. The makeshift teachers of the period prior to the
17th century and the tradesmen-teachers of the following three centuries were
replaced by the scientific teachers of the 20th century. In parallel, and also over a
period of several centuries, carpenters, woodworkers, masons and other craftsmen,
organized into corporations or guilds, thus keeping the journeyman tradition alive. As
we move into the third millennium, and given the new features of the work they
perform, teachers have to be real professionals. When we talk about professional
teacher we have in mind six dimensions: the competencies required in the new
educational context, the complexity of the teaching task, the integration of training
with real-life teaching, polyvalent training, the links between training and research,
and partnership and concerted action.
     “Professionalization, insofar as it concerns the construction of a profession, refers
to practical mastery and a certain degree of rationalization of the work process. (Lang
1999). Individuals trained to be teachers do not become skilled practitioners the
moment they finish their training. Rather, they progressively acquire experience and
ongoing professional development over the years and, in certain cases, achieve a level
of expertise. Professionalization is a dynamic, continuous learning process; given the
complexity of the situations and the continually-changing professional context, it is a
process that is never completed.
     Professionalization requires a sharing of professional expertise among the
members of the group. Not only knowledge and skills are shared, but also an ethical
attitude and a shared way of approaching and dealing with situations. This shared, or
common, culture can be seen as a professional code that expresses the values, beliefs,
attitudes and work-related representations of the group.
Nevertheless the new conception of learning that gives students primary responsibility
in the learning process requires teachers to use new pedagogical approaches and ways
of dealing with students. Teachers must adapt their teaching methods to the rate of
progress of each student; they must focus on student-learners in order to redefine their
relationship to knowledge and facilitate its acquisition. Competency-based programs
of study, and the map of options, require teachers to perform some tasks differently
and to develop new competencies.
Teamwork with colleagues who come into contact with the students in the program or
teach other subjects will become especially important in developing, integrating and
evaluating competencies over periods ranging from a few days to the length of an
entire program. The new social and educational context requires recognition for the
interactive nature of teaching work (Tardif and Lessard 1999). Teachers do not work
with inert materials but with living subjects and social cases. Students today are no
longer docile beings subjected to the teachers authority; they resist the teacher.s
influence, and always want to do something else, or do it differently or at another
time: .The teacher.s knowledge no longer, in the eyes of students of whatever age,
gives him or her an unconditional right to exercise intellectual authority and obtain
                                           67


their attention, trust and obedience. Dislodged from their pedestal, teachers must, day
after day, earn the credit and influence they formerly enjoyed automatically. (Joxe
quoted in Lang 1999). Since the role of the teacher and the context of teaching have
changed, new resources (knowledge, skills, attitudes) are required to practise the
profession. Certification in a given trade is no longer the sole qualification needed in
order to be considered competent to teach. To qualify, teachers must acquire the more
complex competencies that underlie the new professionality of the teaching
profession.
         The professionalisation of teachers is the focus of the common European
Principles for Teacher Competences and Qualifications, developed in 2005 by the
European Commission in cooperation with experts from Member States. Several
policy orientations that are relevant to the professionalisation of teachers and trainers
are set out in the recent OECD publication “Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing
and Retaining Effective Teachers”.
The increasingly complex mission of VET (Vocational Education and Training) in
European countries is described. The high demands placed by this evolving mission
on VET teachers’ and trainers’ professionalism is discussed, against the apparent
reality that most qualifications requirements for VET
teachers still predominantly emphasise educational background over work-based or
technological experience. A range of issues that challenge the professionalisation of
VET teachers and trainers is identified:
- Individualisation of learners’ training pathways and hence a greater emphasis on
learner-centred teaching.
- The change in the focus of assessment from subject related assessment to more
transversal assessment of learners’ knowledge, skills and competences; also the
increasing individualisation of assessment.
- Innovation in terms of teaching methods used, including e-learning, self-directed
learning or project work.
- The necessity to cooperate with local stakeholders as well as employers.
- Greater emphasis on quality assurance including self-evaluation of VET providers
and its implications on assessment of teaching delivered

What key factors need to be taken into account in the development of policies for the
professionalisation of VET teachers and trainers?
- The professionalisation of teachers and trainers is strongly dependent on the cultural
background in which they operate, so that custom solutions to professionalisation
issues are often required;
- The need to take account of the fact that VET teachers and trainers have a dual
responsibility, to achieving lifelong learning goals (whether systemic or personal to
the learner) and to fulfilling labour market needs (whether systemic or relevant to an
individual company)
- Training issues for SMEs and large companies should be addressed differently –
however, links could be arranged between them in order to integrate the SME training
within big companies training provision;
- Policies to enhance professionalisation should be formulated to make the optimum
use of new technology (including ICT) to assist training, teaching and learning;
- Policies to enhance professionalisation should accommodate the wide diversity of
teachers and trainers profiles, and the consequent need for a diversity of preparation
and recruitment processes;
                                           68


- The culture of training has to be fostered at all levels in companies to guarantee
adequate funding and support for on-going training of trainers and teachers.

What are the main fields in which policies should be developed?
- Exchange programmes for teachers and trainers and mobility between schools and
companies;
- Prioritising joint projects involving teachers and trainers in VET in future EU
programmes, including Leonardo;
- Innovative approaches to the recognition, validation and accreditation of prior
experiential learning for trainers;
- Providing recognition and validation for high-quality teachers and trainers (e.g.
through awards, q-marks etc)

What are the barriers to professionalisation or to implementation of policies to
enhance professionalisation?
- The difficulty of defining common policies at European level due to cultural
diversity;
- The low status accorded to VET in many countries, which can affect the perceived
relationship between VET teachers and trainers and teachers in general or higher
education;
- The gap between the ‘education’ and ‘training’ sectors of VET in many countries,
manifest in varying approaches to learning and organizational structures;
- The divide in responsibility for VET between different ministries in most countries;
- The absence of recognised accreditation systems for trainers in some countries,
which hinders career-path development and mobility.

What are the key messages for policy development?
- Social partners, including Chambers where appropriate, should be encouraged to
play a strong role in developing policies for VET generally and in particular for the
professionalisation of VET teachers and trainers;
- The current economic crisis could be used in a positive way to motivate companies
to retrain their staff by offering new training opportunities for increasing
competences;
- New ways of communication/interaction between schools and companies should be
developed;
- There should be a common, broad European approach underpinning the
development of policies for professionalisation of VET teachers and trainers, even
though the actual policies should be tailored to the needs of each particular country
and its systems;
- In every country it should be clearly set out what is the role and required training for
a qualified VET teacher or trainer and what are the pathways to this qualification,
- teacher education infrastructure in higher education should be used where possible
for training of trainers in company-based settings, in contexts of both initial training
and continuing professional development.

CONCLUSIONS:
- The professionalisation of VET teachers and trainers is an important theme for
continuing European cooperation as it is intrinsically connected to the quality of
teaching and the attractiveness of VET;
                                            69


- The nature of VET in Europe is changing very rapidly, as are conditions in the
European labour market. In this context, it must be anticipated that the roles fulfilled
by VET teachers and trainers will change significantly, leading to a need for
elaborated approaches to the training of teachers and trainers;
- VET is a distinct field of work, as opposed to general education, and therefore
special skills and competences are needed by VET teachers and trainers: for example,
apart from having expertise in specific pedagogic methodologies, VET teachers and
trainers need to be able to innovate in education as well as their vocational domains,
adapt to rapidly changing situations (e.g. in the labour market) and interact with social
partners.
The preparation and continuing professional development of VET teachers needs to
reflect this different role and profile;
- Preparation of VET teachers and trainers should take into account their very
different roles. However, there is considerable scope for these two related professions
to learn from one another. This can be achieved through joint educational measures
within preparation as well as in teacher/trainer continuing professional development
(CPD) provision, and through arrangements that facilitate teachers to spend time in
companies and that enable companies and trainers to contribute to the work of
schools. These arrangements can be supported by many actors at sectional, regional,
national and European levels. At the European level, these supports may be through
Leonardo programmes for VET teachers and trainers;
- The professionalisation of VET teachers and trainers can be supported through
appropriate initial preparation and qualifications, and through continuing professional
development; it can also be supported through measures such as teacher/trainer
registration, accreditation or licensing and the quality assurance of VET programmes;
- Professionalisation is essentially a quality improvement issue. Therefore, measures
for the professionalisation of VET teachers and trainers should be appropriate to the
needs of the education and training system in which they operate and should support
the continuous improvement of their operation. It is considered that it is not possible
to define professionalisation as a single model for the many aspects of VET found in
European countries; on the other hand it was possible to see that there are many
shared concepts between the different countries that participated;
- As there is a need for VET programmes to be innovative and progressive to meet the
European objective of providing New Skills for New Jobs, it is essential that
professionalisation measures should focus on assisting VET teachers and trainers to
become leaders of change, and promoters of innovation and development in learning.
- The status of teachers and trainers is directly related to the perception of the value of
VET programmes. It is therefore essential that the qualifications of VET teachers and
trainers be appropriately referenced in national qualifications frameworks so that their
professionalism is adequately recognised;
- The diversity of backgrounds of teachers and trainers in VET should be considered
as a strength rather than as a weakness of the VET system. Therefore this diversity
should be acknowledged by the maintenance of a wide range of teacher and trainer
preparation routes and appropriate levels of qualifications: routes to teacher and
trainer professions should allow for career-changers and for recruitment from industry
and should be structured to remove obstacles such as pay differentials, issues about
pension conditions etc;
- While initial training of VET teachers and trainers is a key aspect of
professionalisation, CPD is crucial to ongoing improvement of the sector. CPD may
include measures other than courses and seminars, including the development of on-
                                          70


line learning opportunities, the creation and support of professional networks, sectoral
associations etc;
- Professionalisation of teachers and trainers can be enhanced by encouraging
permeability and cooperation between teachers and trainers in their roles and
functions and by enabling the integration of their respective qualifications, so that it
would be possible for VET practitioners to move between the teaching and training
environments more easily;
- Certain synergies and equivalences in vocational teacher preparation programmes
that are apparent should be further explored. Co-operation and exchange can be
stimulated through European programmes and through the Bologna process;
- The development of policies for the professionalisation of VET teachers and trainers
is hampered by the absence of research-based data and information. For example, in
contrast with general education, VET teaching demands specific skills; how and how
effectively is this need addressed in the various member states?


                                     REFERENCES
Vocational Education and training policy could be improved by:
- Developing and expressinga clear vision of the respective professional identities and
profiles of VET teachers and trainers that embraces their significant potential for
contribution to economic success and social cohesion;
- Seting out the professional preparation processes considered appropriate for VET
teachers and trainers;
- Ensuring that qualification as VET teachers and trainers can be achieved by various
pathways, as appropriate to the national system, reflecting their diverse backgrounds
as an asset and providing high quality programmes with due recognition for their
status and achievements;
- Ensuring that qualifications relevant to the VET teacher and trainer professions are
referenced to national and European qualifications frameworks;
- Ensuring that national policy-makers would fully exploit all available European
programmes and resources to support the professionalisation of VET teachers and
trainers.
Furthermore policy-makers should consider the possibilities of providing continuous
professional development opportunities for VET teachers and trainers in ways that
enable joint participation and mutual learning; also, that ways be explored of enabling
VET teachers to gain first-hand experience of the contemporary workplace and of
enabling companies and trainers to contribute to the work of the vocational schools.

                                    LITERATURE

1. Schön, D. 1983. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action.
New York:
Jossey Bass.
2. A New Direction for Success: Ministerial Plan of Action for the Reform of the
Education System. 2004
3. Lisbon Strategy
4. Internet
                                          71


ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING IN CYPRUS

                                   By Savva koula

ABSTRACT
Recent research, mainly in the past decade, concerning the implementation of
environmental education in the educational systems of various European countries
show the crucial role of education in sensitizing various groups of people about the
importance of environmental education. For this reason, educational systems have to
be reoriented, pointing to environmental themes.
Based on the above and considering the need to reorganize our educational systems
on the base of environmental education, the present study tries to review the course of
evolvement of environmental education in the educational system of Cyprus as well
as give some aspects on teacher training in this field. The study also aims at
presenting the way with which environmental education is integrated in the
curriculum of the country, with special reference to the network of Environmental
Education Centers.

1. INTRODUCTION
Many environmental issues are of global concern and solutions demand co-ordinated,
international efforts. The efforts should involve everyone: from governments, to
adults, teenagers and children. Many strategies for addressing environmental
problems highlight the need for everyone to learn about the environment and adjust
their attitudes towards a more environmentally friendly way of living. This forms the
basis of sustainable development.
Most educators eventhough they agree that environmental education is necessary in
our days, they do not think that they have the necessary knowledge in order to get
involved in such subjects. This is also supported by research studies. According to
(Simmons 1998), teachers who took part in a study, agreed that a forest environment
would be perfect for teaching environmental subjects but they themselves did not feel
that they were trained enough to go through that procedure.

Another study showed that a number of science teachers of the Ohio State in USA are
not trained in environmental themes (Morrone , 2001, pp. 26).
The results of the above studies support many other studies on the subject around the
world.This reinforces the idea that there is a great necessity for teacher training in
environmental education.

2. INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN THE
CURRICULUM OF CYPRUS
2.1 Some major environmental problems in the island of Cyprus
    • Water resources
In Cyprus, there are no natural reservoirs and freshwater resources are limited. Most
of the rivers are without water for the majority of time.A network of dams h saves
water from rainfall but this water in an average is less than.500 cubic mm yearly. In
an attempt to reduce the dependence on rainfall the government introduced
desalination plants.
                                          72


• Waste problem
In addition to national income, tourism is responsible for the vast production of waste.
In tourist areas, the production of waste per person is estimated around 670 Kg/year.
• Coastline degradation .
Cyprus, as well as other countries of the Mediterranean region, suffer from coastline
degradation mainly due to urbanization and tourism

2.2 The National Action Plan for Environmental Education in Cyprus
Concerning Environmental education in Cyprus, it appeared in the year1990 and
gradually evolved in a more organized way in the decade of 2000. A National Action
Plan for Environmental Education focalized in Sustainable Development was
prepared. This plan constitutes Cyprus National Strategy in Environmental Education
and Sustainable Development. It has been prepared taking in consideration first of all,
the main principles, aims and objectives for Education and Sustainable Development
that have been determined by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (Unesco) and United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
(UNECE) and secondly is taking into account the particularities of Cyprus. The
strategy implements programs of continuous education for teachers as well as the
introduction of environmental dimension in all subjects of education.
It is worth mentioning that Cyprus did not have an integrated and systematic policy so
far, neither for Environmental Education, nor for Sustainable Development. Most of
the initiatives that have been undertaken for the promotion of E.E. or S.D. in our
educational system were isolated and fragmented from the formal education. National
Curriculum wasn’t reorganized on the basis of S.D. More over there was an
inconsistency between theory and practice. This National Strategy encompasses a
number of fundamental action sectors such as:
     • integrating Education for Sustainable Development in formal and in-formal
        Cyprus Educational System
     • Establishment of a Unified National Curriculum for all educational levels
     • Generation of Educational Tools in cooperation with other countries, NGOs
        and other interested Sectors at National Level.
     • extend training, concerning the new theoretical and methodological aspects of
        E.E and Sustainable Development, to all levels of educators
For the achievement of the things mentioned above it is obvious that it is necessary to
have competent teachers, ready to undertake such initiatives which would exceed the
limits of traditional educational culture.

2.3. Integrating environmental education in the curriculum of secondary education
and teacher training
Concerning secondary education, and in an attempt to adopt the main targets of
environmental education, the Ministry of education and Culture, emphasizes in the
below actions:
A. Mainly through the subject of biology at all levels, the main educational approach
is the ecological such as Plant and animal physiology, ecology, and geography of
Cyprus with emphasis on natural environment and natural resources.
B. Field studies and visits to the Centers of environmental education are planned.
C. Many times in primary as well as in secondary education, environmental themes
are taught using the Interdisciplinary approach.
D. Teacher training
                                          73


I) Seminars offered at the Cyprus Pedagogical Institute: pre-service and in service
     teacher training takes place at the Institute        with the target of reinforcing
     knowledge about environmental education. In addition, the Pedagogical Institute
     organizes environmental education seminars on a voluntary base. The above
     seminars address teachers of primary as well as secondary education.
II) Teachers participate in various local seminars concerning the environment as well
     as seminars abroad.(e.g. Comenius programs)
III) Specialized programs:In addition to environmental training which takes place
     through the curriculum programs, teachers and students participate in various
     specialized programs. Some examples are:
         a. «Globe program» - The program aims at taking measurements of various
             environmental parameters and sending them to a worldwide data bank in
             the internet for feedback and discussion among the people involved.
         b. «Eco schools»- The program is a collaboration of the Ministry of
             education and CYMEPA (Cyprus Marine Environment Protection
             Association).Students and teachers who join the program, undertake,
             through a project, the solution of an environmental problem in their school
             or in their community.
         c. «Young Reporters of the Environment»- The program is also a
             collaboration of the Ministry of education and CYMEPA (Cyprus Marine
             Environment Protection Association). In this program students act as
             journalists and they study various environmental problems which they
             have to present in the form of an article.

3. IMPLEMENTING ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION THROUGH CENTERS
OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
The year 2000, highlights a new era for environmental education in Cyprus.The
Cyprus Pedagogical Institute, takes over the co-ordination of environmental
education. in all levels of education. This appears to be a necessity after the joining
of Cyprus in the European Union in May of 2004. In terms of this action, the first
governmental Center of Environmental Education is founded in the year 2000, and
others follow. Today, there is a network of Centers in Cyprus where students and
teachers can be educated and at the same time be active participants in outdoor
educational programs.

3.1 Actions taken by the Environmental Education Centers:
     I. Design and implementation of one and two day programs of environmental
        education for students of all levels of education
    II. Organization of training courses on the teaching practices and methodologies
        of environmental education for teachers of all levels
   III. Organization of seminars
  IV. Production of educational material on environmental education
    V. Implementation of European programs
  VI. Guidance and support to schools and teachers, concerning environmental
        themes
 VII. Research concerning environmental education
                                         74


3.2 Programs of the Centers
The programs of the Centers are based on the three axes mentioned below:
The theoretical axis, whose targets are implemented in the area of the Center.
Students are prepared for the field study which is to follow.
The field study which takes place in a selected area near the Center
The expansion of the program in the school unit. Students are asked to continue the
program in their school area.
The programs are flexible and can be adapted to the needs of every group of students
who visit the Center. More over they are designed in such a way so as to correspond
to the objectives of environmental education (knowledge, consciousness, attitude,
ability, participation) and they are organized in an interdisciplinary way.
Some examples of the themes studied in the Centers are given below:
The forest as an ecosystem, The flora and fauna of Cyprus, Biotic and abiotic
components of the environment and their interaction, Cultural heritage, Nature trails
Geomorphology of a selected area, Water ecosystems, e.t.c.

4. SUMMARY
The present study, examined the way in which environmental education is integrated
in the curriculum of Cyprus. It also discussed the evolvement of environmental
education in the educational system of Cyprus as well as teacher training in the field
of environmental education. Considering the fact that environmrntal education in
Cyprus appeared only two decades ago, a lot has been done in this field. Especially
the foundation of the network of Environmental Centers is a great accomplishment.
Teachers, students and other groups of people from Cyprus and abroad have the
opportunity to participate in various educational programs and practice experiential
and outdoor learning.

                                   REFERENCES

Morrone, M. (2001). Primary-And Secondary-School Environmental Health
ScienceEducation and the Education Crisis: A Survey of Science Teachers in Ohio.
Journal of Environmental Health, 63(9), 26. Retrieved August 24, 2005, from Questia
database, http://www.questia.com

Simmons, D. (1998). Using Natural Settings for Environmental Education: Perceived
Benefits and Barriers, The Journal of Environmental Education, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 23-
31.

Zachariou, A. (2000). Environmental Education in Cyprus and reformed National
Curriculum in Primary Education in Cyprus. In V. Papadimitriou (Ed.), Proceedings
of second international Conference of Environmental Education in the Context of
Education for the 21st Century: Prospects and Possibilities (pp. 199-205). 6-8 of
October, Larisa.

Unesco, Teacher guidance for teaching science.

Unesco (1977), Trends in Environmental Education, UNESCO, Belgium.
                                          75


                 TEACHERS NEED GOOD EDUCATION TOO!

                                    By Beyza Tipi

The European Commission has today set out proposals to improve the quality of
teacher training in the EU. High-quality teaching is a prerequisite for high-quality
education and training, which are in turn a powerful determinant of Europe’s long-
term competitiveness and capacity to create more jobs and growth.

There are around 6.25 million teachers (full time equivalents) in Europe. Teachers
play a vital role in helping people develop their talents and fulfil their potential for
personal growth and well-being, and in helping them acquire the complex range of
knowledge and skills that they will need as citizens and as workers. It is school
teachers who mediate between a rapidly evolving world and the pupils who are about
to enter it. The profession of teaching is becoming more and more complex. The
demands placed upon teachers are increasing. The environments in which they work
are more and more challenging.
Many Member States are reviewing the ways in which teachers are prepared for the
important tasks they perform on behalf of European society. Many European
countries have their own teacher training systems. Besides the importance of subject
knowladge, today European dimension is vital in teacher training.

STUDIES AND TRAINING OF THE FUTURE EUROPEAN TEACHERS

The European Commission is working closely with the Member States to improve the
quality of teacher education in the EU, as part of an overall process of policy
cooperation in the field of education and training that encourages and supports
national reforms. This cooperation has led to the present Commission
Communication. It outlines a common framework for policies to improve the quality
of teacher education. The document responds to a request, expressed in the 2004
Council and Commission Joint Report on Progress towards the Lisbon Objectives in
the Fields of Education and Training, that a set of common European principles be
developed to improve the competences and qualifications of teachers and trainers.
The Communication provides Member States with a number of broad orientations for
developing policies and practices. These include:
   •   ensuring that all teachers have access to the knowledge, attitudes and
       pedagogic skills that they require to be effective;
   •   ensuring that provision for teachers' education and professional development
       is coordinated, coherent, and adequately resourced;
   •   promoting a culture of reflective practice and research among teachers;
   •   promoting the status and recognition of the teaching profession; and
   •   supporting the professionalisation of teaching.
   Why do teachers need training?
   •   Teachers are increasingly called upon to help young people become fully
       autonomous learners by acquiring key skills, rather than memorising
       information; they are asked to develop more collaborative and constructive
       approaches to learning and expected to be facilitators and classroom managers
                                         76


       rather than ex-cathedra trainers. These new roles require education in a range
       of teaching approaches and styles.
   •   Furthermore, classrooms now contain a more heterogeneous mix of young
       people from different backgrounds and with different levels of ability.
   •   These changes require teachers not only to acquire new knowledge and skills
       but also to develop them continuously. To equip the teaching body with skills
       and competences for its new roles, it is necessary to have both high-quality
       initial teacher education and a coherent process of continuous professional
       development keeping teachers up to date with the skills required in the
       knowledge based society throughout their careers.
   •   What’s wrong with the way things are?
   •   In a recent OECD survey[3], almost all countries report shortfalls in teaching
       skills, and difficulties in updating teachers’ skills.
   •   In many Member States there is little systematic coordination between
       different elements of teacher education, leading to a lack of coherence and
       continuity, especially between a teacher's initial professional education and
       subsequent induction, in-service training and professional development.
   •   In-service training for teachers is compulsory in only eleven Member States[4].
       Where it exists, training generally amounts to less than 20 hours per year.
   •   As regards new teachers, only half of the countries in Europe offer new
       teachers any systematic kind of support (e.g. induction, training, mentoring) in
       their first years of teaching.
   •   Furthermore, in contrast with other professions, the teaching profession has a
       high percentage of older workers. The proportion of teachers aged between 45
       and 64 is over 40% in many countries while as many as 30% of the teaching
       population are aged between 50 and 64 years of age in some countries[5]. This
       has clear implications for teachers' (re)training needs.
   •   Isn’t teacher education a Member state responsibility?
   •   Yes. Member States have committed themselves to improving teacher
       education within the Education and Training 2010 work programme, which is
       the main framework for policy cooperation in education and training among
       the Member States for this decade.
   •   The Communication encourages and supports national reforms in order to help
       Member States to adapt their teacher education and training systems to meet
       changes in the labour market and society in general.
   •   The common objectives set by Member States, and the common challenges
       faced by them, require an approach that is based upon common principles. It is
       hoped that the Communication will encourage Member States to act in a
       coherent and concerted way to tackle a problem that affects the whole Union.
       The aim is to provide Member States with a number of broad policy
       orientations that will support their ongoing national reforms in teacher
       education and training. How Member States go about implementing this will,
       of course, be up to them.
In the light of these studies, main study areas for teacher training can be summerized
as;
                                           77


European Dimension;Despite clear international trends and some international
“standardisation”, changes in education systems are still predominantly nationally
oriented. A teacher is still perceived as a teacher within the national context but there
is also an increasing necessity to position her/him within the European context.

Employability; A need for flexibility and interdisciplinary character of teacher
education. Teacher profession has also to be established and clearly recognised.
Differences among teachers in existing national systems!

D) MOBILITY
Each year approximately 10,000 teachers and other educational staff take part in
Comenius In-Service Training. The results of the study clearly show that Comenius
In-Service Training contributes to a significant extent to the professional development
of teachers and other educational staff and triggers impacts not only in the classrooms
but also at an institutional level in schools and training organisations. This is true in
particular where the EU programme is embedded in the school's development strategy
as an instrument for internationalisation and staff development. Training abroad
creates the added value of a more pronounced European and international dimension
in teaching and learning and more co-operation between schools across borders.

Mobility as a goal
A European Teacher experiences the benefits of the European Union in part through
easy mobility. This mobility encompasses studying abroad and learning languages as
well as getting acquainted with other EU countries’ cultures. He/she may seek
employment in other countries and use exchange programmes offered by the
European Union. This contributes towards the creation of a Europe of different
languages and cultures, and nurtures cultural diversity as a vision for living together
in the future.
A European Teacher facilitates mobility among his/her students by enabling them to
have physical and virtual contact with peers in other European countries. Classroom
or school exchanges and EU programmes are means to enrich the process of mutual
learning and growing toward a new understanding of European citizenship. This helps
prepare for Europe-wide employability and, eventually, workplace mobility.
In the European classroom, modern information and communication technologies
(ICT) are more than just technical devices for playing and searching for superficial
data. Instead, they offer effective tools for communicating across linguistic and
cultural borders, enlightening the staid and predictable classroom routines produced
by monocultural approaches. Virtual mobility in finding and disseminating
information is seen as a vital prerequisite for physical mobility, and is also very
effective in transnational communication.

Teacher education needs to be internationalized
In service trainings
• In-service training is compulsory in only 11 Member States[1];
• Where in-service training exists, training generally amounts to less than 20 hours
    per year, and is never more than five days per year;
• Only half of the countries in Europe offer new teachers any systematic kind of
    support (e.g. induction, training, mentoring) in their first years of teaching;
                                          78


       QUALIFICATIONS OF THE FUTURE EUROPEAN TEACHERS

                      By Beyza Tipi, Cengiz Erser, Lale Ozbal


To prepare their pupils for the EU’s increasingly knowledge-based society, teachers
are called upon to teach a new range of skills, which often require new teaching
methods. Moreover, teachers are increasingly called upon to teach classes that have
pupils from different cultures, mother tongues, ability levels and levels of special
needs
However, many teachers report that they are uneasy about using new technologies in
the classroom. Furthermore, analysis by the European Commission shows that current
systems for teacher training and education in the Member States are often failing to
give teachers the training they need. Indeed, in some Member States there is little
systematic coordination between different elements of teacher education, which leads
to a lack of coherence and continuity, especially between teachers’ initial professional
education and their subsequent induction, in-service training and professional
development.
Now we will talk about what constitutes a “good” teacher in general, with skills
appropriate to the 21st century, and a “European teacher”. The general view is that a
European teacher must have the same basic skills as any good teacher. Firstly, he or
she should have a profound knowledge of his/her subject area and have the skills to
teach the students3 successfully. The following skills could be expected (according to
Perrenoud, 1994):
            • organizing student learning opportunities;
            • managing student learning progression;
            • dealing with student heterogeneity;
            • developing student commitment to working and learning;
            • working in teams;
            • participating in school curriculum and organization development;
            • promoting parent and community commitment to school;
            • using new technologies in their daily practice;
            • tackling professional duties and ethical dilemmas;
            • managing their own professional development.
Since a teacher’s knowledge and skills depend on his/her continuous learning and
development, he/she should deal with current research and be aware of general social
changes.

Impact of social changes
• Contributing to citizenship education of students/trainees
Such as
- Living in a multicultural, inclusive and tolerant society;
- Living according to sustainable lifestyles regarding environmental issues;
- Dealing with gender equity issues in family, work and social life;
- Living as European citizen;
- Managing his/her own career development;
- Etc.
                                           79




• Promoting the development of competences of students/trainees for the knowledge
and lifelong learning society
    Such as
    - Motivation to learn beyond compulsory education;
    - Learn how to learn/learning in an independent way;
    - Information processing;
    - Digital literacy;
    - Creativity and innovation;
    - Problem-solving;
    - Entrepreneurship;
    - Communication;
    - Visual culture;
    - Etc.
• Linking the development of new curriculum competencies with school subjects
Diversity of student intake and changes in the teaching environment

Working in restructured ways in the classroom
• Dealing with social, cultural and ethnic diversity of students
• Organising learning environments and facilitating learning processes
• Working in teams with teachers and other professionals involved in the learning
process of the same students

Working “beyond the classroom”: in the school/training centre and with social
partners
• Working in school curriculum, organisational development and evaluation
• Collaborating with parents and other social partners

Integrating ICT in formal learning situations and in all professional practice
Increasing levels of teaching professionalisation
                                          80


Acting as professionals
• Acting in an investigative or problem-solving way
• Assuming greater responsibility for their own professional development in a lifelong
learning perspective

“EUROPEANNESS”
Teachers in the European Union do not only educate future citizens of their particular
member country, but also support them in becoming future generations of European
citizens. They work within a national framework, which emphasises the need for a
national identity as a basis for transnational awareness within a European society. The
term “European Dimension” has been used to balance national and transnational
values in educational policy making.
This discussion paper goes further by looking closer at what constitutes the
‘Europeanness’ in the teaching profession. From this perspective the European
dimension is made up of many different facets deeply rooted in the socio-political and
cultural context of a growing European community. From a policy point-of-view this
overview does not aim at creating the format of a ‘European super teacher’, but
intends to point to European issues which are potentially of particular significance in
future discussions.
a) European identity: A European Teacher has certain values which show that he or
she is not just a national teacher but one who teaches “beyond” the national
curriculum. He/she would see himself/herself as someone with roots in one particular
country, but at the same time belonging to a greater European whole. This co-
existence of national identity and transnational awareness provides a valuable
perspective on questions of heterogeneity. Diversity within unity is therefore a key
aspect of a developed European identity with an open mind toward the world at large.
b) European knowledge: A European Teacher has some knowledge of other European
education systems and, possibly, of educational policy matters on the EU level.
He/she values his/her own education system and views it in relation to other European
ones. He/she has a knowledge of European and world affairs. A European teacher is
aware of European history (histories) and its (their) influence on contemporary
European society.
c) European multiculturalism: A European Teacher engages with the multicultural
nature of European society. He/she has a positive relationship with his/her own
culture and is open towards other cultures. He/she knows how to behave in other
cultures in a confident and non-dominant way. He/she works with heterogeneous
groups, sees heterogeneity as valuable and respects any differences. He/she copes
with the challenges of the multicultural aspects of the knowledge society, and works
to promote equal opportunities.
d) European language competence: A European Teacher speaks more than one
European language with differing levels of competence. He/she experiences other
languages in initial and further teacher education and is able to teach subjects in
languages other than his/her first language. He/she spends some time in a country
with a language different from his/her first language, and also communicates in a
number of languages with colleagues and people from abroad.
e) European professionalism: A European Teacher has an education which enables
him/her to teach in any European country. He/she has a “European” approach to
subject areas in his/her teaching and links up cross-curricular themes from a European
perspective. He/she exchanges curricular content and methodologies with colleagues
from other European countries. He/she pays attention to and learns from different
                                         81


teaching and learning traditions. He/she uses examples of research from other
countries to understand and explain professional issues and teaches accordingly.
Teacher education is now working towards a new professionalism with a European
perspective (e.g. it does not restrict teaching practice to national boundaries). Many
teaching subjects already build on the rich history of a European tradition, and this
can be usefully exploited. Joint programmes and degrees offered by educational
institutions in European countries can enhance the development of European
professionalism, as can many of the opportunities offered by modern technology.
f) European citizenship: A European teacher should act as a “European citizen”.
He/she should show solidarity with citizens in other European countries and shares
values such as respect for human rights, democracy and freedom. His/her critical
teaching should foster autonomous, responsible and active citizens of a Europe of
tomorrow. Aspects of the school curriculum may be developed in a teaching area
possibly entitled “European Studies”, or ‘Europeanness’ could be integrated across
the curriculum.
g) European quality measures: If there is something like a European Teacher, there
must be some way of comparing the formal features of Europe’s teacher education
systems. Suggestions reach from formal assessment of systems to informal exchanges
and cross-cultural visits. The Bologna process is an important step towards academic
comparability and achieving an overarching qualification framework across Europe.
An increase in compatibility between European qualifications and in transparency of
graduate achievement is central to the Bologna/Copenhagen processes, and would
also remove obstacles from teacher mobility.

SUGGESTIONS FOR POLICY MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATIONS
 The following areas can be regarded as relevant on different levels in the
advancement of this issue.
a) European level
    • European qualifications framework
    • Common European Principles
    • Recommendations to member states in teacher education
    • European programmes (SOCRATES)
b) National
    • Content of teacher education programmes
    • Definitions of competences and how they are evaluated
    • Evaluations of initial/continuing progressive development (What is evaluated?)
    • Accreditations of studies in other European countries
    • How to use European programmes bilaterally
c) Institutional
    • Institutional policies on European/international cooperation
    • How to ensure “ownership” of projects at institutional level
    • How to promote mobility programme and ensure credits/recognition
    • Joint programmes, masters/doctorates
                                            82


      BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN THE WORLD OF EDUCATION,
        TRAINING AND WORK: CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE
       VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A
                      TEACHING METHOD

                                  By Marianne Nygard

The European Year of Creativity and Innovation in 2009 was aimed at supporting the
efforts of the Member States to promote creativity through lifelong learning, as a
driver for innovation and as a key factor for the development of
 personal
 occupational
 entrepreneurial and
 social competences.

Improving creativity and innovation is particularly important for VET. To achieve
this, the acquisition of key competences for lifelong learning should be actively
promoted.

Job opportunities in the future

•To provide job opportunities for all and create a more competitive and sustainable
economy, Europe needs a highly skilled workforce able to meet current and future
challenges.

•The Copenhagen Process aims to improve the performance, quality and
attractiveness of vocational education and training

•Member States and the Commission encourage to enhance European cooperation in
the field of vocational education and training (VET)


The Europe 2020 Strategy
The Europe 2020 Strategy puts a strong emphasis on education and training to
promote ”smart, sustainable and inclusive growth”.
Initial vocational education and training (IVET) has a particular role to play in
addressing Europe's high youth unemployment.

Innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship
•As stressed in the Europe 2020 Strategy, educational and training systems should
focus their curricula on creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship.
•In order to fulfill its role, vocational education and training has to reflect changes in
the economy and in society.

Education for entrepreneurship: Students will develop
   • a sense of initiative
   • ability to turn ideas into practice
   • creativity
   • self-confidence
                                         83


This should be encouraged and accessible to all VET students, across all curricula and
fields of study.
…continuing Education for entrepreneurship
•It should build awareness of self- employment as a career option and train them to
start their own business.
•Entrepreneurship must become a normal part of the competence framework of
teachers and trainers.
•At European level, different initiatives, should be supported and further developed.




                                     SOURCES

•http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:42009X0124(01):E
N:NOT http://eur-
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:0296:FIN:EN:PDF
                                         84


   YOUNG ENTERPRISE IN MOSJOEN UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL

                                By Massi Oksendal

The Mosjoen Upper Secondary School Consists of 4 units: Kippermoen has 470
students, 105 members of staff and 9 programme areas.

Young Enterprise
•Is a defined area of priority at our school
•Our aim is for all staff to have a feeling of ownership towards Young Enterprise
•The school's leadership attachment:
•YE-coordinator and team
•Budget
•Activityplan
•Each enterprise has an external mentor
•Each enterprise cooperate with local businesses
History
•Mosjψen Upper Secondary School has worked with YE since 1998/99
•In 2010 we have 105 students that are involved in YE
•The students have won both national and international prices
Our aims, what do we want to achieve?
•We want:
•our students to achieve better academicly and get higher marks
•to prevent students from dropping out and strengthen their social skills
•to help the students understand how business works and its importance in society
•less absence from school.
•students that enjoy attending school
•to create good relations between the school and the local businesses, so that our
students can become attractive apprentices and the school can develop programs to
meet the needs of local businesses.
•to develop the students’ creative abilities.
•to develop the students’ ability to cooperate and take on responsibility.

What is the purpose of YE?
•More students finish the education they have planned
•Fewer students quit their studies through the school year
•Higher average marks
•Creates good relations between the school and local businesses, so that the students
become attractive apprentices and empolyees
•To create future entrepreneurs and make it easier to start one’s own business
                                           85


What creates commitment in the teachers?
•Courses and networking.
•Education: Sponsored further education in Entrepreneurship for three teachers (Two
years in college)
•Cooperation - meetings with YE teachers in different schools.
•Positive experiences through work with YE
•Positive driving forces at the schools
•Positive results; educational and through participation in competitions
•Budget that makes it possible for teachers to attend courses

Motivation for the students
•Committed teachers
•Regular meetings
•YE integrated in all subjects/ cooperation YE-teachers
•Students‚∆ô enterprise/ feeling of ownership
•Wider competence ( IA, economy, conflict management, customer service)
•Earn money, compete/present, travel
Competence in Entrepeneurship:
•Personal abilities and attitudes:
•- The will and ability to take responsibility
•- Creativity and ability to think ”outside the box”
•- An appetite for taking risks
•- Self-confidence
•Knowledge and abilities:
•- Knowing what to do and how to do it!
What does it take for YE to work?
•Comitted teachers!
•The students need continous follow-ups and guidance
•Regular meeting times for YE-teachers (must be scheduled)
•Mentor-meetings before the enterprise is established
•Guide students to to apply for positions in the enterprise
THE FUTURE?
•25% of all businesses have been established in the last three years.
•50% of the jobs our students will have in the future does not exist today.
•70% of today‚∆ôs businesses will not exist in ten years.
                                          86


  PRE-DIAGNOSYS OF SPECIAL NEEDS IN SECONDARY EDUCATION

                                   By Amalio Verd

CONSTITUCIÓN ESPAÑOLA

Artículo 27.
                1. Todos los ciudadanos tienen el derecho a la educación. Se reconoce
la libertad de enseñanza.
                2. La educación tendrá por objeto el pleno desarrollo de la
personalidad humana en el respeto a los principios democráticos de convivencia y a
los derechos y libertades fundamentales.
                (….)
                4. La enseñanza básica es obligatoria y gratuita.
                5. Los poderes públicos garantizan el derecho de todos a la educación,
mediante una programación general de la enseñanza, con participación efectiva de
todos los sectores afectados y la creación de centros docentes.
                (….)
Ley 13/1982, de 7 de abril, de Integración Social de los Minusválidos.


SECCIÓN III. DE LA EDUCACIÓN
Artículo 23.
                1. El minusválido se integrará en el sistema ordinario de la educación
general, recibiendo, en su caso, los programas de apoyo y recursos que la presente
Ley reconoce.
                2. La Educación Especial será impartida transitoria o definitivamente,
a aquellos minusválidos a los que les resulte imposible la integración en el sistema
educativo ordinario y de acuerdo con lo previsto en el artículo 26 de la presente Ley.

Artículo 24.
               En todo caso, la necesidad de la educación especial vendrá
determinada, para cada persona, por la valoración global de los resultados del estudio
diagnóstico previo de contenido pluridimensional.

Artículo 25.
                La educación especial se impartirá en las instituciones ordinarias,
públicas o privadas, del sistema educativo general, de forma continuada, transitoria o
mediante programas de apoyo, según las condiciones de las deficiencias que afecten a
cada alumno y se iniciará tan precoz mente como lo requiera cada caso, acomodando
su ulterior proceso al desarrollo psicobiológico de cada sujeto y no a criterios
estrictamente cronológicos.

Artículo 26.
                1. La educación especial es un proceso integral, flexible y dinámico,
que se concibe para su aplicación personalizada y comprende los diferentes niveles y
grados del sistema de enseñanza, particularmente los considerados obligatorios y
gratuitos, encaminados a conseguir la total integración social del minusválido.
                2. Concretamente, la educación especial tenderá a la consecución de
los siguientes objetivos:
                                          87


               - la superación de las deficiencias y de las consecuencias o secuelas
derivadas de aquéllas.
               - la adquisición de conocimientos y hábitos que le doten de la mayor
autonomía posible.
       (…)
               - la incorporación a la vida social y a un sistema de trabajo que permita
a los minusválidos servirse y realizarse a sí mismos.

Artículo 27.
               Solamente cuando la profundidad de la minusvalía lo haga
imprescindible, la educación para minusválidos se llevará a cabo en Centros
específicos. A estos efectos funcionarán en conexión con los Centros ordinarios,
dotados de unidades de transición para facilitar la integración de sus alumnos en
Centros Ordinarios.

Artículo 30.
                Los minusválidos, en su etapa educativa, tendrán derecho a la
gratuidad de la enseñanza, en las instituciones de carácter general, en las de atención
particular y en los centros especiales, de acuerdo con lo que dispone la Constitución y
las de leyes que la desarrollan.

ALUMNADO CON DIFICULTADES DE APRENDIZAJE MEDIDAS DE
ATENCIÓN A LA DIVERSIDAD

El ALUMNO tiene derecho a la “escolarización” a partir de los 3 años y la obligación
a partir de los 6 años.
Si un alumno presenta algún tipo de “discapacidad intelectual” y/o “síquica” se
elaborará un informe por parte de un equipo formado por:
         - inspector educativo
         - familia
         - equipo de orientación: 1. específico del centro donde está escolarizado
                               2. equipo de valoración y orientación comarcal
Si todas las partes implicadas están de acuerdo con el resultado:

No Hay Problema: El problema surge cuando existe desacuerdo: la decisión que
prevalece es la de la familia.
Un alumno con dificultades podrá ser escolarizado:
               - colegio ordinario
               - colegio de educación especial (Problemas muy severos)
               - escolarización combinada (unos días acude al colegio ordinario y
otros al de educación especial; dependiendo de las dificultades del niño y su
evolución pasará más o menos tiempo en un centro u otro)

MEDIDAS DE ATENCIÓN A LA DIVERSIDAD EN PRIMARIA
Todo el profesorado debe estar preparado y formado para atender a la diversidad.
                Inspección educativa deberá atender todas las demandas y peticiones
del profesorado afectado para que estos puedan desarrollar correctamente su trabajo.
                Para atender las posibles necesidades los centros de Primaria contarán
en su claustro con:
                - 1 orientador
                                          88


             - 1 especialista en Pedagogía Terapéutica
             - 1 especialista en Audición y Lenguaje
             El equipo depende del número de unidades de clase, NO de la ratio de
alumnos con necesidades.

MEDIDAS DE ATENCIÓN A LA DIVERSIDAD EN SECUNDARIA
Las “medidas de atención” al alumnado que presenta carencias de diversos tipos son
las siguientes:

MEDIDAS CURRICULARES:
                1. Adaptaciones curriculares: dirigida a alumnos con importantes
dificultades de aprendizaje.
                2. Intervenciones específicas: propuestas por el departamento de
orientación; llevadas a cabo por el profesor P.T. Intervención dentro del aula (sólo en
casos excepcionales será fuera del aula)

MEDIDAS ORGANIZATIVAS:
                1. Desdobles de 1 hora semanal: en Biología, Física, Química,
Ciencias de l a Naturaleza y Lenguas extranjeras
                2. Agrupamientos específicos: desdobles transitorios en Lengua
Gallega o Castellana, Ciencias de la Naturaleza y Ciencias Sociales.
                3. Programa específico personalizado: para alumnos repetidores o que
promocionaron con materias suspensas.
                4. Agrupamientos de materias en ámbitos: en 1º y 2º; cada materia
tendrá su propio currículo.
                5. Desdobles en Lengua Gallega, Lengua española y Matemáticas:
grupos reducidos para alumnos con carencias en las materias instrumentales.
                6. Grupo de adquisición de Lenguas: para alumnos procedentes del
extranjero.
                7. Grupo de adaptación de las competencias curriculares: para alumnos
       procedentes del extranjero.

               8. Programas de diversificación curricular: para alumnos con
dificultades generalizadas y con posibilidades de titular; para 3º y 4º.

               9. Programas de cualificación profesional inicial: para alumnos de 16
años con dificultades generalizadas y sin interés por continuar en la ESO.

                Los alumnos de1º y 2º que presentes claras dificultades en el proceso
de aprendizaje, en el área de las Lenguas, quedarán exentos de cursar la 2ª Lengua
extranjera (recibirán “refuerzo educativo”)
                                         89


    INTEGRATION OF INMIGRATE PEOPLE ON THE EDUCATIONAL
                          SYSTEM

                                 By Beatriz Tourón




In Galicia, in the last five years, an elevated increase of the immigrant students has
taken place in the schools of Galicia, until exceeding fully the amount of seven
thousand students, reaching at this moment 2,5% of the total of the Galician academic
population which are not at university.

From 2004, the Government of Galicia has developed legislative actions and
measures of specific attention to the foreign students in our Autonomic Community in
order to pay attention to those students with necessity of educative reinforcement.
Number of inmmigrants in Galician Education:
Origen of inmigrate students in Galicia:
                        South America (returned emigrants)
                        Europe (Portugal)
                        Africa (Morroco)
                        Asia (China)
                                          90




Framework of inclusion of inmigrate students in Galicia:

               Each school must elaborate his own “Recepcion Plan”.

               The coordinator shoud be a teacher from Languages Departments.

               Creation of the figure of the “Anfitrion student”.

               Special program for inmigrate students, wich includes several hours
              for Spanish and Galician language.

              Subjects that they can attend initially: mathematics, arts, P.E. and
              music.

               Progressive sitting up at the other subjects.


                                       CREADE

The CREADE (Resource Centre for Cultural Diversity in Education) is an IFIIE
project (Centre for Professor Training, Educational Research and Innovation) and as
such, depends on the Ministry of Education.
https://www.educacion.es/creade/index.do
                                           91


   HOW THE PROFESSION OF THE TEACHER CAN BECOME A MORE
              ATTRACTIVE CHOICE OF CAREER

                                   By Braulio Avila

In order that the teacher's profession is more attractive we must face to the following
challenges:

1. IT HAS TO BE A VERY RECOGNIZED PROFESSION
It is not of surprising that in countries like Finland with high qualifications in the
reports of PISA on school performance it is a question of a profession very recognized
socially.
It is curious in that the whole world the best teacher would wish for his children but
very few ones want that his children are main.
In my opinion, it is a question of the point of item for everything else.

2. TO RECEIVE CONTINUOUS FORMATION
To serve better the pupils, the permanent training is necessary.
The school population every time
is "more "diversified" In Spain
10 % of the 15-year-old minors is
not of Spanish nationality, the
double that the European average
and this needs a "approach
different from the traditional
one".
 For this motive, the great
challenge will be the continuous
formation of the teachers to
assure his adjustment to the
changes in the student body.
 The permanent training in the
own educational, like that centers
we will turn the exercise of the
teaching into a practice of
permanent learning.

3. SOCIAL RAISING AWARENESS OF THE IMPORTACIA OF THE
PROFESSION

How? Making know that:

a) The strength of a country takes root in the degree of education of his inhabitants.

 b) A polite well and informed company is crucial if it wants to be had democrácias
prosperous and strong communities.

c) It is the task humanizadora excellent
                                          92



Implication of the public organisms and limitations
- The education should occupy the first place between the public worries and between
the national efforts.
 - To assume that the education is an effort of all, a national, European and global
project.
 - This project has to be an object of social, wide and lasting consensuses.
 - It has to be a solid and lasting project.
 - The charges in education cannot be granted as payments by favors and political
loyalties.

Attribution of power to the educators
- The educators must be the protagonists of the educational necessary changes
 - Grant of leadership and protection to the educators

4. MOBILITY OF THE PROFESSORSHIP IN EUROPE

- To promote the European mobility of the teachers and of the forming ones across
mechanisms of suplencia and the introduction of European periods of formation;
 - To promote the introduction of an European dimension, in the formation of the
teachers, for example, promoting the contacts between the centers of teachers'
formation and of forming to European scale;
 - To promote the European mobility as a component of the career of the teachers and
of the forming ones.

5. SEARCH OF THE LABOR SATISFACTION

The most important factors that they lead to the satisfaction in the performance of the
profession:
- a challenging work from the mental point of view.
- it has to like to teach the teacher to, as well as the matter that it gives.
- the teacher has to have a suitable climate.
- there has to be innovation.
- economic incentive
-better development and performance of his function

6. THE TEACHER I KNOW IT MUST FEEL PROTECTED AND MOTIVATED

The teacher must feel so protected since it the own student body is.
How is it obtained? By Developing of an education in values to our pupils.

7. HOW HAVE THEY TO BE THE CENTERS OF FORMATION?

- To be accessible to all the citizens.
- To facilitate the personal, organizational and material, exact resources to the needs
of every pupil in order that THEY ALL could have the opportunities that will promote
the most possible his academic and personal progress.
- To promote change and innovation in the school institution and in the classrooms.
                                          93


- To promote the active participation of the student body, both in the learning and in
the life of the institution, in a frame of values where THEY ALL feel respected and
valued as persons.
- To achieve the participation of the families and to be inserted in the community.
- To stimulate and to facilitate the development and the well-being of the
professorship and of other professionals of the center.
- the centers of formation must turn into local institutions and not into buildings of
step. They must be hot.

8. ECONOMIC ENDOWMENT AND ENDOWMENT OF MEANS

It is important that in moments of economic crisis and " financial difficulties " it is
fundamental that " does not give himself the step to a cut in Education ", because it is
this area the one that will be the "base" of the European long-term growth
 - Classrooms and qualit libraries
 - Audio-visual resources
 - I access to technologies of the information
 - Departments of orientation
 - I access to the permanent training in the center
 - etc...

9. RATIO STUDENT BODY

The budgetary cuts take us to an extension of the ratio pupil / teacher. To have like
that qualit education and to improve the results have to take a maximum number of 15
pupils as a classroom.
                                          94


    IDEAL TEACHER: A SECONDARY SCHOOLS’ JOINTED SURVEY

             by 1Tipi B., 2Angelova M., 3Tzurbakis S., 3Kalathaki M.
1
  Özel Doğuş Lisesi, Istanbul, Turkey
2
  The105 SREDNO OBSHTOOBRAZOVATELNO UCHILISHTE “ ATANAS,
DALCHEV”, Sofia, Bulgaria
3
  General Lyceum of Meleses, Heraklion, Crete, Greece



INTRODUCTION
The legal provision of 3848/2010 of the Greek Ministry of Education Long Life
Learning and Religion contains the qualifications that each teacher of Secondary
Education must have in order to achieve in the relative state competition for his/her
employment in public schools. In this competition, become acceptable those teachers
who allocate specifically qualifications of certified pedagogic and teaching
sufficiency. It demanded degree of those departments of Universities which ensures
the theoretical training and practical application of the young scientists who want to
be teachers in Secondary Education.
Education is a field that is subject to many fads, and what counts as a good idea varies
over time and across locations. Right now, most people are persuaded that the key to
educational improvement lies in developing a coherent and integrated system for
governing education, so that tests, texts, oral and scripts, decisions and other rewards
and sanctions all are based on the same set of ideas. These ideas have come to be
called standards, and they are being developed within each subject area (Kennedy M.,
1997). American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (AAAS) and the
National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences of USA defined
curricular standards and professional teaching standards. Language arts and social
studies standards are having more difficulty achieving consensus because of the social
and therefore political nature of these subjects.

This survey was carried out in three European secondary schools, in Turkey, Bulgaria
and Greece which are partners in a Lifelong Learning Comenius Programme under
the title “FUTURE EUROPEAN TEACHERS:TRAINING KIT ACCORDING TO
THE LISBON STRATEGY-ESkillsKit” 2009-2011.The aim of this research was to
describe the profile of an Ideal teacher and to compare the qualifications of future
European teacher which is immersed from the texts of Lisbon Strategy. The results of
the survey will be designed as a poster in the European Educational Conference
“FUTURE TEACHERS ACCORDING TO LISBON STRATEGY” which will take
place at Peza of Heraklion, Crete, Greece on 25 & 26 of October 2010, in the frame of
this Comenius Programme and also, will be up loaded in the platform of this
programme.                                                                          .

METHODOLOGY
Questionnaires were created by the teachers of the Turkish school Özel Doğuş
Anadolu Lisesi, Istanbul, and delivered in English to the others, the105 Sredno
Obshtoobrazovatelno Uchilishte “ Atanas, Dalchev”, Sofia, Bulgaria and General
Lyceum of Meleses, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. All the 48 questions of the
questionnaires were translated in the mother tangs of the students. Approximately 200
                                           95


students participated in this survey. Of course, the sample of this survey does not
allow advanced statistic analysis so the studies had been carried out via EXCEL. The
results indicate the comparison of the students’ aspects and believes in three schools.
We selected 8 questions which lighten the way that students validate their teachers,
and their expectations.
Among 48 questions, we have chosen the following 12 for discussing their answers in
this paper.
* The teacher would get angry quickly,
* The teacher would act as if she/he did not know what to do,
* The teacher would know everything that goes on in his/her classroom,
* The teacher would not be sure what to do when students fooled around,
* The teacher would let students decide when they would do work in class,
* The teacher would think that students cheat,
* The teacher would think that students did not know anything,
* Teacher's tests would be hard,
* Teacher's standards would be very high,
* Teacher would be lenient,
* It would be easy to make a fool out of the teacher,
* Students would have to be silent in the teachers’ class.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
For all the teachers’ education, the subject matter is knowledge and experience. In the
framework of USA teacher training modal teachers need to be efficient in their
subject, by studying liberal arts in college, and then have to develop and improve their
techniques, typically through their own experience (Kennedy M., 1997). Some believe
its main contribution resides in helping novices learn classroom management routines,
discipline strategies, and other survival skills. Others believe its main contribution is
to imbue in novices a moral and ethical stance. Others believe that its main
contribution is to enable teachers to adopt a particular stance toward the subject
matter area.

From an overview of the answers, it is observed that, the Turkish students seem to
have a more clear opinion on the subjects that they were questioned, more than
Bulgarian and Greek students. The percentages of the answers are concentrated,
generally, on the first or on the last choices (0 or 1 and 3 or 4). This is obvious in the
following questions: the teacher would act as if she/he did not know what to do,
Students would have to be silent in the teachers’ class.
The students from the three countries seem to agree on the fact that the teacher would
let students decide on the work that will be done in class and also the teachers’
standards would be very high.
The results differ from country to country in the question if the teacher would be
lenient.
In the question if it would be easy to make a fool out of the teacher, the percentages of
the answers were spared in all the five classes, except Bulgarians who 63% answered
no. Turkish students believe, in a great percentage, that the teacher's tests would be
hard, all the others prefer the tests not to be hard. Similar aspect is mentioned e in a
Greek students’ blog, where it is reported that many were the teachers in a school
(above half) who immediately afterwards the schools occupations by the students two
                                           96


years before, bombed the students with successive tests, making their lives more and
more difficult.

Interesting results are taken in the survey, whether the teacher should think that
students cheat or not. While Turkish students are more sceptic, Greek students seem
to be more optimistic.
Three coutries agree on the facts that the teacher should know everything that goes in
the classroom and he or she shouldn’t get anry easily,
Both country students seem to be confused in the classroom management issues.
Different and hesitating results are taken from the following question;
teacher would let students decide when they would do work in class.

A survey which carried out by the teachers of 9th Gymnasium of Kallithea, in Athens
aimed to outline the profile of teachers by their students (Anastasatos, 2010). The
majority of students considers that only a few teachers are ready for new teaching
challenges. A high percentage of students (70%) considers that their teachers has their
job only as official obligatory employment of bread-meaning.
In the open-ended question "what they want from their teachers, 42% said they want
more discussion in class and better behavior, 17% less material and 14% would like
more interesting lessons.

Most of the students declared that the discussions inside the classroom cover topics
"outside the narrow framework of the course" and that "evaluation" is not objective.
More than half of the students believe that teachers are "biased" towards them and
that their main reasons for the discriminatory conduct is considered the "behavior"
(noisy students) and "performance" in the lessons (good - bad students). More than
half of students believe that teachers' respect their individuality. 6 in 10 students said
they are dissatisfied with the way the course is and therefore propose to improve the
situation with more discussion, less material and in almost the same proportions using
new technologies, group work and educational visits. 6 in 10 students believe that
teachers are biased against them and the main cause of the discriminatory conduct of
teachers is the students’ general behavior, their performance in courses, freedom of
opinion, their appearance and ethnicity. 4 in 10 believe that teachers respect the
student council, 3 in 10 have the opposite view and 3 in 10 expressed no opinion.

One thing seems to be clear, that the statement that what students learn depends on
how they are taught introduces a remarkable new idea to educational thought: that the
method by which one teaches a subject itself conveys important information to
students about the subject matter. How a subject is taught tells students whether the
subject is interesting or boring, debatable or authoritative, clear or fuzzy, applied or
theoretical, relevant or irrelevant, challenging or routine. Thus pedagogy is no longer
defined as a set of techniques that enable teachers to maintain order or to entice
students to pay attention, but instead as integral to the substantive goals of teaching
area (Kennedy M., 1997).
                                           97


       TEACHERS’ EDUCATION: FROM THE “LISBON STRATEGY”
                      TO “EUROPE 2020”

                                 By Kalathaki Maria

ABSTRACT
The Lisbon Strategy aimed to make Europe more dynamic and competitive, to secure
a prosperous, fair and environmentally sustainable future for all citizens. The last two
years’ economic crisis has reversed much of the progress achieved in Europe since
2000. At the same time, the world is moving fast and long-term challenges,
globalisation, pressure on resources, climate change, ageing are intensifying. Yong
peoples’ future career are expected to change in unpredictable ways, and they will
need a wide range of generic competences to enable them to adapt. The teachers of
the schools ought to undertake the guidance of the young Europeans to this vague and
uncertain future. The “Europe 2020” strategy put forward by the Commission to set
out a vision of Europe's social market economy for the 21st century.
In this survey, it was attempted a synthesis of reports, qualitative content analysis, of
many European documents of the latest years, published by the Official Journal of the
European Union in order to emerge the strategic framework of the European
cooperation in education and training of the teachers after Lisbon Strategy. There
were created 5 basic thematic categories in order to clarify the position of the
teachers’ education and training in Europe of 2020, as follows: A. Europe 2020: a
strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, B. Schools, the Environment of
the Life and Development of the Teachers in the Future, C. Teacher Career, D.
Teachers’ education, the cornerstone of the quality of teaching
E. Future European Policy on the Teachers’ Training.
As resulted, education and training have substantially contributed towards achieving
the long-term goals of the Lisbon strategy for growth and jobs, not only for the
teachers but for all the European citizens. In the period up to 2020, the primary goal
of European cooperation is to be the support of further development of education and
training systems in the Member States which are aimed at ensuring the personal,
social and professional fulfilment of all citizens, the sustainable economic prosperity
and employability, whilst promoting democratic values, social cohesion, active
citizenship, and intercultural dialogue.

INTRODUCTION
The Lisbon Strategy for development and jobs, launched in 2000 by the European
Council, was the EU's joint response to facing the challenges of globalisation,
demographic change and the knowledge society. It aimed at making Europe more
dynamic and competitive to secure a prosperous, fair and environmentally sustainable
future for all citizens. Despite of joint European efforts these objectives were
achieved only partly and the serious economic downturn has made challenges even
more pressing (EC, 2010). To emerge from the crisis and to prepare Europe for the
next decade, the European Commission has launched on March, 3 2010 the "Europe
2020 Strategy".
Over the last two years, we have faced the world's worst economic crisis since the
1930s. This crisis has reversed much of the progress achieved in Europe since 2000.
We are now facing high levels of unemployment, sluggish structural growth and
excessive levels of debt. The economic situation is improving, but the recovery is still
fragile.
                                           98


According to the Commission's joint report on social protection and social inclusion,
"Children have a higher-than-average risk of poverty in most Member States. In
some, almost every third child is at risk. … Deprived children are less likely than their
peers to do well in school, stay out of the criminal justice system, enjoy good health,
and integrate into the labour market and society" (CEC, 2009). Poverty affects their
cognitive development and, ultimately, their academic achievements. At the same
time, the world is moving fast and long-term challenges, globalisation, pressure on
resources, climate change, ageing are intensifying. Mass schooling began to be widely
available in an era when it was possible to predict with reasonable certainty the
knowledge and skills that pupils would need in their adult lives. This is less likely to
be the case in future. Young people can no longer expect to spend their whole lifetime
in one sector of employment, or even one place; their career paths will change in
unpredictable ways, and they will need a wide range of generic competences to enable
them to adapt (CEC, 2009). The teachers of the schools ought to undertake the
guidance of the young Europeans to this vague and uncertain future.
The importance of education and training within the Lisbon Strategy for development
and jobs has long been recognised. The European Council has repeatedly stressed the
role of education and training for the long-term competitiveness of the European
Union as well as for social cohesion (CEC, 2009). A recent Commission
communication and a consultation paper on Europe's social reality pointed out that
education and training policies can have a positive impact on economic and social
outcomes, but that inequities in education and training have huge hidden costs (CEC,
2009). This does not mean that schools can ever tackle wider social problems alone.
Researches demonstrate that isolated education policy initiatives will have only
limited success.
Higher Education reforms increasingly supporting the Lisbon agenda. The Bologna
process is continuing to drive reforms in higher education structures, particularly in
relation to introducing the three-cycle structure of degrees and enhancing quality
assurance (CEU, 2006). The Bologna process, rather than the Lisbon strategy, tends to
be at the foreground of national policy development in this sector. Nonetheless, there
are signs that countries are beginning to tackle the challenges of governance, funding
and attractiveness, which should help to ensure universities' contribution to
competitiveness, jobs and growth.
The status of vocational education and training is gradually improving but much
remains to be done. National priorities for the reform of Vocational Education and
Training (VET) seem broadly to reflect those of the Copenhagen process (CEU,
2006). The implementation of common principles and references agreed at European
level (e.g. for validation of non-formal learning, quality assurance, guidance) has
begun, but countries believe that it is too early to present concrete results. The
improvement of the quality and attractiveness of VET continues to be a key challenge
for the future. The European area of education and training continues to be
strengthened, notably by the development of the European Qualifications Framework
(EQF). The European Union needs to define where Europe wants to be by 2020.
Europe can succeed if acts collectively, as a Union (EC, 2009). The “Europe 2020”
strategy put forward by the Commission to set out a vision of Europe's social market
economy for the 21st century. It shows how the EU can come out stronger from the
crisis and how it can be turned into a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy
delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion.
This survey aimed to emerge the strategic framework of the European cooperation in
education and training of the teachers, after Lisbon Strategy.
                                          99



METHODOLOGY
In this survey, it was attempted a synthesis of reports of many European documents of
the latest five years, published by the Official Journal of the European Union and
posted on      websites of the European Commission and related to the strategic
framework for European cooperation in education and training of the teachers. A
portion of them were evaluation and conclusions documents of the European Council
and results’ papers of surveys which carried out in the European member states.
The corpus of data was approached with a qualitative content analysis (Bell J., 1997;
Bird M., 1990). The analysis became inductively, that is the categories were not
fixed from the beginning, but located by the progress of the analysis of data. The
"subject" was used as unit of the content analysis. Finally, there were created 5 basic
thematic categories, in order to clarify the position of the teachers’ education and
training in Europe of 2020. They are given and determined as follows:

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (EC, 2009)
European Commission (EC, 2009) is proposing five measurable targets for 2020 that
will steer the process and will be translated into national targets for: employment,
research and innovation, climate change and energy, education and combating
poverty.
For the achievement of these targets, Europe 2020 has put forward three reinforcing
priorities (EC, 2009):
– Smart growth: developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation.
–Sustainable growth: promoting a more resourceful, more efficient, greener and more
competitive economy.
–Inclusive growth: fostering a high-employment economy delivering social and
territorial cohesion.
Smart growth means strengthening knowledge and innovation as drivers of our future
growth. This requires improving the quality of our education, strengthening our
research performance, promoting innovation and knowledge transfer throughout the
Union, making full use of information and communication technologies and ensuring
that innovative ideas can be turned into new products and services that create growth,
quality jobs and help address European and global societal challenges (EC, 2009). But
to succeed, these must be combined with entrepreneurship, finance, and a focus on
user needs and market opportunities. Education, training and lifelong learning play a
key role to achieve these strategic priorities, in particular when it comes to smart and
inclusive growth.
The Commission is putting forward seven flagship initiatives to catalyse progress
under each priority theme (EC, 2009). These initiatives are:
– "Innovation Union"
– "Youth on the move"
– "A digital agenda for Europe"
– "Resource efficient Europe"
– "An industrial policy for the globalisation era"
– "An agenda for new skills and jobs"
– "European platform against poverty"
The "Innovation Union", as Flagship Initiative (EC, 2009), must act on the education,
training and lifelong learning. A quarter of all pupils have poor reading competences,
                                         100


one in seven young people leave education and training too early. Around 50% reach
medium qualifications level but this often fails to match labour market needs. Less
than one person in three aged 25-34 has a university degree compared to 40% in the
US and over 50% in Japan. According to the Shanghai index, only two European
universities are in the world's top 20.
EU must promote knowledge partnerships and strengthen links between education,
business, research and innovation, including through the ICTs, and promote
entrepreneurship by supporting Young Innovative Companies. At national level,
Member States will need to ensure a sufficient supply of science, maths and
engineering graduates and to focus school curricula on creativity, innovation, and
entrepreneurship. The Education Ministers from EU Member States have set as
priorities the teacher education, language learning, ICTs, maths, science and
technology, active citizenship and social cohesion (ECET, 2010). Schools should help
pupils take responsibility for their own learning and personal development throughout
their lives and provide them with the essential competences i.e. knowledge, skills and
attitudes for successful membership of the society and the workforce (CEC, 2009).
The Flagship initiative: "Youth on the move" (EC, 2009) aims to enhance the
performance and international attractiveness of Europe's higher education institutions
and raise the overall quality of all levels of education and training in the EU,
combining both excellence and equity, by promoting student mobility and trainees'
mobility, and improving the employment situation of young people.
The Flagship Initiative: "An Agenda for new skills and jobs" (EC, 2009) aims to
empower people through the acquisition of new skills to enable current and future
workforce to adapt to new conditions and potential career shifts, to reduce
unemployment and raise labour productivity. In order to ensure that the required
competences to engage in further learning and labour market are acquired and
recognised throughout general, vocational, higher and adult education and to develop
a common language and operational tool for education and training was established a
framework of European Skills, Competences and Occupations (ESCO).

B. Schools, the Environment of the Life and Development of the Teachers in the
Future
The majority of Europeans spend at least nine or ten years at school. In schools they
gain the basic knowledge, skills and competences which they need throughout their
lives, developing fundamental attitudes and values. Schools ought to set their students
on the path to a lifetime of learning and prepare them for the modern world, ensuring
open and democratic societies by training people in citizenship, solidarity and
participative democracy (EC, 2009). Effective links between schools and the wider
world, from the locality to the region, the state, the European Union and beyond of
them have been acknowledged to be vital of preparing students to take their place in
society (CEC, 2009). Through school, society helps to prepare young people to live in
community and to be responsible and active citizens. In acquiring key competences
for life, students are increasingly expected to develop greater learning autonomy and
to take responsibility for their own learning CEU (2007). Of course, a key question is
to which extent the evaluation and assessment of a school's performance can take into
account the socio-economic and educational profile of students, thereby highlighting
the school's added value. There is considerable variation across Europe in the extent
that schools have the autonomy to set their objectives, to shape their curricula, to
select and remunerate their staff and to implement any changes that evaluations may
show to be necessary (CEC, 2009).
                                          101


Schools prepare young people to live in a community and to be responsible and active
citizens. However, societal trends such as violence, radicalism or fundamentalism and
expressions of racism, xenophobia and sexism are inevitably also reflected in school
communities (ECET, 2010). Democracy in schools can help to create a climate of
confidence and responsibility (CEC, 2009). The full inclusion of disadvantaged
groups in school is a challenge for the teachers and the education authorities. Since
schools are a microcosm of society, school populations reflect migration patterns. The
presence of students from a variety of cultural and linguistic backgrounds is a rich
source of learning opportunities, but it also presents considerable challenges and
difficulties. The ability of teachers to meet the challenges of increasing social and
cultural diversity in the classroom is crucial for the development of more equitable
education systems (CEU, 2007). The types of classroom which support students with
'special' need practice in co-operative teaching, co-operative learning, collaborative
problem solving, heterogeneous grouping, systematic monitoring, assessment,
planning and evaluation of each student’s work (CEC, 2009). Such approaches are
likely to benefit all students, including those who are particularly gifted or talented.
The Council of the European Union supports mobility programmes for teachers and
teacher educators which are designed to have a significant impact on their
professional development, as well as to foster better understanding of cultural
differences and awareness of the European dimension of teaching CEU (2007).
The European Commission supports national efforts in two main ways: a. Through
the Comenius programmes, is invested millions of Euros each year in projects that
promote school exchanges, school development, education of school staff, school
assistantships and more. b. Commission works closely with national policy-makers to
help them to develop their school education policies and systems. Gathering,
analysing and sharing information encourage the exchange of good policy practices
and help countries to revise their school curricula and reflect the changing needs of
society and the economy (EC, 2009).

C. Teacher Career
Being a teacher is very challenging. A good teacher of juveniles or of adults is an
educator who needs to possess a wide and deep knowledge and understanding of the
professional field, of the human development and evolution (Volmary et al, 2009).
Further, the teachers need to have adopted the ethical responsibility of the profession.
A teacher operates in a multi-dimensional context and must understand the dialogue
and interlinkage between education, labour market and society to be able to promote
the learners progress in life. A formal qualification, professional and pedagogical, is
generally required of VET teachers in most European countries (Volmary et al, 2009).
Particularly for permanent teachers, the pedagogical qualification is becoming a legal
requirement. Routes to qualified teacher status can be pedagogical training taken
before entering the profession or during employment as a teacher.
Teachers’ careers are generally “flat”, from the aspect that there is no career
progression within teaching service (Volmary et al, 2009). It is common that teachers
with career ambitions become leaders or administrators. ((Volmary et al, 2009, Figure
2, page 20).
                                         102




The teachers’ main areas of activities and competences are Administration, Training,
Development and Quality assurance and Networking (Volmary et al, 2009). It is
obvious that the area of Training is the most central of them. However, with the
general trend of raising the quality of education and of making training more effective
and accountable, there is increasing pressure for the teacher to be more and more
involved also in the other activity areas. In now days, many changes have become in
VET of teachers. The conception of learning has much changed: the focus is now on
the individual learner and the teachers have become “learning facilitators” (Volmary
et al, 2009). Learning environments today range from virtual to real-life in
enterprises. Consequently, we should not speak of lessons anymore. Instead we
should speak of learning processes or “learning events” that the teachers are in charge
of. Teachers’ tasks related to training can be grouped in to activities related to
planning, facilitating, assessing or evaluating the learning event or process (Volmary
et al, 2009, Figure 4, page 24). Assessment and evaluation have become more
complex.
                                           103




D. Teachers’ education, the cornerstone of the quality of teaching
The quality of the education experienced by pupils is linked directly to the quality of
teaching. But the demands placed upon teachers are increasing and changing, and the
education they receive is not always adequate (ECET, 2010). Member States have
therefore agreed to improve the quality of teacher education and the Commission is
working with them in this task. The Council of the European Union, in the report of
December of 2009, recognises that knowledge, skills and commitment of teachers, as
well as the quality of school leadership, are the most important factors in achieving
high quality educational outcomes (CEU, 2009). Good teaching and the ability to
inspire all pupils to achieve their very best can have a lasting positive impact on
young people’s futures. Teaching provides a service of considerable social relevance:
teachers play a vital role in enabling people to identify and develop their talents and to
fulfil their potential for personal growth and well-being, as well as in helping them to
acquire the complex range of knowledge, skills and key competences that they will
need as citizens throughout their personal, social and professional lives (CEU, 2007).

According to the same report, the teachers’ education programmes, which are key
factors both in preparing teachers and school leaders to carry out their responsibilities
and in ensuring teachers’ and school leaders’ continuing professional development,
need to be of high quality, relevant to needs and based on a well-balanced
combination of solid academic research and extensive practical experience (CEU,
2009). The responsible persons for training teachers and teacher educators should
themselves have attained a high academic standard and possess solid practical
experience of teaching, as well as the competences which good teaching requires.
Efforts should also be made to ensure that teacher education institutions cooperate
effectively, on the one hand with those conducting pedagogical research in other
higher education istitutions, and on the other with school leaders.
It is essential that initial teacher education, early career support, the “induction” and
continuous professional education are treated as a coherent whole. No course of initial
teacher education, however excellent, can equip teachers with all the competences
they will require during their careers (CEU, 2009). Demands on the teaching
profession are evolving rapidly, imposing the need for new approaches. To be fully
                                          104


effective in teaching, and capable of adjusting to the evolving needs of learners in a
world of rapid social, cultural, economic and technological change, teachers
themselves need to reflect on their own learning requirements in the context of their
particular school environment, and to take greater responsibility for their own lifelong
learning as a means of updating and developing their own knowledge and skills.
The new teachers’ first posts, after the completion of initial teacher education, are a
particularly important time in terms of their motivation, performance and professional
development (CEU, 2009). All newly qualified teachers must receive sufficient and
effective support and guidance during the first few years of their careers. A reflective
approach is promoted, whereby both newly qualified and more experienced teachers
are encouraged continuously to review their work individually and collectively.
Effective school leadership is a major factor in shaping the overall teaching and
learning environment, raising aspirations and providing support for pupils, parents
and staff, and thus in fostering higher achievement levels. It is therefore of key
importance to ensure that school leaders have, or are able to develop, the capacities
and qualities needed to assume the increasing number of tasks with which they are
confronted (CEU, 2009). There is a need to ensure that school leaders have sufficient
opportunities to develop and maintain effective leadership skills. And since the
challenges involved in leading learning communities are similar throughout Europe,
school leaders could also benefit from collaborative learning with their counterparts in
other Member States, notably by sharing experience and examples of good practice,
and through cross-border opportunities for professional development. Teachers and
school leaders must be encouraged and enabled to take advantage of the opportunities
offered by exchange and mobility schemes, and networks, at both national and
international level. Equally important is ensuring that school leaders are not
overburdened with administrative tasks and concentrate on essential matters, such as
the quality of learning, the curriculum, pedagogical issues and staff performance,
motivation and development.

E. Future European Policy on the Teachers’ Training
The Council of the European Union, among the others (CEU, 2009), invites the
Commission to:
1. Enhance and support European policy cooperation in the areas of initial teacher
education, continuous professional development and school leadership, notably by
establishing platforms and peer-learning activities for the exchange of knowledge,
experience and expertise among policymakers and teaching professionals.
2. Present practical information for policymakers on developing structured induction
programmes for all new teachers, together with examples of measures that can be
taken to implement or improve such programmes.
3. Promote and support greater participation by teachers, school leaders and teacher
educators in transnational mobility schemes, partnerships and projects established
under Community programmes, in particular the Lifelong Learning Programme. The
new demands facing teachers not only create the need to develop new learning
environments and approaches to teaching, but also require a high degree of
professionalism (CEU, 2007). As schools become more autonomous and open
learning environments, teachers assume ever greater responsibility for the content,
organisation and monitoring of the learning process, as well as for their own personal
career-long professional development. Improving the quality of teacher education can
provide one means of making the teaching profession an attractive career choice.
                                          105


The Council of the European Union invites all the member states to use all the
available instruments, such as those forming part of the open method of coordination,
the Lifelong Learning Programme, the 7th Framework Programme for Research and
Technological Development and the European Social Fund, to promote, using an
integrated approach, evidence-based knowledge relevant to teacher education policies,
further initiatives on mutual learning, innovative teacher education projects and the
mobility of teachers, teacher educators and student teachers (CEU, 2007).
Messages from the European Council in the field of education as a contribution to the
discussion on the post-2010 Lisbon Strategy (CEU, 2009b) are focused on the:
-Promoting investment in education and training in a time of global economic
downturn. It is essential that Europe makes full use of each individual’s potential and
continues to promote higher, more efficient and targeted investment in quality
education and training.
-Upgrading and adapting the knowledge and skills of all citizens is crucial to paving
the way out of the crisis, as well as to meeting the long-term challenges of global
economic competitiveness, employment, active citizenship and social inclusion.
-Meeting the objectives laid down under the new “Education and Training 2020”
strategic framework and ensuring a strong role for education and training in the post-
2010 Lisbon Strategy will be essential. Education and training at all levels need to be
open and relevant to the requirements of a low-carbon, knowledge-based economy
and to prepare citizens for social and economic change.
-Strengthening Europe’s innovative capacity calls for much closer interaction between
the three sides of the knowledge triangle (education, research and innovation). The
Europe of the knowledge, the creativity and innovation needs education and training
systems which promote creative, innovative and entrepreneurial mindsets among
pupils, trainees, students, teachers and researchers, offer the highest possible quality
of initial and continuing professional development for teaching staff at all levels and
reinforce commitment to the development, as well as interaction between a European
of Higher Education Area and a European Research Area.
Specifically, the framework of the post 2010 Lisbon Strategy should address the
following four strategic objectives, according to the Council of the European Union
(CEU, 2009c) :
1. Making lifelong learning and mobility a reality;
2. Improving the quality and efficiency of education and training;
3. Promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship;
4. Enhancing creativity and innovation, including entrepreneurship, at all levels of
education and training.
As resulted, education and training have substantially contributed towards achieving
the long-term goals of the Lisbon strategy for growth and jobs, not only for the
teachers but for all the European citizens (CEU, 2009c). It is also essential that the
framework for European cooperation should remain flexible enough to respond to
both current and future challenges, including those arising under any new strategy
after 2010. In the period up to 2020, the primary goal of European cooperation is the
support of further development of education and training systems in the Member
States which are aimed at ensuring the personal, social and professional fulfilment of
all citizens, the sustainable economic prosperity and employability, whilst promoting
democratic values, social cohesion, active citizenship, and intercultural dialogue
(CEU, 2009c).
                                          106


                                    REFERENCES
Bell J, (1997). Methodological Planning of Pedagogic and Social Research,
Publications Gutenberg, Athens
Bird M, (1990). The implementation of educational policy: α case study of the
implementation of the Open College of South London, Thesis, University of London.
Commission of the European Communities-CEC (2009) Schools for the 21st Century,
Commission Staff Working Paper, Sec(2007)1009, Brussels, 11.07.07, Available 23-
09-2010 at http://ec.europa.eu/education/school21/consultdoc_en.pdf
Council of the European Union-CEU (2006) Modernising education and training: a
vital contribution to prosperity and social cohesion in europe, Joint Interim Report of
the Council and of the Commission on Progress Under the ‘Education & Training
2010’ Work Programme (2006/C 79/01) Official Journal of the European Union
1.4.2006,
http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/education_training_youth/general_framework/
c11091_en.htm, available 24-09-2010
Council of the European Union-CEU (2007) Improving the quality of teacher
education, Conclusions of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments
of the Member States, meeting within the Council of 15 November 2007, Official
Journal of the European Union (2007/C 300/07) 12.12.2007 available 23-09-2010 at
http://eur-
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2007:300:0006:0009:EN:PDF
Council of the European Union-CEU (2009) The professional development of
teachers and school leaders, Council conclusions of 26 November 2009, Official
Journal of the European Union (2009/C 302/04), 12.12.2009 , available 23-09-2010 at
the                  website                                                  http://eur-
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2009:302:0006:0009:EN:PDF
Council of the European Union-CEU (2009b) Messages from the EYC Council in the
field of education as a contribution to the discussion on the post-2010 Lisbon
StrategyBrussels, 6 November 2009 /15465/09 EDUC 175/SOC 659
Council of the European Union-CEU (2009c) Council Conclusions on a strategic
framework for European cooperation in education and training ("ET 2020")
2941th education, youth and culture Council meeting, Brussels, 12 May
European Commission-EC (2009), EUROPE 2020 A strategy for smart, sustainable
and inclusive growth, COM (2010) 2020, Brussels, 3.3.2010 Available 23-09-2010 at
http://pec.europa.eu/eu2020pdfCOMPLET%20EN%20BARROSO%20%20%20007
%20-%20Europe%202020%20-%20EN%20version.pdf
European Commission-EC (2010) From the Lisbon Strategy to "Europe 2020",
available 24-09-2010 at http://ec.europa.eu/education/focus/focus479_en.htm
European Commission Education & Training-ECET (2010) School education:
equipping        a       new       generation,      available       23-09-2010         at
http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/doc64_en.htm
Volmari K, Helakorpi S & Frimodt R. (2009) Competence Framework For Vet
Professions, Handbook for practitioners, Finnish National Board of Education and
editors, Sastamala
                                          107


                  EMERGING EDUCATIONAL ORIENTATIONS
                     ΙN NIKOS KAZANTZAKIS’ WORKS

                    By 1Kalathaki M., 1Skivalaki C., 2Varitaki M.
1
    General Lyceum of Meleses, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
2
    Gymnasium of Meleses, Crete, Greece

“Ideal teachers are those who use themselves as bridges over whichthey invite their
students to cross, then having facilitated their crossing, joyfully collapse, encouraging
them to create bridges of their own”.
                                                        Nikos Kazantzakis
ABSTRACT
Every reader feels Kazantzakis’ power of speech in his words. An important part of
his work is addressed to children. Since 1910, he had undertaken the task of writing a
series of school books, first with Galatia and later with Eleni. Kazantzakis’ translation
work includes philosophical and scientific books (Plato, Nietzsche, James, Bergson
and Darwin), children’s books (Verne and Swift), plays (Shakespeare and Pirandello)
and literary fiction (Homer, Dante, and Goethe).
In his successive travels, he was concerned about major spiritual and universal issues,
such as the mortality of civilizations, poverty, the psychology of the people, their
culture, the museums, the monuments and their history, which are topics of the UN
and European Union. He also was profoundly interested in the utilization of
technology both in Art and in Literature. He was the first Greek writer who realized
the potentialities of cinematography, in a time when the new medium was not widely
known. The screen adaptation of “Zorba the Greek” in 1964, directed by Mihalis
Kakoyiannis, was awarded three Oscar prizes and met worldwide success. There was
also a musical adaptation that was presented in several cities of the United States, in
Broadway New York, and in a lot of European countries.
Kazantzakis picked up the material for his novels from the everyday popular life of
Cretan people, from the place where he was born (manners and customs, traditions,
folk philosophy, etc.), the habitat, the local history and in the Greek tradition in
general. while he used a language that could be understood by students easily, with
issues familiar to their experiences and everyday life. He describes the environment
of the humanity as exquisite and the people living in this exquisite environment of
great abilities, as wild beasts which can go into Hell and into Paradise, whichever
they choose, beyond the devil and the angels.
The fight for inner and social freedom is prevailing in all of Kazanzakis’ books.
Gaining of freedom, as educational objective, penetrates all cognitive school objects
and constitutes a unified conceptual frame of Education for Sustainable Development
(ESD). Freedom is fundamentally related to the values which ESD promotes, such as
solidarity, ecological viability, social justice, responsibility, autonomy, tolerance and
beauty of the earth.

KAZANTZAKIS A WRITER, ALSO, FOR CHILDREN
An important part of Kazantzakis’ work is addressed to children. Two of his novels
for children, “Alexander the Great” (a part of which was published in sequels in 1940-
1941) and “In the palaces of Knossos” (which was never published) are to be
interpreted according to the frame of his general pedagogical interests, which are
based on the principles of early demoticism.
                                          108


Besides, since 1910, he had undertaken the task of writing a series of school books,
first with Galatia and later with Eleni. Also, in the 30’s, he translate and adapted a
number of novels for children (Verne, Swift, Dickens) for Dimitrakou and
Eleftheroudakis Publications (Museum’s subtitle). The ethics of future generations
needed by our planet seems to be concentrated in the Primary School Readers written
by Galatia and Kazantzakis. The values that emerge the Reader “The Soldier”, the
solidarity, the recognition of the enemy, the worship of nature, the philosophy of life,
death and dignity create an attractive state of employment while the writers, Nikos
and Galatia Kazanzakis, introduce useful scientific knowledge of geography, ecology,
local communities and anthropology (Nikoloudaki-Souri, 2008). “I have dipped into
the Reader and it’s almost driving me out of my mind. I write and write all over
again, Kalmouhos comes, we work together, and I write again. And I have to write
one more and two more Readers for the Second Grade” (Letter to Eleni, Aegina,
1935)

THE POWER OF THE WORDS IN KAZANTZAKIS’ TEXTS
Every reader feels Kazantzakis’ power of speech in his words. “Every word is an
adamantine shell which encloses a great explosive force. To discover its meaning you
must let it burst inside you like a bomb and in this way liberate the soul which it
imprisons” (Kazantzakis, “Report to Greco” page 90). “You shall never be able to
establish in words what you live in ecstasy. But struggle unceasingly to establish it in
words. Battle with myths, with comparisons, with allegories, with rare and common
words, with exclamations and rhymes, to embody it in flesh, to transfix it”
(Kazantzakis, “The Saviors of God: Spiritual Exercises”).
Kazantzakis’ translation work includes philosophical and scientific books (Plato,
Nietzsche, James, Bergson, Darwin), children’s books (Verne, Swift), plays
(Shakespeare, Pirandello) and literary fiction (Homer, Dante, and Goethe). Most of
his translations were made in order for him to make a living, in collaboration with
publishing houses or after an order of the Royal Theatre, but they reflect the writer’s
special philosophical and pedagogical interests. Moreover, they impressed his effort
for the development of the demotic and his research for the most appropriate word.
Kazantzakis believed that word to word translation ruins the rhythm of the original;
therefore, he tried to capture the meaning and its deeper sense. He also believed that
the translator ought to take in the world of the foreign writer and render it according
to his disposition.

KAZANTZAKIS IN CINEMA
Kazantzakis was profoundly interested in the utilization of technology both in Art and
in Literature. He was the first Greek writer who realized the potentialities of
cinematography, in a time when the new medium was not widely known. Impressed
by the power and the immediacy of the picture, he studied special books about
cinematography and watched passionately film productions in the Soviet Union and
Europe.
Wishing to pay tribute to his old friend, Giorgi Zorba, whom he acknowledges as one
of his teachers, Kazantzakis focuses on the theme of conflict between the Apollonian
moderation and the Dionysian attitude towards life (Museum’s Subtitle). The book
was written in 1946 in Aegina and was published, after another elaboration, in 1946.
It was translated almost in every foreign language, while in 1954 it was awarded the
prize of “Best Foreign Book Published in France”. The screen adaptation, directed by
Mihalis Kakoyiannis (“Zorba the Greek”, 1964) was awarded three Oscar prizes and
                                          109


met worldwide success. There was also a musical adaptation that was presented in
several cities of the United States, in Broadway New York, and in a lot of European
countries. Theatrical adaptations of Zorba were presented by a number of theatre
companies in Greece and abroad. Finally, Zorba inspired music compositions by
Mikis Theodorakis (soundtrack for Kakoyiannis’ film and music for the ballet of the
same name), by Nikos Mamagakis, Joseph Kander, Kostas and Manos Moundakis.

THEMES OF KAZANTZAKIS’ LITERATURE
Kazantzakis picked up the material for his novels from the everyday popular life of
Cretan people, from the place where he was born (manners and customs, traditions,
folk philosophy, etc.), in the habitat, the local history and in the Greek tradition in
general (Doulaveras, 2008), while he used a language that could be understood by
students easily, with issues familiar to their experiences and everyday life. He gives
detailed descriptions of the natural environment where his heroes live, the land and
the sea, the natural phenomena, the social life in a Cretan village, the rural population
of Crete. The description of the manners and customs of that particular time and place
encloses the philosophical ideas Kazantzakis wishes to produce every time, so as to
avoid their imported use, and harvest them somehow as if they had been planted and
grown in their own soil, in their natural environment (Doulaveras, 2008).
Kazantzakis describes the human habitat, the earth environment as exquisite.
“…‘What a miracle this world is!’ he said to himself as he climbed. ‘If I open my eyes
I see the mountains, the clouds and the rain falling; if I close my eyes, I see God, Who
created the mountains, the clouds and the falling rain. Everywhere, by the light of day
and in the darkness, the grace of God is around us!” (Kazantzakis, “Christ
Recrucified”, translated by Jonathan Griffin, Faber and Faber, London 1966).
And describes the people living in this exquisite environment, of great abilities, as
wild beasts which can go into Hell and into Paradise, whichever they choose, beyond
the devil and the angels. “…Man is a wild beast,’ he told himself. ‘Yes, he does what
he chooses. If he chooses to take a road, he takes it. The gate of Hell and the gate of
Paradise are close together, and he goes in at whichever he chooses… The Devil can
only go into Hell, and the angel only into Paradise, but Man into whichever he
chooses!” (Kazantzakis,“Christ Recrucified”). “…Look, one day I had gone to a little
village. An old grandfather of ninety was busy planting an almond tree. ‘What,
granddad!’ I exclaimed. ‘Planting an almond tree?’ And, he bent as he was, turned
round and said: ‘My son, I carry on as if I should never die.’ I replied: ‘And I carry
on as if I was going to die any minute.’ Which of us was right, boss?” (Kazantzakis,
“Zorba the Greek”, translated by Carl Wildman, Faber and Faber, London 2000).

In his successive travels, was concerned about major spiritual and universal issues,
such as the mortality of civilizations, poverty, the psychology of the people, their
culture, the museums, the monuments and their history, which are issues of the UN
(UNESCO, 2004; European Union, 2001), and which led him to formulate the duty
of the modern Greek for creation in order to contribute to the modern Greek culture
(Argiropoulou, 2008). Kazantzakis’ travels endowed him with a universal perspective
and at the same time he was allowed to collate pictures and experiences which he
transformed in his works literary (Museum’s subtitle). Since he was very young, a
student of the French School in Naxos, he focused on the European dimension of his
education and orientation. (Nikoloudaki – Souri, 2008). In London, Kazantzakis made
an appeal, on BBC radio station and in “Life and Letters” magazine, to the
intellectuals all over the world to found an International Organization of the Intellect
                                           110


in order to safeguard the political values and to sustain peace. “...Because the time
that humanity passes now, is critical and the world is such a single body that not one
nation can be saved, if not all of them are saved. And if a nation is lost, it can induce
the loss to all the others. Come for all season, that a nation could be separated and
saved, or perish alone. So, talking to the people of your race today, you feel that you
are talking to all human races together ...” (Anemogiannis, 2000).

Kazanzakis gives his personal definition of civilization in “Report to Greco” (pg 168):
“When life succeeds through every day struggle, in beating all the enemies around,
natural forces and beasts, hunger, thirst, illness, there sometimes happens to end up
in having extra strength. Life needs to waste this strength on playing. Civilization
starts where playing begins. As long as life fights to be conserved, to be protected
from it's enemies, to be held on the Earth's skin, civilization can't be born. It is born,
by the time life satisfies its very first needs and it begins to rejoice some rest...No
other nation had ever comprehended so perfectly, both the secret and the obvious
value of the game.”

THE FIGHT FOR INNER AND SOCIAL FREEDOM
The fight for inner and social freedom is prevailing in Kazanzakis’ work. During
German Occupation, Kazantzakis decided to translate the Homeric Εpics, therefore
paying a tribute to one of the great teachers, Homer. His entire intellectual world, his
view of the world, the questions that needed answers are to be found in the 33.333
lines of verse of Odyssey. The protagonist is an eternal traveler and immigrant, who
revolts, without fear or hope, against the decline of the world, the enslavement, the
despotism of the material world, seeking the meaning of life and the pure and absolute
freedom. “…Father Yánaros stood happily for a moment over his grave. ‘Death, I do
not fear you,’ he murmured, and suddenly he felt free. What does it mean to be free?
He who does not fear death is free. Father Yánaros stroked his beard, satisfied. God,
he pondered, is there a greater joy than freedom from death? ‘No,’ he went on, ‘no’!”
(Kazantzakis, “The Fratricides”, translated by Athena Gianakas Dallas, Simon and
Schuster, New York 1964).
“…Christ suffered pain, and since then pain has been sanctified. Temptation fought
until the very last moment to lead him astray, and Temptation was defeated. Christ
died on the Cross, and at that instant death was vanquished for ever.”
(Kazantzakis, “The Last Temptation of Christ”, translated by P. A. Bien, Faber and
Faber, London 2003).

Gaining of freedom, as educational objective, penetrates all cognitive school objects
and constitutes a unified conceptual frame of Education for Sustainable Development
(ESD). Freedom is fundamentally related to the values, solidarity, ecological viability,
social justice, responsibility, autonomy, tolerance and beauty the ESD promotes
(Huckle 2006, Flogaiti 2006), because it demands the respect of dignity and human
rights all over the world, and commitment for social and economical justice for all as
well as for the future generations too.
According to Huckle (2006), a strong democracy allows the citizens to practise moral
and social responsibility, while human rights are the means to translate ethics to
politics. The environmentally literate citizens of tomorrow do not simply have the
knowledge and the environmental information, but they critically thinking people who
have a sense of responsibility and awareness of their own role in establishing living
conditions and safeguarding quality of life (Rawls, 2004; Scott & Gough, 2003). This
                                           111


citizen of tomorrow is sacrificed for his ideas and ideals, according to Kazantzakis:
“…The brain says, ‘we want to leave!’ But the heart ―God helps us!― won’t allow
it. We are not leaving. Here we shall die as a sacrifice for Crete. Let her speak. We
who are dying are doing better than they who will leave. For Crete doesn’t need
householders, she needs madmen like us. Such madmen make Crete immortal.”
(Kazantzakis, “Freedom or Death”, translated by Jonathan Griffin, Simon and
Schuster, New York 1955).
The declarations of UNESCO and the EU strategies highlight the need of
reorientation of the objectives and process of education through the acquisition of
ESD and enhancing lifelong learning (Sterling, 1996).
“Where are we going? Do not ask! Ascend, descend. There is no beginning and no
end. Only this present moment exists, full of bitterness, full of sweetness, and I rejoice
in it all.” (Kazantzakis, The Saviors of God: Spiritual Exercises).

                                REFERENCES
Anemogianis G. (2000) N. Kazantzakis, course to the eternity, publication of Nikos
Kazantzakis’ Museum , Myrtia, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 2nd edition

Argyropoulou H, (2008) The work “Travelling” of N. Kazantzakis as educative
virtuous and material, in N Kazantzakis and Education, Library of Panellenic Union
of Philologists, Hellinoekdotiki, Athens

Doulaveras A. (2008) The folklore element in the romantic work of Nikos
Kazantzakis and his instructive exploitation, in N Kazantzakis and Education, Library
of Panellenic Union of Philologists, Hellinoekdotiki, Athens

European Union (2001), The Idea of Sustainable Development in Europe, European
Commission,         It      was      pulled      out  on      9-1-08      from
http://ec.europa.eu/sustainable/welcome/idea_en.htm

Huckle J. (2006b) Ethics, values and consumer education in ESD, Academic Notes,
Workshop 4-8 of December, Postgraduate Program of Study "Environmental
Education ", TEPAES, Aegean University, Rhodes

Nikoloudaki-Souri E. (2008) The educational group and the collaboration of galatias
and Nikos Kazantzakis in the writing “Readings for the Primary school”, in N
Kazantzakis and Education, Library of Panellenic Union of Philologists,
Hellinoekdotiki, Athens

Kazantzakis N. (1982) Report to Greco, Kazantzakis Publication, 18th ed, Athens
Kazantzakis, “The Saviors of God: Spiritual Exercises
Kazantzakis, “Christ Recrucified
Kazantzakis, “Zorba the Greek
Kazantzakis, “The Fratricides”
Kazantzakis, “The Last Temptation of Christ”,
Kazantzakis, “Freedom or Death

Rawls J (2004) Political liberalism (1993), Metehmio publications, Athens
Scott, W. & Gough, S. (2003) Sustainable Development and Learning, Framing the
issues, London, RoutledgeFalmer
                                         112



Sterling,S. (1996), Education in Change, in Huckle, J. & Sterling, S. (eds), Education
for Sustainability, Earthscan.

UNESCΟ (2004) Draft UNECE Strategy for Education for Sustainable Development,
Addendum, Background Economic and Social council Economic Commission for
Europe Committee on Environmental Policy, 2nd Regional Meeting on Education for
Sustainable Development, Rome, 15-16 July 2004, cep/ac.13/2004/8/add.1, 18May
2004

Flogaiti E. (2006) Education for the Environment and the Viability, publication of
Greek Letters, 2nd ed


                                Acknowledgements
To Varvara Tsaka, curator of Kazantzakis’ Museum at Myrtia of Heraklion Crete,
who offered extremely valuable material for this work.
                                      113


  RIGID BODY’S MECHANICS OF SOLID BODY: CIRCULAR MOTION

                          By Rodolphos Karaiskakis

The lesson was carried out in the Lyceum of Polemidion, Lemessos, Cyprus and has
been recorded in video, which is included in the CDrom of the Proceedings of the
European Educational Conference.
                                           114




  JOINTED EXEMPLARY TEACHING OF TEACHERS OF SECONDARY
  EDUCATION WITH APPLICATION OF THE DIDACTIC METHOD OF
     SOCRATES (OBSTETRICAL METHOD), WITH THEATRICAL
                       ACTIVITIES

                  by Kalathaki M, Karageorgiou N, Papastefanaki A

INTRODUCTION
“Preparing Europeans for Lifelong Learning” retrieved from Commission of the
European Communities (2009) under the title of “Schools for the 21st Century”.
An individual's success in the knowledge society and learning economy will require
the ability to carry on learning in different ways throughout life, and to adapt rapidly
and effectively to changing situations. This suggests that pupils should leave school
competent and motivated to take responsibility for their own learning throughout life.
Through educational research, our concepts of learning continue to evolve, but there
is still some way to go before the lessons from research are fully reflected in teaching
methods and school organisation. There are discussions, for example, about the extent
to which there is still a role for 'traditional' teaching methods of transmitting
knowledge and training students to recall it, and about the extent to which teaching
for older pupils, who have developed sufficient skills and competences to be
autonomous, could or should become a more learnercentred activity, in which learner
and teacher actively co-construct knowledge and skills.

We tried a simulation of a “Socrates Lesson”, during the European Education
Conference (Peza of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 25& 26 of October 2010), that took
place in the frame of the Long Life Learning Programme “Teachers Training Kit
According to the Lisbon Strategy-Future European Teachers”.

The conceptual frame of this workshop was the "The knowledge, it's acquisition". We
chose the dialogue of Socrates with Protagoras following the aspect of Socrates in
Menon of Platona that knowledge pre-exists inside us, we have not realized that we
have it, and we need somebody to extract it. This person is Socrates who asks specific
questions which follow his students to find out the answer-the reality that
“ virtue can be taught”.

We prepared a “Lesson” in mother tongue of 11 European Schools’ delegation who
participated in the European Educational Conference, Peza 25 & 26 October 2010.
 “You shall never be able to establish in words what you live in ecstasy. But struggle
unceasingly to establish it in words. Battle with myths, with comparisons, with
allegories, with rare and common words, with exclamations and rhymes, to embody it
in flesh, to transfix it” (N Kazantzakis, The Saviours of God: Spiritual Exercises).
When the greatest minds (authors, scientists, artists etc) laboured the gold human
intellects were, unquestionably, in a state of mind and soul ecstasy. We, the teachers,
are in the duty to carry the torch of this knowledge to the younger. The teacher is the
bridge for the students to pass across. After the school years, this bridge is interrupted
and the young become adults and have to be driven in to Long Life Learning
procedure. According to N Kazantzakis, the diffuse of mind in words can not be
established, but we, the teachers, have to struggle unceasingly. The aim of our
                                           115


educational work is to find out newer and more effective didactic methods and
produce suitable supervisory material for our teaching, in order to achieve the passage
of the mind conquests from their creators to the users of next generations.
I think that it is a great challenge for all of the future teachers to try to teach without
the support of the main equipment that they use up to now, the common language of
communication in speech.
It would be an exceptionally interesting experiment to prepare lessons for the Greek
students in your mother tongue, by using the most effective materials, techniques and
methods, taking full advantage of your scientific knowledge and pedagogic training
backround and your educational skills that you have developed up to now and
according to the Lisbon Strategy’s documents.

The goal is the way of teaching and not an expanded cognitive object. As K Kavafis
says in his poem called “Ithaca”
(http://www.translatum.gr/forum/index.php?topic=14600.0),
the benefit for the students and the teachers will immerse from the procedure, the way
to Ithaca and not from the final destination, Ithaca itself
“As you set out for Ithaca,
hope that your journey is a long one,
full of adventure, full of discovery
… Keep Ithaca always in your mind.
… Arriving there is what you're destined for
But do not hurry the journey at all.
Better if it lasts for years
so that you're old by the time you reach the island
wealthy with all you have gained on the way
Without her you would not have set out.
She has nothing left to give you now..
And if you find her poor, Ithaca won't have fooled you.
Wise as you will have become, so full of experience,
you will have understood by then what these Ithacas mean”

SOME OF THE AIMS OF THE DIDACTIC ACTION

Basic aim is use ICT’s in the communication of 11 schools from 11 European
countries for preparing this Jointed Exemplary Teaching by Application of the
Didactic Method of Socrates (Ancient Greek Philosopher), called “Obstetrical
Method”, with Theatrical Activities. In this effort, except ICTs, everything will
become easier and simpler when the teachers, coexist in the same place, inside an
ancient theatre, trying to guide their thoughts in the philosophic paths of Socrates,
Platon, Protagoras by reading selected scripts of Platon about Protagoras in their
mother tongues, by using the bibliographic reports of many scientists, using oral
speech in English and the body language.

The ancient Greek philosophy will be shared among teachers of 11 countries and the
sound of ancient Greek wiil be heard. Socrate’s philosophic and pedagogical
dialogues will be materialized in 10 different European languages. The teachers will
try to communicate and play an ancient Greek theatre by using their mother tongues,
body language, English language, oral speech, scripts, a drum and a whistle. They are
going approve that the linguistic diversity as an element of the European civilization it
                                          116


does not exclude the teachers from foreign countries to come close and teach together
and generally, can not keep people far apart. This initiative will approve that it is
possible for people who live far awayto come close and work together, by using
effectively their own intelligence, souls and bodies, by thinking in a team-
collaborating climate, giving the impulse that Europe needs, after its 50 years
existence to a new “Gold Century”, beyond the Athenian one.

METHODOLOGY             OF     THE      “SOCRATES         LESSON”-EDUCATIONAL
PROCEDURE

Casting
One of the Greek teachers acted as Socrates and the rest of the Europeans his students,
famous sophists and other important persons of ancient Athenian political scene.
Especially, the coordinator of the LLP Multilateral Comenius Programme acted as the
sophist Protagoras, the coordinators of each school acted as Socrates’ students and the
famous sophists and all the other teachers of the European delegations were the
Choros - the important persons of ancient Athenian political scene who used to
discuss with Socrates.
One teacher played an ancient drum and used a whistle, shouting loudly the number
of the question and the name of the character, every time that Socrates and the Leader
of Choros attended questions to the teachers.
The roles shared to the teachers.

The Theatre Scene
In order to ensure a similar educational environment of ancient Athens, the lesson was
prepared as a theatre act, in the way that Socrates used to make his lessons and
dialogues with the citizens of Athens ancient city, mainly outside under the olive
trees.
The lesson takes place in an ancient theatre in the countryside of Kato Archanes
village of Heraklion prefecture. In the orchestra of the theatre, Socrates discusses with
his students, the famous sophists and the other important persons of ancient Athenian
political scene.
The Choros with its Leader are in the seats of the ancient theatre.
All the participators of the LLP Comenius meeting and the European Educational
Conference participated to this activity as actors.

Endymatology
The students of Socrates were dressed with tunics and as shoes had sandals. The
members of Choros were dressed in paper dresses in the form of Laptops, with
sandals, expressing the modern scientific aspects on Ancient Greek Philosophy.

The Script (Senario)
The scripts were the product of a synthesis of the original dialogues of Socrates and of
bibliographic references of scientific aspects on Socrates way of thinking and
teaching method. These had previously translated in the mother tongues of the
participants (Greek, Italian, Spanish, Turkish, Polish, Lithuanian, Norwegian,
Portugal, Bulgarian, Romanian). Each student had his/her own text in the mother
tongue and in English printed as papyrus.
All the questions of Socrates and the Leader of Choros, with their answers, had been
numbered in the same way, in all languages to avoid confusion.
                                          117


Socrates asks questions in Modern Greek. These questions had previously been
translated in English and sent, by email, to the schools in order to find out the answers
in Platon book “Protagoras” translated in their own mother tongues. The teachers had
chosen the answers by using the number of the verses of the book and read them
along the development of the dialogue with their teacher-Socrates.
The Leader of Choros asks questions in English and the members of Choros answer
these questions, also, in English. These questions and answers concerned the didactic
aspects of some scientist about Socrates dialogues, the historical information of
ancient Athenian life of 5th century BC, the personality of Socrates, the clarification
of the subject of Socrates-Protagoras dialogue, etc.

The Procedure of the Didactic Action
There is one teacher who explains to the others the procedure that will be followed,
which is the next step.
Another teacher will play an ancient drum every time when a student ought to answer
to the Socrates’ question and shouts loudly the student’s name. The same teacher, by
using a whistle, will call the members of Choros to answer the questions that the
Leader addressed to them, shouting loudly the number of the question and the name
of the student, of sophist or else Athenian.
1. In the beginning, each student of Socrates and interlocutor Sophist says his name
and introduces himself.
2. Socrates asks questions in Modern Greek and his interlocutors answer them in their
mother tongue, one by one.
3. This dialogue between Socrates and his students and sophists is interrupted by
another dialogue, of nowadays questions answers which the Leader attends to the
members of Choros. One question to each member of Choros.
4. After the final question, all together say the conclusion of Socrates-Protagoras
dialogue which is the main message of this didactic action in Ancient Greek (with
Latin letters). It is the answer of Question 6.

SCRIPT                      Kalathaki M, Karagiorgi M, Papastefanaki A, Kazamia A
DIRECTION                   Kalathaki M
ENDYMATOLOGY                Papastefanaki A
MUSICAL DRESSING            Youtube


                                  BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ancient       Greek      Texts          and        translations       http://www.greek-
language.gr/greekLang/index.html

Biographies: http://el.wikipedia.org/

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES (2009) Schools for the 21st
Century, Brussels, SEC(2007)1009, Commission Staff Working Paper
available 23-09-2010 at http://ec.europa.eu/education/school21/consultdoc_en.pdf

Gate for the Greek Language (2010) Myths and texts on Protagoras (317e-328d)
Socrates’ Argumentation, available 4-10-2010 at http://www.greek-language.gr/
                                        118


Lato        -     Library      of     Ancient  Texts      on      Line      (2009)
http://sites.google.com/site/ancienttexts/
Created by Peter Gainsford (Depatment of Classsical Studies, Victoria University of
Wellington) with link to GREEK FONTS ARCHIVE

Philosophy movies to the city: Sophists and Socrates, Chapter 6, available 30-09-2010
at www.edlit.auth.gr/docs/files/propt/f111/kefalaiok.doc

Skafidas Z (2010) The discovery and Dialogues of Socrates, available 10-10-2010 at
http://users.sch.gr//zskafid/apopsis3.htm

SpiropoulosΣπυρόπουλος (1992) Protagoras of Platon, Introduction, Script,
Translation,    Εισαγωγή, κείµενο, µετάφραση, explanatory comments, 4th ed,
Thessalloniki, Aristoteleio University, Institution of Neo-hellenic Studies

Theodorakopoulos I.N. (2009) Introduction to Platon, in Sophists and Socrates
http://www.kee.gr/attachments/file/703.pdf, available 2-10-2010

Protagoras Dialogue comments http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protagoras_(dialogue)
available 2-10-2010PROTAGORAS IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES
SPAIN:
http://www.filosofia-irc.org/libros/protagoras.html
ITALY:
http://www.ilgiardinodeipensieri.eu/testi/protagora.htm
PORTUGAL: Ana da Piedade Elias Pinheiro. "Protágoras de Platão" Editora Relógio
de            Água,              1999,            Lisboa,        185         pp.
BULGARIA: Plato. Selected Dialogues. Publ. Narodna cultura, Sofia, 1982
Now in Bulgarian language/ the book is in Bulgarian !/
Платон. Избрани диалози. Изд.Народна култура.София, 1982
GREECE:http://www.greek-
language.gr/greekLang/ancient_greek/tools/corpora/anthology/content.html?m=1&t=
540
ABOUT SOCRATES http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k2KzymrmNa0

SOCRATES’ QUOTES http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/s/socrates.html
                                          119


            SYNOPSIS OF THE RESULTS OF THE CONFERENCE
                   “AFTER THE LISBON STRATEGY”

             by Maria Kalathaki, President of the Scientific Committee


I think that nobody can disputes that Education and Training have made a substantial
contribution towards achieving the long-term goals of the Lisbon strategy for Growth
and Jobs (CEU, 2009c). It is also essential that the framework for European
cooperation should remain flexible enough to respond to both current and future
challenges, including those arising under any new strategy after 2010.

In the period up to 2020, the primary goal of European cooperation should be to
support the further development of education and training systems in the Member
States which are aimed at ensuring: (a) the personal, social and professional fulfilment
of all citizens; (b) sustainable economic prosperity and employability, whilst
promoting democratic values, social cohesion, active citizenship, and intercultural
dialogue (CEU, 2009c).

Specifically, the framework of the post-Lisbon Strategy should address the following
four strategic objectives according to the Council of the European Eunion (CEU,
2009c) :
1. Making lifelong learning and mobility a reality;
2. Improving the quality and efficiency of education and training;
3. Promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship;
4. Enhancing creativity and innovation, including entrepreneurship, at all levels of
education and training.

Of course, a key question is the extent to which evaluation and assessment of a
school's performance can take into account the socio-economic and educational
profile of pupils, thereby highlighting the school's added value. There is considerable
variation across Europe in the extent to which schools have the autonomy to set their
objectives, to shape their curricula, to select and remunerate their staff and to
implement any changes that evaluations may show to be necessary (CEC, 2009).
120

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:22
posted:3/15/2012
language:English
pages:120