Review American History
Student Power Points
Civil War – Reconstruction
American Vision Chapters 10-12
Mrs. Kish’s Classes
Periods 1,6, 7
A War appropriations Bill
created by David Wilmot
Proposed that in any
territory the United States
gained from Mexico
“neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude shall
Suggestion made by
Lewis Cass that the
citizens of each new
territory should be
allowed to decide for
themselves if they
wanted to permit
slavery or not.
The Great Debate
If California entered the
Union as a free state, the
slaveholding states would
become a minority in the
Southerners dreaded losing
power in national politics,
fearing it would lead to
limits on slavery and states’
Taking states out of the
Senator Daniel Webster of
Massachusetts, called on
the Senate to put national
unity above sectional
loyalties and agreed with
Claiming it was the only
hope for preserving the
An anti-slavery novel written by
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Published in 1852
Sold 300,000 copies in its first
Southerners tried to have the
It eventually sold millions of
Passed in 1850
Forced the return of runaway
Dealt with slaves who ran
away to free states
A network of secret routes
and safe houses
Was used by slaves to
escape to free states and
Harriet Tubman was a
runaway slave herself and
was the most famous
Conductors gave slaves
food, shelter, and money
to start a new life
Purpose: to connect the West Coast
with the rest of the country
It would reduce travel time from a week
to four days
Democratic Senator Stephen A.
Douglas prepared a bill to organize a
new territory, Nebraska
House of Representatives passed the
Southern senators prevented bill from
coming to a vote
Passed in 1854
It allowed people in Kansas and
Nebraska to decide whether or
not to allow slavery within their
It served to cancel the Missouri
Compromise of 1820
Anti- slavery and pro-slavery
settlers divided into 2
Creation of the Republican Party
It was one of the two major contemporary political
parties in the U.S.
Created in July 1854 at a convention in Michigan.
Composed of Northern Whigs and Free-Soilers;
opposed further expansion of slavery.
Feared Southern planters were becoming an
Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott was a slave owned by Dr. John
He sued to end his slavery, arguing that he
was free because he was in a free territory.
The case went to the Supreme Court.
On March 6, 1857, Chief Justice Roger B.
Taney ruled against Scott.
It was the second of four proposed
constitutions for Kansas.
A town in Kansas wanted to legalize slavery,
so they made a constitution and the Senate
accepted it but the House of Representatives
In Freeport, Illinois, It was articulated by
Stephen A. Douglas at the second of the
Lincoln-Douglas debates on August 27, 1858.
Stephen Douglas statement that slavery
could be excluded in a territory if people
refused to pass the laws needed to regulate
and enforce slavery.
On October 16, 1859, John Brown and 18
followers seized the arsenal of Harper’s
John Brown hoped to begin an insurrection
against slave holders.
He was caught, convicted
South Carolina’s Secession
The dissolution of the
union began with South
,LA.,TX. All had to vote
Fun / Interesting Facts
With fireworks and drills
the Convention voted
the Ordinance of
Founding of the Confederacy
Montgomery AL declared
themselves to be a new nation
in early Feb.
The U.S. Constitution declared
that each state was
independent and guaranteed
the existence of slavery in
Jefferson Davis as president of
Last Attempt at Peace
Congress tried to find
allowing slavery where it
This did not pass in
congress. A peace
conference was also used
but was unsuccessful.
In early April Lincoln intended
to resupply Fort Sumter.
Confederate leaders told
Anderson stating to surrender
by the morning of April 12,
Anderson refused the note and
as time passed by a cannon
shot was heard and Fort
Sumter was attacked for 33
hours and wrecking the fort as
no one died but Andersons
men surrendered .
This was the beginning of the
Lincoln was focused on
not letting KY,MI, & ML
withdraw from the U.S.
In Baltimore Lincoln
imposed martial law
As though KY declared
itself neutral Lincoln was
still worried but promised
to leave them alone as
long as the confederacy
did the same.
Many people in Missouri
strongly sympathized with
the confederacy and the
convention voted against
Financing the War (Legal Tender
Act and Greenbacks)
As the war began to take its toll on the North and South
both were in desperate need to find money.
The North controlled the National Treasury, the Union
could expect continued revenue from the tariffs. So they
were in no need for money.
Also many banks form the North had large
reserves of money and were loaned to the
government by purchasing bonds.
Disagreements began between Democrats and
Republicans when civil rights were in question.
In the Summer of 1862, congress introduced a militia
law that required states to use conscription-forcing
people into military services
For the military law to be in forced President
Lincoln suspended the writs of habeas
corpus. Habeas corpus refers to a persons
right not to be in a trial
Financing the War Cont.
Southerners were concerned that the North would win
and withdrew gold and silver from the banks so the
government could not buy bonds, and without gold and
silver they would not be able to pay supplies to its troops.
As a result, congress passed (The Legal Tender Act in
1862). With this act the government was allowed to issue
After failed attempts to raise money the
Confederacy taxed its own people
Financing the War Cont.
Many Southerners resented paying taxes and did not
The Confederacy was forced to also print paper
money to pay its bills. Which caused inflation in the
South. By the end of the war the south had 9,000%
inflation, compared to the 80% form the North.
In 1862 Jefferson Davis was elected president and faced
many political problems. The Confederate Constitution
emphasized state rights and limited ability for Davis to
Leaders of North Carolina and Georgia and Alexander
Stephens (Davis’s V.P) were
outraged when he supported
The United States did not want Europeans interfering in
the war. It did not Europeans to view confederates as an
independent country. Also for it to respect the Union’s
navy blockade of the south.
Confederates wanted them to act especially the British.
To act upon the Union blockade and declare it as illegal.
To pressure the British and French
many southern planters refused to sell cotton until the
Europeans recognized the confederacy.
European Viewpoint Cont.
The British were not willing to approve any of
the Confederacy pleas because it did not want issues
with the US.
At one point Britain and the US did come close to
war. The British were furious over interference with
their ship at Havana, Cuba. Demanding the release
of 2 Confederates.
Lincoln then proceeded to release them.
Troops would march toward the enemy, firing in massed
volleys. Also, into tight columns and go on the offensive.
When close, they would attack with bayonets-long knives
attached to the front of there guns.
By 1850 French and American inventors had progressed
in making a new rifle. Firing conical bullets were more
accurate at much greater ranges.
During the Civil War troops also used trenches and
barricades to protect themselves.
Northern and Southern
Jefferson (Confederate leader) decided to only fight
battles that would not have heavy losses. Southern troops
often went on the offensive, charging enemy lines
and suffering substantial causalities.
In the 6 battles they went on the offensive
and they suffered 20,000 more
causalities than the union.
Northern and Southern Strategies
General Winfield Scott (leader of the union) introduced
the Anaconda plan. It would control Mississippi with Union
gunboats. Therefore, the South would run out of resources
Northerners disapproved saying it would be to slow. Scott
believed that the only way to win a war was to fight it slow
The Naval War
Abraham Lincoln and David G. Farragut
Blockade Runners- small, fast vessels the South used to
smuggle goods past the blockade, usually under cover of night.
Ironclads- iron plated ship built by covering the hull of a
wooden ship with iron(1862)
War in the West (Shiloh)
Ulysses S. Grant,
Braxton Braggs, William
S. Rosecrans and Don
April 6th 1862
Surprise attack on
Grant’s troops who
were camped at a
church named Shiloh
War in the East
2nd Battle of Bull Run Antietam
George B. McClellan
Robert E. Lee invaded
South forced North to retreat
Confederate forces only 20
miles from Washington Democrats gain control
of congress in
The Emancipation Proclamation
A decree freeing all
enslaved persons in
states still in rebellion
after January 1st, 1863
Freed enslaved African-
Americans only in
states at war with Union
• The south’s economy had begun to suffer from the war in 1862.
• Many farms converted from cotton to food crops.
• The South’s transportation system and the presence of Union
troops in several important agricultural regions led to sever food
shortages during the winter.
•The food shortages hurt Southern moral.
•Many Confederate soldiers deserted and returned home to help
•In the spring of 1863, the shortages led to riots.
• Mobs of women armed with knives and guns marches into shops to
• Jefferson Davis confronted the mob with a company of militia
troops and ordered the rioters to disperse.
• The North experienced an economic boom because of war.
• Industries supplied the troops at the front with clothes, munitions, and other
• Innovations in agriculture helped minimize the loss of labor as men left to fight.
• Mechanized reapers and mowers made faming possible with fewer workers.
• Many farmers were women.
• Women also filled labor shortages in various industries; clothing and
• New sewing machines greatly increased the productivity of seamstresses.
•The North produced an abundance of clothes for its soldiers.
•The industry profited from government contracts.
• African Americans were able to enlist in the Union Army and Navy on account of the
• Thousands of African American joined. Those of which included; Frederick Douglass’s
two sons, Charles and Lewis.
• About 18,000 African Americans served in the Union army during the Civil War. Making
up 9% of the army’s total soldiers.
•Another 10,000 to 15,000 served in the Union navy, making up 10 to 12% of their
• The first African American regiments officially organized in the North was the 54th
• The regiment fought valiantly at Fort Wagner near Charleston Harbor in July 1863,
losing nearly half of its soldiers in the battle.
• Many Union and Confederate soldiers suffered many hardships during the battle.
• Southern soldiers had to sleep without blankets and walk the roads shoeless.
• Union soldiers only ate the cattle they killed by the way. Many meals consisted of
hardtack, potatoes, and beans.
• Confederates had little coffee and their bread was usually made of cornmeal.
• Soldiers on both sides supplemented their diets with fruit or vegetables seized or
purchased from farms they passed.
• Doctors struggled to tend to the wounded.
• Doctors had little understanding of infectious germs.
• They used the same unsterilized instruments on patient after patient.
•Infection spread quickly in the field hospitals.
• Disease was one of the greatest threats facing Civil War soldiers.
• Many regiments lost half their men to illness before going into battle.
• Battlefield physicians used extreme measures in treating casualties.
• Doctors often amputated arms and legs to prevent gangrene and other infections from
spreading to other parts of the body.
• Women helped the war effort at home by managing family farms and businesses.
• Women made dramatic contributions to the Civil War by serving as army nurses to the
• 1861, The first female physician in the United States, Elizabeth Blackwell, started the nation’s
first training program for nurses.
• United States Sanitary Commission is an organization that provided medical assistance and
supplies to army camps and hospitals.
• Tons and thousands of women raised money to send bandages, medicine, clothing, and food
to army camps.
•Key figures: Clara Barton, Florence Nightingale, Kate Cumming.
• The Civil War was a turning point for the nursing profession in the United States.
• The courage and energy shown by women also helped to break down the belief that women
were weaker than men.
1,700 troops on a Calvary raid.
600 miles in 2 weeks.
This distractions enabled Grant move his troops south of the city.
Siege of Vicksburg
Union troops were ordered to live off the country.
Captured the town of Jackson.
Marched 180 miles in 17 days.
Set city under siege until the defenders gave up.
July 4, 1863 the Confederates surrendered.
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville
December 13, 1862
Burnside ordered a series of bloody assaults against Lee’s troops.
the union troops suffered more than 12,000 casualties.
Twice as many as the Confederates.
Burnside was replaced by General Joseph Hooker.
May 2, 1863
Lee’s troops attack Hooker’s troops in dense woods.
Lee’s forces repeatedly defeated the union troops.
May 5, Hooker decided to retreat.
Battle of Gettysburg
Marched to Pennsylvania, where his troops seized livestock, food, and
July 1, 1863
Confederates pushed the union troops out of the town into the hills to the
Armies hurried to the scene.
July 2, 1863
Lee orders 15,000 men to make a massive assault.
The attack came to be known as Pickett’s Charge.
Union lost 23,000 and the Confederates lost 28,000 casualties.
The Gettysburg Address
Lincoln went to Gettysburg to dedicate a portion of the battlefield as
His speech became known as one of the best orations in American
“conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are
created equal.” A quote from the Gettysburg Address.
He said that the war was not a battle between regions but a fight for
Battle of Chattanooga
20,000 men with their artillery, horses, and equipment
Travelled 1,200 miles.
Grant ordered 23,000 men to launch a limited attack
against the Confederates.
They yelled “Chickamauga” as they charged up the
steep slope, leaving the Confederacy surprised and
Missionary Ridge and Chattanooga was now in the
hand of the Union Army.
While Sheridan’s troops distracted Lee,
General Grant headed southeast, crossed the
James River, and then turned west toward
Petersburg. The troops did this because
capturing Petersburg would cut the only rail line into Richmond.
When the first Union troops were just reaching Petersburg, they
stopped because they saw that the city was defended by miles of
The fight that the Confederates put up scared the Union troops.
Grant ordered his Union troops to put Petersburg under siege.
Fall of Atlanta
Farragut prepared an attack on
Mobile Bay, while Sherman’s army
pushed toward Atlanta.
Sometime after this, Sherman sent
his troops south around Atlanta to
destroy the roads and railways
leading into the city. The troops
destroyed the rail lines by heating the
rails and twisting them into snarls of
Confederate General John B. Hood
evacuated Atlanta on September 1st,
to avoid being trapped in the city.
March to the Sea
Sherman proposed to march across
Georgia and quoted “The march
would be a demonstration to the
world… that we have a power that
Davis cannot resist.”
Sherman ordered all civilians to
leave Atlanta, then later ordered
troops to destroy everything in the
city of military value, including
railroads, warehouses, mills,
factories, and machine shops.
On November 15th, 1864 Sherman
began his March to the Sea. His
troops cut a path of destruction
through Georgia that was in places
60 miles wide.
Lee knew that time was running
out, on April 1st, 1865 Union troops
were led to cut the last rail line into
The troops withdrew from their
When Sheridan’s army got ahead of
Lee’s troops and blocked the road at
Appomattox Courthouse, Lee’s
attempts to escape Grant’s forces
Lee Surrendered – Last Battle of
During Lincoln’s speech, one listener, John
Wilkes Booth, said to a friend, “That is the
last speech he will ever make.” After
hearing that, Lincoln was warned not to
appear unescorted in public.
On April 14, 1865, Lincoln went to Ford’s
Theater to see a play and during the 3rd act,
Booth snuck behind Lincoln and shot the
President in the back of the head.
Lincoln’s death shocked the nation and
because of his death, he became the Union’s
Tens of thousands of men, women, and
children lined railroad tracks across the
nation as Lincoln’s body was transported
back to Springfield, Illinois.
The endings of the war lasted about 1 year.
Abraham Lincoln and General George McClellan were both candidates
during the election of 1864.
President Lincoln won the re-election with 55% of the popular vote.
President Abraham Lincoln General George McClellan
One of the most
controversial eras Started
around 1860 it meant to
rebuild after the war.
The South’s economy had
collapsed and the
agriculture system had
The Union was in full
It experienced intercoastal
democracy and turned on
the status of former
IT ended around 1877
President Lincoln began developing a plan for
restoring a regular government for Tenn., Arkansas,
In 1863 he set fourth his plan in the proclamation of
amnesty and reconstruction.
Offered a pardon to all southerners who took on oath
of loyalty to the U.S.
A new state government. Could be organized when
10% of voters took the oath.
Radicals were led by 2. Wanted the
Thaddeus Stevens of Penn. Republican Party to
And Senator Charles
Sumner of Mass.
become a powerful
They had three main goals.
institution in the south.
1. To prevent leaders of the 3. Wanted to guarantee
confed. from returning to African Americans the
power after the war. right to vote in the
The Wade-Davis Bill
By summer of 1864, the moderates
and radicals had came up w/
reconstruction plans that they both
could support as to an alternative to
Lincoln and introduced as The Wade-
It required the majority of white men in
a former confederate state to take an
oath of allegiance to the union the
state could then hold a constitutional
Each state would have to abolish
slavery, reject all debt they had
acquired as part of the confed.
It soon passed but Lincoln blocked it
with a veto to let the session of
congress expire w/out signing the
Refugee crisis prompted
congress to establish the
Bureau of refugees, Freeman, and
abounded Lands better known as
the Freemen’s Bureau.
The Bureau was given the task of
feeding and clothing the war
refugees in the south using
surplus army supplies.
Beginning in Sept. 1865 the
Bureau issued nearly 30,000
rations a day for the next to help
former enslaved people find work
Made a lasting and important
contribution in the field of
education and also help charities.
In May 1865 he issued a Proclamation of
Amnesty, which offered pardon to all former
citizens of the Confederacy who took an oath
of loyalty to the Union and to return their
On the same day he issued another
proclamation for North Carolina as a model
for how he wanted to restore the south to the
The Black Codes were known as the laws for the
These laws severely limited the African- Americans’
rights in the South.
The Black Codes varied from state to state, but they
all intended to keep African- Americans in a
conditional state similar to slavery. For example, they
had annual labor contracts, and children had to
accept apprenticeships in some states that allowed
them to be whipped and beaten.
The Black Codes enraged many Southerners like the
Secretary of the NAVY, Gideon Wells,.
The 14th Amendment
In March 1886, in an effort to override the Black Codes the
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act.
It granted citizenship to all the persons born in the U.S., and it
allowed African- Americans to own property and stated that they
were to be treated equally in court. It also gave power to sue
people who violated these rights.
Scared that they thought the Civil Rights Act might be
overturned in court they introduced the 14th Amendment to the
This Amendment declared that no state could deprive any
person of life, liberty, or property without process of law, and
declared that no state could deny any person protection of laws.
The Military Reconstruction Act
In March 1867, the Republicans passed the Military
Reconstruction Act. Which divided the former
Confederacy except for Tennessee into 5 military
A Union General was placed in charge of each
In the meantime, each former Confederate state had
to hold another constitutional convention to design
acceptable to Congress. The new state constitutions
had to give the right to vote to all adult male citizens,
regardless of their race.
The Republicans knew they had the votes to override any veto of their
policies, but they also knew that President Johnson could still interfere
with any of their plans by refusing to enforce the laws that they passed.
Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton would agree with the laws the
Republicans would pass, along with Ulysses S. Grant.
To prevent the President from ruining all their plans, they passed the
Command of the Army Act and the Tenure of Office Act. All this really
did was, it made everything the Presidential orders were to go through
the headquarters of the general of the army (Grant). The other act
required the Senate to approve the removal of any government
officials, which me4ans that the Pres. Couldn’t get rid of their boy
President Johnson decided to challenge the Tenure of Office Act and
fired Stanton, but Stanton barricaded himself in his office and refused
to leave. Three days later the House of Representatives impeached
Johnson, they charged him with “ high crimes and misdemeanors.”
This is a situation when someone fights the system and the system
Tax placed on alcohol, and tobacco
Helped pay off bonds issued during civil war
Republican congress put sin taxes in place
Panic of 1873
Originally started in Europe
The failure of Jay Cooke and company started the panic in the
The New York Stock Exchange closed for 10 days
The Blame was put on President Grant, and Congress
End of Reconstruction
Reconstruction ended when northern
democrats took over congress
They were to concerned with their own
Compromise of 1877
Rutherford B. Hayes, and Samuel Tilden
Hayes won the election because 8
Republicans and 7 Democrats Voted and
Republicans won 8-7
People believe he won because of a
Method used to reach election win for Hayes
resulting in promise to pull federal troops from
south and reconstruction ending.
All of the black people teamed up with white
people to harvest crops
Instead of being paid in cash, they received a
share of the crop