Wilmot Proviso

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					Review American History
 Student Power Points


     Civil War – Reconstruction

     American Vision Chapters 10-12

     Mrs. Kish’s Classes
          Periods 1,6, 7
Wilmot Proviso

 A War appropriations Bill
  created by David Wilmot


 Proposed that in any
  territory the United States
  gained from Mexico
  “neither slavery nor
  involuntary servitude shall
  ever exist.”
Popular Sovereignty
 Suggestion made by
  Lewis Cass that the
  citizens of each new
  territory should be
  allowed to decide for
  themselves if they
  wanted to permit
  slavery or not.
The Great Debate
 If California entered the
  Union as a free state, the
  slaveholding states would
  become a minority in the
  Senate.

 Southerners dreaded losing
  power in national politics,
  fearing it would lead to
  limits on slavery and states’
  rights.
Secession
 Taking states out of the
  union
 Senator Daniel Webster of
  Massachusetts, called on
  the Senate to put national
  unity above sectional
  loyalties and agreed with
  Clay’s plan.

 Claiming it was the only
  hope for preserving the
  Union
 An anti-slavery novel written by
  Harriet Beecher Stowe

 Published in 1852

 Sold 300,000 copies in its first
  year

 Southerners tried to have the
  novel banned
 It eventually sold millions of
  copies
 Passed in 1850


 Forced the return of runaway
 slaves

 Dealt with slaves who ran
 away to free states
 A network of secret routes
  and safe houses

 Was used by slaves to
  escape to free states and
  Canada

 Harriet Tubman was a
  runaway slave herself and
  was the most famous
  conductor

 Conductors gave slaves
  food, shelter, and money
  to start a new life
 Purpose: to connect the West Coast
  with the rest of the country

 It would reduce travel time from a week
  to four days

 Gadsden purchase

 Democratic Senator Stephen A.
  Douglas prepared a bill to organize a
  new territory, Nebraska

 House of Representatives passed the
  bill

 Southern senators prevented bill from
  coming to a vote
 Passed in 1854

 It allowed people in Kansas and
  Nebraska to decide whether or
  not to allow slavery within their
  borders

 It served to cancel the Missouri
  Compromise of 1820

 Anti- slavery and pro-slavery
  settlers divided into 2
  governments

 “Bleeding Kansas”
Creation of the Republican Party
 It was one of the two major contemporary political
  parties in the U.S.
 Created in July 1854 at a convention in Michigan.
 Composed of Northern Whigs and Free-Soilers;
  opposed further expansion of slavery.
 Feared Southern planters were becoming an
  aristocracy.
Dred Scott Decision

       Dred Scott was a slave owned by Dr. John
        Emerson.
       He sued to end his slavery, arguing that he
        was free because he was in a free territory.
       The case went to the Supreme Court.
       On March 6, 1857, Chief Justice Roger B.
        Taney ruled against Scott.
Lecompton Constitution
 It was the second of four proposed
  constitutions for Kansas.

 A town in Kansas wanted to legalize slavery,
  so they made a constitution and the Senate
  accepted it but the House of Representatives
  blocked it.
Freeport Doctrine
 In Freeport, Illinois, It was articulated by
  Stephen A. Douglas at the second of the
  Lincoln-Douglas debates on August 27, 1858.

 Stephen Douglas statement that slavery
  could be excluded in a territory if people
  refused to pass the laws needed to regulate
  and enforce slavery.
Harper’s Ferry
 On October 16, 1859, John Brown and 18
  followers seized the arsenal of Harper’s
  Ferry.
 John Brown hoped to begin an insurrection
  against slave holders.

 He was caught, convicted
  and executed.
South Carolina’s Secession
   Key Figures
       The dissolution of the
        union began with South
        Carolina.
       By February
        1,1861,MISS.,FL.,AL.,GA.
        ,LA.,TX. All had to vote
        to secede.
   Major Elections:
       Lincolns Election
   Fun / Interesting Facts
       With fireworks and drills
        the Convention voted
        the Ordinance of
        Secession
Founding of the Confederacy
 Key Figures:
       Montgomery AL declared
        themselves to be a new nation
        in early Feb.
       The U.S. Constitution declared
        that each state was
        independent and guaranteed
        the existence of slavery in
        confederate territory.
 Political Parties:
       Confederate
 Major Elections:
       Jefferson Davis as president of
        confederacy
Last Attempt at Peace
                    Congress tried to find
                    compromise.

                 Crittenden Compromise
                    proposed amendments
                    allowing slavery where it
                    currently existed.

                 This did not pass in
                    congress. A peace
                    conference was also used
                    but was unsuccessful.
Fort Sumter
                 Time Period:
                      In April
                 Key Concept:
                      In early April Lincoln intended
                       to resupply Fort Sumter.
                      Confederate leaders told
                       Anderson stating to surrender
                       by the morning of April 12,
                       1861.
                      Anderson refused the note and
                       as time passed by a cannon
                       shot was heard and Fort
                       Sumter was attacked for 33
                       hours and wrecking the fort as
                       no one died but Andersons
                       men surrendered .

                      This was the beginning of the
                       Civil War.
Border States
                   Key figures:
                        Lincoln was focused on
                         not letting KY,MI, & ML
                         withdraw from the U.S.
                        In Baltimore Lincoln
                         imposed martial law
                        As though KY declared
                         itself neutral Lincoln was
                         still worried but promised
                         to leave them alone as
                         long as the confederacy
                         did the same.
                        Many people in Missouri
                         strongly sympathized with
                         the confederacy and the
                         convention voted against
                         secession.
   Financing the War (Legal Tender
   Act and Greenbacks)
 As the war began to take its toll on the North and South
  both were in desperate need to find money.
 The North controlled the National Treasury, the Union
  could expect continued revenue from the tariffs. So they
  were in no need for money.
 Also many banks form the North had               large
  reserves of money and were           loaned to the
  government by             purchasing bonds.
Conscription
 Disagreements began between Democrats and
  Republicans when civil rights were in question.
 In the Summer of 1862, congress introduced a militia
  law that required states to use conscription-forcing
  people into                     military services
 For the military law to be in forced             President
  Lincoln suspended the                  writs of habeas
  corpus. Habeas               corpus refers to a persons
  right               not to be in a trial
   Financing the War Cont.
 Southerners were concerned that the North would win
  and withdrew gold and silver from the banks so the
  government could not buy bonds, and without gold and
  silver they would not be able to pay supplies to its troops.
 As a result, congress passed (The Legal Tender Act in
  1862). With this act the government was allowed to issue
  paper money.
 After failed attempts to raise              money the
  Confederacy taxed                    its own people
Financing the War Cont.
 Many Southerners resented paying taxes and did not
  pay.
 The Confederacy was forced to also print paper
  money to pay its bills. Which caused inflation in the
  South. By the end of the war the south had 9,000%
  inflation, compared to the 80% form the North.
   Southern Government
 In 1862 Jefferson Davis was elected president and faced
  many political problems. The Confederate Constitution
  emphasized state rights and limited ability for Davis to
  conduct war,
 Leaders of North Carolina and Georgia and Alexander
  Stephens (Davis’s                       V.P) were
  outraged when                         he supported
  conscription.
   European Viewpoint
 The United States did not want Europeans interfering in
  the war. It did not Europeans to view confederates as an
  independent country. Also for it to respect the Union’s
  navy blockade of the south.
 Confederates wanted them to act especially the British.
  To act upon the Union blockade and declare it as illegal.
  To pressure the British and French
  many southern planters refused to sell cotton until the
  Europeans recognized the                    confederacy.
European Viewpoint Cont.
 The British were not willing to approve any of
  the Confederacy pleas because it did not want issues
  with the US.
 At one point Britain and the US did come close to
  war. The British were furious over interference with
  their ship at Havana, Cuba. Demanding the release
  of 2 Confederates.
 Lincoln then proceeded to release them.
   Military Technology
 Troops would march toward the enemy, firing in massed
  volleys. Also, into tight columns and go on the offensive.
  When close, they would attack with bayonets-long knives
  attached to the front of there guns.
 By 1850 French and American inventors had progressed
  in making a new rifle. Firing conical bullets were more
  accurate at much greater ranges.
 During the Civil War troops also used trenches and
  barricades to protect themselves.
       Northern and Southern
   Strategies
Southern strategies:
 Jefferson (Confederate leader) decided to only fight
  battles that would not have heavy losses. Southern troops
  often went on the offensive, charging enemy lines
  and suffering substantial causalities.

 In the 6 battles they went on the offensive
  and they suffered 20,000 more
causalities than the union.
   Northern and Southern Strategies
   Cont.

 General Winfield Scott (leader of the union) introduced
  the Anaconda plan. It would control Mississippi with Union
  gunboats. Therefore, the South would run out of resources
  and surrender.
 Northerners disapproved saying it would be to slow. Scott
  believed that the only way to win a war was to fight it slow
  and right.
The Naval War
 Abraham Lincoln and David G. Farragut
 Blockade Runners- small, fast vessels the South used to
  smuggle goods past the blockade, usually under cover of night.
 Ironclads- iron plated ship built by covering the hull of a
  wooden ship with iron(1862)
War in the West (Shiloh)
 Ulysses S. Grant,
  Braxton Braggs, William
  S. Rosecrans and Don
  Carlos Buell
 April 6th 1862
 Surprise attack on
  Grant’s troops who
  were camped at a
  church named Shiloh
War in the East
 2nd Battle of Bull Run           Antietam
 George B. McClellan
                                   Robert E. Lee invaded
 South forced North to retreat
 Confederate forces only 20
                                    Maryland
   miles from Washington           Democrats gain control
                                    of congress in
                                    upcoming mid-term
                                    election
The Emancipation Proclamation
                 A decree freeing all
                  enslaved persons in
                  states still in rebellion
                  after January 1st, 1863
                 Abraham Lincoln
                  (Republican)
                 Freed enslaved African-
                  Americans only in
                  states at war with Union
• The south’s economy had begun to suffer from the war in 1862.
• Many farms converted from cotton to food crops.
• The South’s transportation system and the presence of Union
troops in several important agricultural regions led to sever food
shortages during the winter.
•The food shortages hurt Southern moral.
•Many Confederate soldiers deserted and returned home to help
their families.
•In the spring of 1863, the shortages led to riots.
• Mobs of women armed with knives and guns marches into shops to
seize food.
• Jefferson Davis confronted the mob with a company of militia
troops and ordered the rioters to disperse.
• The North experienced an economic boom because of war.
• Industries supplied the troops at the front with clothes, munitions, and other
necessities.
• Innovations in agriculture helped minimize the loss of labor as men left to fight.
• Mechanized reapers and mowers made faming possible with fewer workers.
• Many farmers were women.
• Women also filled labor shortages in various industries; clothing and
shoemaking.
• New sewing machines greatly increased the productivity of seamstresses.
•The North produced an abundance of clothes for its soldiers.
•The industry profited from government contracts.
• African Americans were able to enlist in the Union Army and Navy on account of the
Emancipation Proclamation.
• Thousands of African American joined. Those of which included; Frederick Douglass’s
two sons, Charles and Lewis.
• About 18,000 African Americans served in the Union army during the Civil War. Making
up 9% of the army’s total soldiers.
•Another 10,000 to 15,000 served in the Union navy, making up 10 to 12% of their
soldiers.
• The first African American regiments officially organized in the North was the 54th
Massachusetts.
• The regiment fought valiantly at Fort Wagner near Charleston Harbor in July 1863,
losing nearly half of its soldiers in the battle.
• Many Union and Confederate soldiers suffered many hardships during the battle.
• Southern soldiers had to sleep without blankets and walk the roads shoeless.
• Union soldiers only ate the cattle they killed by the way. Many meals consisted of
hardtack, potatoes, and beans.
• Confederates had little coffee and their bread was usually made of cornmeal.
• Soldiers on both sides supplemented their diets with fruit or vegetables seized or
purchased from farms they passed.
• Doctors struggled to tend to the wounded.
• Doctors had little understanding of infectious germs.
• They used the same unsterilized instruments on patient after patient.
•Infection spread quickly in the field hospitals.
• Disease was one of the greatest threats facing Civil War soldiers.
• Many regiments lost half their men to illness before going into battle.
• Battlefield physicians used extreme measures in treating casualties.
• Doctors often amputated arms and legs to prevent gangrene and other infections from
spreading to other parts of the body.
• Women helped the war effort at home by managing family farms and businesses.
• Women made dramatic contributions to the Civil War by serving as army nurses to the
wounded.
• 1861, The first female physician in the United States, Elizabeth Blackwell, started the nation’s
first training program for nurses.
• United States Sanitary Commission is an organization that provided medical assistance and
supplies to army camps and hospitals.
• Tons and thousands of women raised money to send bandages, medicine, clothing, and food
to army camps.
•Key figures: Clara Barton, Florence Nightingale, Kate Cumming.
• The Civil War was a turning point for the nursing profession in the United States.
• The courage and energy shown by women also helped to break down the belief that women
were weaker than men.
                           Vicksburg
 May 1863
 Grierson’s Raid
      1,700 troops on a Calvary raid.
      600 miles in 2 weeks.
      This distractions enabled Grant move his troops south of the city.
 Siege of Vicksburg
      Union troops were ordered to live off the country.
      Captured the town of Jackson.
      Marched 180 miles in 17 days.
      Set city under siege until the defenders gave up.
      July 4, 1863 the Confederates surrendered.
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville
 December 13, 1862
 Fredericksburg
      Burnside ordered a series of bloody assaults against Lee’s troops.
      the union troops suffered more than 12,000 casualties.
      Twice as many as the Confederates.
      Burnside was replaced by General Joseph Hooker.

 May 2, 1863
 Chancellorsville
      Lee’s troops attack Hooker’s troops in dense woods.
      Lee’s forces repeatedly defeated the union troops.
      May 5, Hooker decided to retreat.
                  Battle of Gettysburg
       June 1863
       Gettysburg
          Marched to Pennsylvania, where his troops seized livestock, food, and
           clothing.
       July 1, 1863
          Confederates pushed the union troops out of the town into the hills to the
           south.
          Armies hurried to the scene.
       July 2, 1863
          Lee orders 15,000 men to make a massive assault.
          The attack came to be known as Pickett’s Charge.
          Union lost 23,000 and the Confederates lost 28,000 casualties.
          The Gettysburg Address
 November 1863
     Lincoln went to Gettysburg to dedicate a portion of the battlefield as
      military cemetery.
     His speech became known as one of the best orations in American
      history.
     “conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are
      created equal.” A quote from the Gettysburg Address.
     He said that the war was not a battle between regions but a fight for
      freedom.
          Battle of Chattanooga
 September 1863
    20,000 men with their artillery, horses, and equipment
     arrived.
    Travelled 1,200 miles.
    Grant ordered 23,000 men to launch a limited attack
     against the Confederates.
    They yelled “Chickamauga” as they charged up the
     steep slope, leaving the Confederacy surprised and
     they retreated.
    Missionary Ridge and Chattanooga was now in the
     hand of the Union Army.
Petersburg
 While Sheridan’s troops distracted Lee,
General Grant headed southeast, crossed the
James River, and then turned west toward
Petersburg. The troops did this because
capturing Petersburg would cut the only rail line into Richmond.

 When the first Union troops were just reaching Petersburg, they
  stopped because they saw that the city was defended by miles of
  barricades.

 The fight that the Confederates put up scared the Union troops.

 Grant ordered his Union troops to put Petersburg under siege.
Fall of Atlanta
      Farragut prepared an attack on
       Mobile Bay, while Sherman’s army
       pushed toward Atlanta.

      Sometime after this, Sherman sent
       his troops south around Atlanta to
       destroy the roads and railways
       leading into the city. The troops
       destroyed the rail lines by heating the
       rails and twisting them into snarls of
       steel.

      Confederate General John B. Hood
       evacuated Atlanta on September 1st,
       to avoid being trapped in the city.
                March to the Sea
 Sherman proposed to march across
  Georgia and quoted “The march
  would be a demonstration to the
  world… that we have a power that
  Davis cannot resist.”

 Sherman ordered all civilians to
  leave Atlanta, then later ordered
  troops to destroy everything in the
  city of military value, including
  railroads, warehouses, mills,
  factories, and machine shops.

 On November 15th, 1864 Sherman
  began his March to the Sea. His
  troops cut a path of destruction
  through Georgia that was in places
  60 miles wide.
Appomattox
       Lee knew that time was running
         out, on April 1st, 1865 Union troops
         were led to cut the last rail line into
         Petersburg.

       The troops withdrew from their
         positions.

       When Sheridan’s army got ahead of
         Lee’s troops and blocked the road at
         Appomattox Courthouse, Lee’s
         attempts to escape Grant’s forces
         failed!

       Lee Surrendered – Last Battle of
         Civil War.
                  Lincoln’s Assassination
   During Lincoln’s speech, one listener, John
    Wilkes Booth, said to a friend, “That is the
    last speech he will ever make.” After
    hearing that, Lincoln was warned not to
    appear unescorted in public.

   On April 14, 1865, Lincoln went to Ford’s
    Theater to see a play and during the 3rd act,
    Booth snuck behind Lincoln and shot the
    President in the back of the head.

   Lincoln’s death shocked the nation and
    because of his death, he became the Union’s
    greatest champion.

   Tens of thousands of men, women, and
    children lined railroad tracks across the
    nation as Lincoln’s body was transported
    back to Springfield, Illinois.
                   Key Concepts
 The endings of the war lasted about 1 year.


 Abraham Lincoln and General George McClellan were both candidates
   during the election of 1864.

 President Lincoln won the re-election with 55% of the popular vote.




           President Abraham Lincoln     General George McClellan
Reconstruction
 One of the most
    controversial eras Started
    around 1860 it meant to
    rebuild after the war.
   The South’s economy had
    collapsed and the
    agriculture system had
    become chaotic..
   The Union was in full
    power
   It experienced intercoastal
    democracy and turned on
    the status of former
    slaves.
   IT ended around 1877
Lincoln’s Plan
 President Lincoln began developing a plan for
  restoring a regular government for Tenn., Arkansas,
  and Louisiana.
 In 1863 he set fourth his plan in the proclamation of
  amnesty and reconstruction.
 Offered a pardon to all southerners who took on oath
  of loyalty to the U.S.
 A new state government. Could be organized when
  10% of voters took the oath.
Radical Republicans
 Radicals were led by            2. Wanted the
  Thaddeus Stevens of Penn.        Republican Party to
  And Senator Charles
  Sumner of Mass.
                                   become a powerful
 They had three main goals.
                                   institution in the south.
 1. To prevent leaders of the    3. Wanted to guarantee
  confed. from returning to        African Americans the
  power after the war.             right to vote in the
                                   south.
The Wade-Davis Bill
   By summer of 1864, the moderates
    and radicals had came up w/
    reconstruction plans that they both
    could support as to an alternative to
    Lincoln and introduced as The Wade-
    Davis Bill.
   It required the majority of white men in
    a former confederate state to take an
    oath of allegiance to the union the
    state could then hold a constitutional
    convention.
   Each state would have to abolish
    slavery, reject all debt they had
    acquired as part of the confed.
   It soon passed but Lincoln blocked it
    with a veto to let the session of
    congress expire w/out signing the
    legislation.
Freedmen’s Bureau
   Refugee crisis prompted
    congress to establish the
    Bureau of refugees, Freeman, and
    abounded Lands better known as
    the Freemen’s Bureau.
   The Bureau was given the task of
    feeding and clothing the war
    refugees in the south using
    surplus army supplies.
   Beginning in Sept. 1865 the
    Bureau issued nearly 30,000
    rations a day for the next to help
    former enslaved people find work
    on plantations.
   Made a lasting and important
    contribution in the field of
    education and also help charities.
Johnson’s Plan
 In May 1865 he issued a Proclamation of
  Amnesty, which offered pardon to all former
  citizens of the Confederacy who took an oath
  of loyalty to the Union and to return their
  property.
 On the same day he issued another
  proclamation for North Carolina as a model
  for how he wanted to restore the south to the
  Union.
Black Codes
 The Black Codes were known as the laws for the
  Southern states.
 These laws severely limited the African- Americans’
  rights in the South.
 The Black Codes varied from state to state, but they
  all intended to keep African- Americans in a
  conditional state similar to slavery. For example, they
  had annual labor contracts, and children had to
  accept apprenticeships in some states that allowed
  them to be whipped and beaten.
 The Black Codes enraged many Southerners like the
  Secretary of the NAVY, Gideon Wells,.
The 14th Amendment
 In March 1886, in an effort to override the Black Codes the
  Congress passed the Civil Rights Act.
 It granted citizenship to all the persons born in the U.S., and it
  allowed African- Americans to own property and stated that they
  were to be treated equally in court. It also gave power to sue
  people who violated these rights.
 Scared that they thought the Civil Rights Act might be
  overturned in court they introduced the 14th Amendment to the
  Constitution.
 This Amendment declared that no state could deprive any
  person of life, liberty, or property without process of law, and
  declared that no state could deny any person protection of laws.
The Military Reconstruction Act
 In March 1867, the Republicans passed the Military
  Reconstruction Act. Which divided the former
  Confederacy except for Tennessee into 5 military
  districts.
 A Union General was placed in charge of each
  district.
 In the meantime, each former Confederate state had
  to hold another constitutional convention to design
  acceptable to Congress. The new state constitutions
  had to give the right to vote to all adult male citizens,
  regardless of their race.
Johnson’s Impeachment
 The Republicans knew they had the votes to override any veto of their
    policies, but they also knew that President Johnson could still interfere
    with any of their plans by refusing to enforce the laws that they passed.
   Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton would agree with the laws the
    Republicans would pass, along with Ulysses S. Grant.
   To prevent the President from ruining all their plans, they passed the
    Command of the Army Act and the Tenure of Office Act. All this really
    did was, it made everything the Presidential orders were to go through
    the headquarters of the general of the army (Grant). The other act
    required the Senate to approve the removal of any government
    officials, which me4ans that the Pres. Couldn’t get rid of their boy
    Stanton.
   President Johnson decided to challenge the Tenure of Office Act and
    fired Stanton, but Stanton barricaded himself in his office and refused
    to leave. Three days later the House of Representatives impeached
    Johnson, they charged him with “ high crimes and misdemeanors.”
   This is a situation when someone fights the system and the system
    winning!
Sin Taxes
 Tax placed on alcohol, and tobacco
 Helped pay off bonds issued during civil war
 Republican congress put sin taxes in place
Panic of 1873
 Originally started in Europe
 The failure of Jay Cooke and company started the panic in the
    U.S
   The New York Stock Exchange closed for 10 days
   Foreclosures occurred
   Banks Failed
   Business’ closed
   The Blame was put on President Grant, and Congress
End of Reconstruction
 Reconstruction ended when northern
  democrats took over congress
 They were to concerned with their own
  economic problems
Compromise of 1877
 Rutherford B. Hayes, and Samuel Tilden
 Hayes won the election because 8
  Republicans and 7 Democrats Voted and
  Republicans won 8-7
 People believe he won because of a
  “compromise”

 Method used to reach election win for Hayes
  resulting in promise to pull federal troops from
  south and reconstruction ending.
Sharecropping
 All of the black people teamed up with white
  people to harvest crops
 Instead of being paid in cash, they received a
  share of the crop

				
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