What is it? Where does it come from? Why is it used? How can we prevent it? What do we fear about Terrorism? Definition of Terrorism u Terrorism actually comes from the Latin Word “Fear” u “The Unlawful Use of Force Against Persons or Property to Intimidate or Coerce a Government, the Civilian Population, or Segment Thereof, in the Furtherance of Political or Social Objectives.”(Source FBI) 2 FALLOUT SHELTER Terrorism Is an unlawful act of violence Intimidates governments or societies Goal is to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives Arthur H. Garrison “…warfare seeks to conquer territories and capture cities; terrorism seeks to hurt a few people and to scare a lot of people in order to make a point” NYTimes, 1/6/2000 “Putting the horror in the minds of the audience, and not necessarily on the screen” Terrorism Priorities Today Biological Conventional Weapons Dirty Bombs 10 Property of Terrorism Terrorism is different from regular crime because of its strong political properties The definition of terrorism can vary from people to people due to the differences in standpoint One person’s terrorist can be another’s fighter The Terrorist and their Thinking 12 Fear always springs from ignorance. Emerson, 1837 Modern History of Terrorism Terrorism is Asymmetric Warfare. Asymmetric warfare is the use of apparently random/unpredictable violence by an weak military against a stronger military to gain advantage. (Allen, 1997). The key of Asymmetric warfare is using unexpected, unconventional tactics in combat (Craig, 1998). Arthur H. Garrison Terrorism conclusions Terrorism is an ancient tactic. Terrorism is a mode of communication. Terrorism is a special type of violence and Asymmetrical warfare. Terrorism is used in times of peace, conflicts and war. Terrorism is designed to make a point, through psychological means, fear. Terrorism is a political act. Arthur H. Garrison Two Types of Groups u Domestic/ National u International 16 Terrorist Motives u Ethnic Cleansing u Damage Infrastructure u Disrupt Normal Life u Direct Kill of an Enemy 17 Terrorist Motives u Undermine Confidence In Government - Requires Media Coverage - Should effect as many people as possible - Must last long enough to overwhelm (NYC) Local resources Media audience - Usually directed towards injury fatality (International Terrorist) 18 Target Selection Based on: u Motive u Type of Device Available u Type of Deployment Method Available 19 Thinking Outside the Box They ARE!! 20 Types of Terrorist Incidents Four Primary Types for Emergency Services 21 Terrorist Incidents u Explosives and Arson u Nuclear Materials u Biological Agents u Chemical Agents 22 Explosives and Arson u 70% of Attacks Worldwide u Maximizes Property Damage u Target Individuals (Letter or Package Bombs) u Destroy Building, Aircraft, Monuments, etc.. u Large Devices, Truck or Car Bombs 23 Suspicious Thing to Look for 24 Operational Procedures for Terrorist Incidents FACTORS FOR PREPARING Common Weapons Stand-off Weapons Super Terrorism 25 Operational Changes u Emergency Services strategic thinker must be willing to “think the unthinkable” so that appropriate responses may be conceived. u Do not overstate the threat. 26 Terrorist Units and Cells: Training A Functional Approach • Recruitment • Instructors • Sites • Equipment Logistics Funding • Equipment & • Sources: supplies Operations crime, harvesting • Other essentials • One-man • Processing and • Sources • Team management, • Multilateral/ •Nation States Intelligence collaborative • Supplied • Gathered • Internet/other open source • Information and politics 27 Government Response Training to Terrorism: • Recruitment A Functional Approach • Instructors • Sites • Equipment Logistics Funding • Equipment & • Sources: supplies Operations •Federal, State and • Other essentials • One-man •Local Taxes • Sources • Team • Multilateral/ Intelligence collaborative • Supplied • Gathered • Internet/other open source • Information and politics 28 Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorist Targets and their Weapons 29 Biological terrorism Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness, death and terror The paths of infection can be contaminated water, food, air and packages. Microbes Bacteria Viruses Toxins Phillip L. Coule, M.D. 30 Anatomy of a Bioterrorist Attack Terrorism takes much Preparation Time and planning 5 years Execution 1 day Diagnosed case 3 days First Death Multiple deaths Nuclear Terrorism Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials Detonate a nuclear weapon No use of nuclear material for non-military terrorism has ever occurred Common Weapons Fertilizer Bombs Dynamite Semtex Automatic and Semi-automatic and Pistols remain the weapons of choice. 33 Stand-Off Weapons American Stinger Russian SA-7 Hand-Held Anti-Aircraft missiles US Army Light Anti-tank Weapon (LAW) Russian RPG-7 Anti-Tank Weapon And Increasing Bombing Technologies. 34 Where is Terrorism Going? The CYBER World 35 HE IS!!!!!!!!! 36 Prevention of Terrorism Primary prevention: Education!!! Understand the differences in cultures, religions, beliefs and human behaviors Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all human beings, not just “my group of people” Eliminate the root of terrorism Prevention of Terrorism Secondary prevention: Establish surveillance and monitoring system on terrorism attack Improve protective system for citizens Prevention of Terrorism Tertiary prevention Early detection of the sources Prevent the extension of impairments Rescue the survivors Console the rest of the population Conclusion Terrorism is unlawful act Terrorism has a long history of being used to achieve political, religious and ideological objectives Terrorism can be conducted through firearms, explosive devices and biological, chemical, nuclear materials Even through the events of 2001,the risk of dying from terrorism has remained much lower than that from motor vehicles, smoking, and alcoholic beverage. The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. FDR, 1933 Fears are educated into us & can, if we wish, be educated out.
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