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Nature and Nurture of Behavior - Quia

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Nature and Nurture of Behavior - Quia Powered By Docstoc
					Journal: Day 26
   If it were possible, would you want to take a genetic
    test telling you which diseases you are likely to suffer
    from later in life?

   If you or your spouse were pregnant, would you want
    the unborn child tested for genetic defects?

   Do you think it should be legal for employers to use
    genetic tests in deciding whom to hire?

   Handout: “Some Currently Available DNA Tests
    Available”
        Gene Testing
   Test for treatable disease to greatly reduce risks, 56%
    Americans are “very likely” to take the test
   No known treatment, 26%

   “If you could have a comprehensive genetic test, which
    would tell you about the likelihood that you might get several
    major diseases, and it was not at all expensive, how likely do you
    think you would be to have it—very likely, somewhat likely, or not
    very likely?,”
   39 % “very likely,” 30% “somewhat likely,” 29 % “not very likely,”
    and 2 % were either not sure or refused to answer.

   Who should see it?
   90 % agreed that their doctor should see it, 39 % said their
    health insurance company, 25 % said a life insurance company
    “from whom they want to obtain a policy,” and 17 % indicated
    their employer.
Journal: Day 27
   The Bell Curve – A Book about IQ
    research…
       IQ’s heritability value = 0.6
       Blacks score on average 15 points lower
        than whites on IQ tests
   Their Conclusion: blacks are genetically
    inferior to whites…
   DO YOU AGREE?
   IF SO, WHY?
   IF NOT, WHAT DOES CAUSE THIS
    OBSERVED DIFFERENCE?
Journal: Day 28

   Some definitions:
       Sexual identity – sexual tendency for
        males/females/both
       Gender identity – internal feeling of being a
        male / female
       Social gender role – adherence to cultural
        norms for feminine and masculine behavior
   Place these on a nature / nurture
    scale…(which is most influenced by nature?
    nurture? middle?
Other Journal Ideas

   When looking for a future (when
    you’re old enough of course) potential
    mate, what 5 attributes are most
    important to you? WHY?!
Other Journal Ideas

 “Who has been the most important
  influence in your life?”
 50% of teens say parents
Other Journal Ideas

 Imagine that you are a little older
 Women: In your relationships with
  men, do you prefer them to express
  their emotions fully, or to be cautious
  about expressing emotion? WHY?
 Men: In your relationships with
  women, do you prefer that they plan
  to have careers or be homemakers?
  WHY?
Nature and Nurture
of Behavior
Chapter 3, Myers, 7th ed.

Andy Filipowicz
Introduction
   Fact or Falsehood (Handout 3-1)
   F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T, T, T

   ?Universal human qualities?
   Avoid incest, fear snakes, exchange gifts, modesty in
    sexual behavior (even without clothes)
   Labor divided by age / sex
   Men more aggressive; women more child care
   Taboos, sanctions for crimes against society (theft,
    murder, rape)
   Marriage defines sexual access to a fertile woman
   Mimic, flirt, envy, empathize, joke, tease, dance
   Myths, folklore, poetry, attempts to control or predict the
    weather
Behavior Genetics:
Predicting Individual
Differences
           Genes
   How many chromosomes do you get from mom? Dad?
    Total??
   30,000 genes

   Dominant vs. Recessive
   Brown eyes = Dominant

   Draw a straight line on your paper
   Line up ring finger to it
   Does index finger reach the line?
   Short indexes is recessive in females (expect less), but
    dominant in males (expect more)
Punnett Squares…you know
this stuff, so try it!
 ?A man with red hair (recessive)
  marries a woman with black hair
  (dominant) whose mother had red
  hair. What are the chances that their
  first child will have red hair? Black
  hair?
 2 in 4; 2 in 4
         More fun…
   ? A man and a woman both have brown
    eyes, but their first child has blue eyes.
    What are the chances that their second
    child will have blue eyes?
   1 in 4; previous kids DO NOT MATTER

   Other dominant traits: curly hair, dimples in
    cheeks, unattached earlobes,
    farsightedness
    Twin Studies

   How alike are we?
   Stand up vs. sit down using (Handout 3-2)
   Jerry Levey and Mark Newman (the firemen in
    your book) ID twins separated at birth
       (7) in yellow
   Big Point
       Nature: 99.9% of our genes are the same and
        we end up very much the same on so many
        variables
       Nature: identical twins are usually even more
        similar! So, genes DO contribute to our
        personalities and effect the outcome of our lives
              Adoption Studies
   What do these studies show us?
   The effect of nurture – family environment

   Anyone adopted? Your personality will correlate higher with…?
   Anyone have siblings? Your personalities correlate not much more than 2 randomly
    drawn people from the street

   ?How do your parents treat you and your siblings differently from each other?
   Siblings are treated differently by parents & siblings in turn react differently (nature
    nurture interaction)
   Big Point: Nature help shape one’s environment (nurture)
        Same nature creates a more similar nurture (ID Twins)

   ?SO, what do you think of your siblings?
   Only 1/3 of sibling pairs show similar degrees of affection towards each other
   So what?
   1 study: The more negative a younger sibling is toward the older, the HIGHER the
    self-esteem of the younger sibling in the long run

   What is it about Baby X vs. Baby Y that shapes their environments differently?
            Temperament
   Def: a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity
    and intensity
   Seen almost at birth and helps to predict
    personality later in life
   Handout 3-3: EAS Temperament Survey (see guide
    pg. 8 for descriptions)
   Scoring: reverse values for items 6, 18, 19 THEN,
   Emotionality = intensity of emotional reactions
      Distress (4, 9, 11, 16)
      Fearfulness (3, 12, 14, 19)
      Anger (5, 8, 13, 18)
   Activity = general energy level output
      Add (2, 7, 10, 17)
   Sociability = tendency to affiliate and interact with
    others
      Add (1, 6, 15, 20)
American Population Means
(Buss and Plomin)
               Women   Men

Activity     13.40     12.80
Sociability  15.24     14.60
Emotionality

-Distress      10.08   9.72
-Fearfulness   10.60   8.92
-Anger         10.82   10.80
   Temperaments are inherited (Buss & Plomin).
   ID Twins correlation coefficients
      Emotionality .63
      Activity .62
      Sociability .53
   Fraternal Twins correlation coefficients
      E .12
      A -.13
      S -.03
   Children are not blank slates, but obviously the environment still
    contributes through conditioning
        Heritability

   As environments become more similar
    (MARK TWAIN’s feeding young boys
    through holes in barrels until they are 12,
    then compare intelligence), heredity as a
    source of differences necessarily becomes
    more important?? COOL??...therefore,
    heritability of any trait goes up the more
    similar the environments become as
    long as there is any genetic contribution.
“Genetic” Has 2 Meanings
1)       Genetic Determination: # of toes is
         genetically determined b/c we all have 5
         toes
2)       Heritability: matter of the extent to which
         genetic differences cause variation in
         number of toes
     -      Ratio: genetically caused variation: total
            variation (genes + environment)
           -   G / (G + E)
     -      So, we must control for environmental
            variation first if we want to make any
            conclusions about the extent to which genes
            determine any differences
     -      If E is 0, G / G = 1, so heritability = 1!
           Some Examples
   # of toes or fingers is genetically determined (5)
   Heritability though of # of toes is almost certainly very
    low…Why?
   Control the environment: Most of the variation in number
    of toes is environmentally caused (fetal development
    problems) (so, we know what causes # of toe
    differences, because we have historical evidence of it):
       Pregnant women taking thalidomide
   In other words, h is low because genes are not
    responsible for much of the variation. In other words,
    differences caused by environment are very high!!!
Another Example
   Wearing Earrings
   Some time ago in the western culture at least, heritability
    was high…?WHY?
      Remember, it’s about controlling the environment
   Only women used to wear them, so whether a person
    wore wearing earrings was due to a genetic difference (X
    vs. Y chromosome)!
   Now, earrings are less gender-specific
   Now, heritability for having an earring has decreased
   But, the heritability for having an earring across the entire
    world hasn’t decreased as much probably because men in
    other cultures have worn earrings /jewelry historically.
   So, wearing earings in our culture is less “genetic” today
    than it used to be because the difference used to be
    entirely due to a genetic cause
High Heritability WITHOUT
ANY genetic determinism!
   IQ!!!
   IQ is enormously affected by normal
    environmental variation
       Children from low socio-economic status
        backgrounds adopted into upper socio-
        economic status have dramatically higher
        IQs than their biological parents
       Flynn Effect: IQ has gone up about 3 points
        every 10 years worldwide (better nutrition,
        better health care and so forth)
IT DEPENDS ON
ENVRIONMENT
 How could we lower the heritability of
  IQ in any given population? (What
  could we do to the people?)
 Give half of them brain damage
       This increases the environmentally
        caused variation!!! Therefore, the ratio
        is a smaller fraction (H = gene:total) (If
        G is constant as T goes up, H goes
        down)
SO H is a POPULATION
CHARACTERISTIC
   You cannot extrapolate results of heritability
    outside the population you are talking about
   The H very much depends on environmental
    variation
   The degree of H is often extremely difficult to
    pinpoint and measure
   So h is really only a good measure if we know
    the salient qualities of a particular environment
   So, do black and white people’s environments
    equal each other? Are we working with the
    same environmental constraints?
H of IQ goes up over the life
span
   WHY???
   Environments become more similar as you
    grow up
       Parents are very different
       But, once away from your parents
       Pretty much everybody experiences the
        same generic society though
       So, environments become more similar,
        therefore the differences must be due to
        genes, not the environment.
         Heritability
   (Thomas Bouchard)
   Personality
      The Big 5 (OCEAN; Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion,
       Agreeableness; Neuroticism) = 50%
      No differences in the sexes
   Mental Ability
      .22 at age 5
      .54 to . 62 at age 75+
   Psychiatric Illness
      Schizophrenia .80
      Depression .40
      Anxiety disorders .20 to .40
      Alcoholism .50 to .60
      Antisocial personality disorder .41 to .46
      Anorexia nervosa .50
       (http://healthpsych.psy.vanderbilt.edu/genetic_anorexia.htm)
            Gene-Environment
            Interaction
   Girls raised in fatherless households experience puberty earlier
      ?N/N?
   Monkeys only fear snakes after watching other monkeys fear snakes
      Predisposition to learn a fear of snakes
   Language Acquisition (Humans only)
      Must observe other language-speaking individuals
      Critical window
   Homosexuality
      Gay men more likely than lesbians or heterosexual men to have older
        brothers (not sisters)
      Also, reduced birth weight, larger placenta
      Immune reaction in mother may grow stronger with each successive
        male pregnancy (may affect expression of key genes involved in brain
        development
           Genotype-Environment
           Correlation – 3 Sub Types
   Handout – Larsen and Buss
   Passive Genotype
       Smart Parents have lots of books
       Parents pass on smart genes and create a “smart”
        environment filled with books
   Reactive Genotype-Environment
       Baby seems to enjoy cuddling, so parents cuddle with
        the baby more
       Sociability increases because of gene and the changed
        environment
   Active Genotype-Environment
       Niche picking – skydivers hang out with skydivers
       “Genotype-Environment
       Correlation”
   ?Let’s brainstorm some others?
Evolutionary
Psychology
              Evolutionary Psych
   Think back to when you were a kid…
   Did you ever resist going to bed?
   WHY!?
   Guide 12 – pink

   Handout 3-4: Evolutionary Psychology – Tough Questions!
   Men and Women differ (12 – yellow)
   It’s about survival of the genes!!! That’s where natural selection works,
    not at the individual level!

   ?How close are you to your grandparents? (13 – orange)
      Rate your 4 relationships (if you know/knew them all) 0=cold or
       negative feelings; 100=warm or positive feelings
   ?How about aunts/uncles?
Mating

   When looking for a potential mate,
    what 5 attributes are most important
    to you?
Mate Preferences
What You Want, Girl?

 Men want: smooth skin, youthful
  shape, hourglass figure
 Women want: mature, dominant, bold
  (interestingly, men are 3x more likely
  to die in auto crashes than women),
  affluent men = capacity to support and
  protect
 Sweaty Mate Choice video
              Men are Pigs
   Men are more likely to…
   Think about sex
   Report more frequently fantasies
   Rate their own drive higher than same age females
   Masturbate, begin it earlier
   Homosexual couples: men have sex more than women
   Put less emphasis on a committed relationship as a prerequisite for sex
      Men: physical pleasure, fantasies involve strangers, multiple partners,
        focus on specific sex acts
      Women: romanticized sexual experience; fantasies involve other a
        familiar partner, include affection, commitment
   Be more sexually aggressive
   Have less plastic sexual beliefs (adaptability to culture, social, and
    situational factors)
      College doubles likelihood that man identifies as gay or bisexual
      College creates a 900% increase in the % of women identifying as gay or
        bisexual
            Some interesting stats
            (from your book)
   80% of adults-only video store shoppers are male (1993)
   55% of men, 35% of women agreed that “if 2 people
    really like each other, it’s all right for them to have sex
    even if they’ve known each other for a very short time.”
   48% of women, 25% of men cited affection as a reason
    for first intercourse
   How often do you think about sex? 54 – 19 % in favor of
    men said every day or several times a day
   Gay men vs. lesbian women: more interest in
    uncommitted sex, more responsiveness to visual stimuli,
    and more concern with partner’s physical attractiveness
          Attitudes and Behavior

   Casual hit and run sex is most frequent among males
    with traditional masculine attitudes
   Men were approached by an average-looking opposite
    member and asked, ‘I have been noticing you around
    campus and I find you to be very attractive. Would you
    go to bed with me tonight?” said yes…
   75%!
   all women said no (sometimes the men even said,
    “why wait until tonight?”)
   Men have a lower threshold for perceiving warm
    responses as a sexual come on…friendliness = sexual
    interest
           Infidelity



   ?Would you be more distressed if you found that your
    romantic partner was (1) having sexual intercourse with
    someone else or (2) was becoming emotionally involved
    with someone else?
   Buss: 511 college students asked this question…83% of
    women said 2 compared to 40% of men…60% of men
    said 1, only 17% of women said 1
         Infidelity


 Kinsey (1940s): 36% of husbands,
  25% of wives reported being unfaithful
 Marital dissatisfaction tends to be
  higher among unfaithful women than
  unfaithful men
 A male’s infidelity is more likely than a
  female’s to be a “one night stand”
 Jealously does not appear to differ
  between the sexes
The Coolidge Effect (4 fun)
Parents and Peers
Do Parents Matter?

   Psychology through film, #6 (5:15)
Early Experience

   The Brain 1-2 (The Effects of
    Hormones and Environment on Brain
    Development)
Gender
Development
   Handout 3-10
   Me guide 25
   Why do we have these stereotypes?

   Monkeys given a choice of rag dolls, trucks,
    and picture books (gender neutral)
       Males: more time with trucks
       Females: more time with rag dolls

   1 day olds too!!! wow
          Who Does Housework?
 Men: 16 hrs/week (up from 12
  in 1965)
 Women: 27 (down from 40)



   Handout 3-11 Gender Roles in
    the Home
Abnormal Sex Chromosome

 Turner’s Syndrome
 Short, immature in appearance

 Webbed necks, eyelid folds, broad
  chest, receding chins
 Sterile, but very feminine

 No intellectual impairment
Abnormal Sex Chromosome
   Kleinfelter’s Syndrome
   1-2 / 1000 males
   Extreme introversion
   Above average height, long arms legs
   Some breast development during puberty, unusually
    high-pitched voice, little beard growth
   Sterile
   Intellectual functioning somewhat impaired
   Prison pops show a slightly disproportionate number of
    these guys (commit more minor crimes)
Abnormal Sex Chromosome

 Double Y
 1/1000 males

 Even taller than K’s syndrome

 Large disproportionate number of
  these guys in jail for nonviolent crimes
 Intellectual impairment
   Fragile x
   Caused by mutation of a single gene,
    intensifying over generations
   Of those who carry it, 1/3 show mental
    deficiency
   Among males who carry it, 33% somewhat
    retarded, the rest are severely retarded
   About 50% of residents in homes for the
    retarded have this
Sex Chromosome
Abnormalities
 Not as behaviorally serious as once
  believed/predicted
 Many do just fine and go on to college

 Stable families are the key

				
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