Docstoc

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Document Sample
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Powered By Docstoc
					RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


  BY: RAKHI GUPTA


 PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
        Research Methodology

It is defined as
 "the analysis of the principles of
    methods, rules, and postulates
    employed by a discipline";
 "the systematic study of methods
    that are, can be, or have been
    applied within a discipline"; or
 "a particular procedure or set of
    procedures."

   PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
Research Methodology refers to more
than a simple set of methods; rather it
refers to the rationale and the
philosophical assumptions that underlie
a particular study. This is why scholarly
literature often includes a section on the
methodology of the researchers. This
section does more than outline the
researchers’ methods (as in, “We
conducted a survey of 50 people over a
two-week period and subjected the
results to statistical analysis”, etc.); it
might explain what the researchers’
ontological or epistemological views
    PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual
  application in the investigation of matter. The primary aim
  for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the
  development of methods and systems for the advancement
  of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters
  of our world and the universe. Research can use the
  scientific method, but need not do so.
 Scientific research relies on the application of the
  scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research
  provides scientific information and theories for the
  explanation of the nature and the properties of the world
  around us. It makes practical applications possible.
  Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by
  charitable organisations and by private groups, including
  many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided
  into different classifications according to their academic
  and application disciplines.

         PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                     Research Problem



   A research problem is the situation that causes the
    researcher to feel apprehensive, confused and ill at
    ease. It is the demarcation of a problem area within
    a certain context involving the WHO or WHAT, the
    WHERE, the WHEN and the WHY of the problem
    situation.
   There are many problem situations that may give
    rise to research. Three sources usually contribute
    to problem identification. Own experience or the
    experience of others may be a source of problem
    supply. A second source could be scientific
    literature. You may read about certain findings and
    notice that a certain field was not covered. This
    could lead to a research problem. Theories could be
    a third source. Shortcomings in theories could be
    researched.



         PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                  Research Problem


   Research can thus be aimed at
    clarifying or substantiating an existing
    theory, at clarifying contradictory
    findings, at correcting a faulty
    methodology, at correcting the
    inadequate or unsuitable use of
    statistical techniques, at reconciling
    conflicting opinions, or at solving
    existing practical problems.




      PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
         IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM


   The prospective researcher should think on what
    caused the need to do the research (problem
    identification). The question that he/she should
    ask is: Are there questions about this problem to
    which answers have not been found up to the
    present?
   Research originates from a need that arises. A
    clear distinction between the PROBLEM and the
    PURPOSE should be made. The problem is the
    aspect the researcher worries about, think
    about, wants to find a solution for. The purpose
    is to solve the problem, i.e. find answers to the
    question(s). If there is no clear problem
    formulation, the purpose and methods are
    meaningless.



         PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
      IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM


Keep the following in mind:
 Outline the general context of the problem
  area.
 Highlight key theories, concepts and ideas
  current in this area.
 What appear to be some of the underlying
  assumptions of this area?
 Why are these issues identified important?
 What needs to be solved?
 Read round the area (subject) to get to
  know the background and to identify
  unanswered questions or controversies,
  and/or to identify the most significant
  issues for further exploration.


      PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
        IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM

   The research problem should be stated in such a
    way that it would lead to analytical thinking on
    the part of the researcher with the aim of
    possible concluding solutions to the stated
    problem. Research problems can be stated in
    the form of either questions or statements.
   The research problem should always be
    formulated grammatically correct and as
    completely as possible. You should bear in mind
    the wording (expressions) you use. Avoid
    meaningless words. There should be no doubt in
    the mind of the reader what your intentions are.
   Demarcating the research field into manageable
    parts by dividing the main problem into sub
    problems is of the utmost importance.



        PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
      Basic steps of a research project


   Find a topicWhat, When
   Formulate questionsWhat, Why
   Define populationWho, When
   Select design & measurementHow
   Gather evidenceHow
   Interpret evidenceWhy
   Tell about what you did and found
    out


    PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
               Types of methodologies



   QuaLitative Measures
     Descriptive
     Numbers not the primary focus

     Interpretive, ethnographic,
      naturalistic

   QuaNtitative Measures
     N for numbers
     Statistical

     Quantifiable

        PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

   RESEARCH REPORT
       WRITING


 PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                      Report

   A report is a communication
    of information or advice from
    a person who has collected
    and studied the facts, to a
    person who has asked for the
    report because they need it
    for a specific purpose.



      PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Reports are the most usual way of
    communicating the result of projects
    or investigations-for employers,
    governments, political organizations.
    They should be concise and have a
    specific structure.

   Courses require report writing to give
    you practice at producing
    information in a relevant way for
    employment.



         PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                   RESEARCH REPORT

   A research report is:
        a written document or oral presentation
        based on a written document that
        communicates the purpose, scope, objective(s),
        hypotheses, methodology, findings,
        limitations and finally, recommendations of
        a research project to others.
       The last stage of a marketing research process.;
       It is more than a summary of findings; rather it is
        a record of the research process.
    The researcher has to convince the client
    [and others who may read the report] that
    the research findings can be acted on for
    their own benefit.

          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Any research report contains:
       descriptions on methodology,
       results obtained,
       and recommendations made.
   The basic orientation of a research report
    depends on its audience. Before writing
    the report
       the researcher must know his or her
        audience;
       he/she may have to make assumptions
        about the composition, background and
        interests of the target readers.


          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
REPORT PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION PROCESS




    Problem Definition,        Data             Pre-report
     Research Design          Analysis
     and Methodology                            Writing
                                                Activities

                            Interpretation of
                                Research
                                findings



                                Report
                                                Report
                              Preparation       Writing
                                                Activities

                                 Oral
                             Presentattion


                                                Post
         RESEARCH           Reading of the
         FOLLOW-UP          Report by the       Report
                                client          Writing




PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                    Purpose of Report

    It is important to make sure your report
     fits the purpose and meets its aims.
     Your audience
     (who is your report for? What are the readers’
    need and characteristics?
     Your aim
    (what end result do you want-to inform, persuade,
     recommend, will it lead to decision, or policies)
     Your topic and focus
     (what is the main subject area and which
    particular aspect/issue will you cover)



          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
            Types of Research Reports


   Technical Reports: Technical reports are
    today a major source of scientific and
    technical information. They are prepared
    for internal or wider distribution by many
    organizations, most of which lack the
    extensive editing and printing facilities of
    commercial publishers.
   Technical reports are often prepared for
    sponsors of research projects. Another case
    where a technical report may be produced
    is when more information is produced for
    an academic paper than is acceptable or
    feasible to publish in a peer-reviewed
    publication; examples of this include in-
    depth experimental details, additional
    results, or the architecture of a computer
    model.

       PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
       Other Types of research reports

1.   Popular Report
2.   Interim Report
3.   Summary Report
4.   Research Abstract
5.   Research Articles




     PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                  CONTENTS OF RESEARCH REPORT




I.    Title page               XI.          Research design
II. Letter of transmittal            a. Type of research design
III. Table of contents               b. Information needs
                                     c. Data collection from secondary
IV. List of tables                   sources
V. List of graphs                    d. Data collection from primary
VI. List of appendices               sources
                                     e. Scaling techniques
VII. List of exhibits                f. Questionnaire development and
VIII. Executive summary              pretesting
     a. Major findings               g. Sampling techniques
     b. Conclusions               h. Field work
     c. Recommendations        XII. Data analysis
IX. Introduction                  a. Methodology
     a. Background to the            b. Plan of data analysis
        problem                XIII. Results
     b. Statement of the       XIV. Limitations and caveats
problem
                               XV. Conclusions and
X. Approach to the                recommendations
problem
                               XVI. Appendix
                                 a. Questionnaires and forms
                                     b. Statistical output
                                     c. Lists

           PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
         The first step in the process involves..


   the interpretation of the results of
    data analysis in light of:
        the marketing research problem
        investigated,
        and the research design and
        methodology followed.
   The research report is a means of
    communication that can be
    understood, believed, trusted by
    everyone who are likely to be affected
    by the research, and acted upon by
    the decision maker.
         PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                Before writing the report…


    the researcher should discuss: the
    major findings, conclusions, and
    recommendations with the key
    decision makers.
       necessary to ensure that the report meets
        the client's needs and is ultimately
        accepted.
   The entire marketing research project:
       should be summarized in a single written
        report or in several reports addressed to
        different readers.
       should present the findings in such a way
        that they can be used directly as input
        into decision making.
          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                      Report Format


   No universally accepted standard
    format or style for research writing.
    Different researchers may prepare
    their reports differently.
       The personality, background, expertise,
        and responsibility of the researcher and
        those of the decision maker for whom the
        report is written interact to give each
        report a unique character.
       Report formats are likely to vary with the
        nature of the project itself. However, the
        research report closely resembles the
        steps of the marketing research process.
          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                   Report Writing

   Effective report writing is an art.
   Some basic points to note in writing a report.
      Readers: The report should take into account the
       level of readers' technical sophistication, their
       interest in the project, ability to understand as
       well as the circumstances under which they will
       read the report and how they will use it..
      Adherence to study objectives: A research report
       must show that the research objectives have
       been accomplished..
      Easy to follow: The most basic characteristic of a
       good report is that it is easy to follow.
          It should be well organized, logically
           structured, and clearly and lucidly written.
           Headings and sub-headings should be used for
           different topics and subtopics respectively..
       PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Objective: Report writing should always be guided
    by objectivity.
      Should accurately present the methodology,
       results, and conclusions of the project, without
       slanting the findings to conform to the
       expectations of management.
   Selectivity: A researcher must use his or her
    discretion in deciding what should be included in
    the report.
   Concise: A report should be concise. Yet brevity
    should not be achieved at the expense of
    completeness.
   Presentation: The report should be professionally
    done with quality paper, good typing, and attractive
    binding.
        PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
   Visual aids: Key information presented in the text
    of a research report should be reinforced with
    tables, graphs, pictures, maps, and other visual
    devices.
   Guidelines for Tables: Statistical tables are a vital
    part of the report and deserve special attention.
      Every table should have a number and brief but
       clear title.
      Basis or unit of measurement should be clearly
       stated to facilitate understanding.
      The arrangement of the data item should
       emphasize the most important aspect of the data
       being presented.
      If necessary, explanations, comments etc.
       should be provided as footnotes.
      If the table presents secondary data, the
       source(s) must be cited clearly.
          PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                  Styles of Reporting


1. Appropriate language
   Precise
   Concise
   Explain words/terms your reader
    may not understand
   Abbreviations should be written
    in full first with the abbreviation
    in brackets, after which the
    abbreviation can be used
   Short sentences

       PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
      2. Layout of a report presentation

   Overall image: word processing
   Headings: use headings
   Numbering: numbering your
    sections and makes things clearer




      PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
            3. Use of images/visuals

   To make something clearer rather
    than to pretty things up
   When something is difficult to
    describe in words or visual in
    nature
   To show how something works




      PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                   4. Editing

 Purpose
    Have your clarified your
  purpose?
    Have you identified your
  reader’s needs/characteristics?




    PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                5. Information

 Have you included the main
  points?
 Are points supported by evidence?

 Is the information relevant to the
  purpose?




    PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                 6. Accuracy

 Are there any spelling mistakes
 Is the grammar/punctuation
  correct?
 Do figures add up?

 Are the reference correct, in the
  text and at the end?
 Are the reference of information
  listed in the reference sections?
 Are abbreviations consistent?


    PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                   7. Format

 Is there a balance between
  sections? Do the most important
  items take up the most space?
 Is the report easy to follow?

 Is it easy to find information in
  the report?
 Are headings and numbering clear?

 Are the arguments followed
  through?
 Is it logical/easy to follow?
    PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
                 8.Language

 Is it clear? Direct, easy to read?
 Will the readers understand it?

 Will its tone help you achieve the
  purpose?
 Can unnecessary words/phrases
  be deleted?
 Is there any repetitions?




    PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
               9.Presentation

 Is the layout appealing?
 Does it highlight important points?

 Are images clear?




    PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
     10. evaluate and improve your report

   Look at any assessment criteria to
    see how far it meets them
   Look at your aim to see if you
    have met them
   Use feedback




      PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:3/15/2012
language:English
pages:37