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      By Jamie Biondi,
  Townsend Smith, Nick
Philip, and Bobby Benjamin
Granger Movement
   Founded in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley in
    Washington, D.C.
   Gave farmers a political voice
   Goals to improve the unfair life that
    farmers had
   Peaked in 1875 with over 850,000
    members
Railroad Practices
   Small companies were
    being overcharged while big
    businesses like Standard Oil
    got rebates
   Grange thought that railroad
    practices like pools and
    rebates were unfair
   Grange sought to get these
    practices made illegal in
    order to avoid being cheated
    by big business owners.
Railroads=Public Utility
   Granger movement
    and especially Munn
    V. Illinois helped to
    make public
    regulation for private
    businesses that were
    devoted to public use
Bloc Voting
   Voting used by the Grange to allow
    Granger members to get into state
    legislature
   Once on the inside, the Grange
    members would support railroad reforms
Granger State Laws
   Laws proposed by
    the Grange
   Code by which
    railroads had to
    abide
   Aim was to make
    railroad practices
    fairer for farmers
Munn v. Illinois (1877)
   Upheld right of states to regulate private
    property when it is in the interest of the public
   Firm of Ira Munn and George Scott’s
    successors used illegal rates for their
    warehouses then they appealed to the
    Supreme Court when Illinois supreme court
    upheld the law
   Their complaint was that the Warehouse Act
    was in violation of the 14th amendment
   The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the state
    of Illinois
Wabash Case (1886)
   St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
   The court declared invalid an Illinois law
    prohibiting long- and short-haul clauses in
    transportation contracts as an infringement on
    the exclusive powers of Congress
   The result of the case was denial of state
    power to regulate interstate rates for railroads
   The decision led to creation of the Interstate
    Commerce Commission.
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
   Created the Interstate Commerce Commission,
    the first true federal regulatory agency.
   Designed to address the issues of railroad
    abuse and discrimination
   Required:
    •   Shipping rates had to be "reasonable and just"
    •   Rates had to be published
    •   Secret rebates were outlawed
    •   Price discrimination against small markets was made
        illegal.
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
   1st legislation enacted by the
    United States Congress to
    curb concentrations of
    power that interfere with
    trade and reduce economic
    competition.
   Named for U.S. senator
    John Sherman
   One of main provisions
    outlaws all combinations
    that restrain trade between
    states or with foreign
    nations.
Collective Bargaining
   An employer or employers agree to discuss the conditions of
    work by bargaining with representatives of the employees,
    usually a labor union.
   Purpose either a discussion of the terms and conditions of
    employment or a consideration of the collective relations
    between both sides.
   The merits of collective bargaining have been argued by
    both opponents and proponents of the process
   The National Labor Relations Act of 1935, known as the
    Wagner Act, established the right to collective bargaining in
    the United States.
Knights of Labor
   the first major labor
    organization in the US
   Looking to combine
    various unions in one
    organization
   Fell into decline after
    one of their members
    was executed for killing
    a policeman in the
    Haymarket Riot in 1886.
American Federation of Labor
   Sought to organize craft
    unions in a federation in
    which the individual
    unions maintained some
    autonomy
   Structure differed from
    that of the Knights of
    Labor, who wanted to
    absorb individual unions
   Founding leader was
    Samuel Gompers.
International Ladies' Garment
Workers Union
   In its early years many members were
    sympathetic to various radical
    movements.
   Grew rapidly in its first years.
   (1909-1911) launched two
    spectacular and successful mass
    strikes in the garment district of New
    York City. As a result of the strikes,
    the dress manufacturers agreed to
    deal with the ILGWU and its affiliates.
   Union benefited by the labor policies
    of President Franklin Delano
    Roosevelt, and membership rose to
    300,000 in 1942.
   In 1995 the 125,000-member ILGWU
    merged with the 175,000-member
    Amalgamated Clothing and Textile
    Workers’ Union to form the Union of
    Needletrades, Industrial and Textile
    Employees (UNITE).
Thomas Nast
   Caricature artist
   Created Democratic
    Donkey, Republican
    Elephant, and the
    “Tammany Tiger"
    (http://www.boondocksnet.c
    om/cartoons/cartoons_nast0
    3.html)
   Known as the "presidential
    maker“ after he helped
    Grover Cleveland become
    the first Democrat president
    since 1856.
   Commended for life-like
    drawings and method of
    cross-hatch shading.
Jane Addams (Hull House)
   Pacifist and Reformist
    who moved to Chicago
    to help the poor
   Purchased and repaired
    Hull House
   Hull house provided
    various educational and
    cultural activities for poor
    immigrants.
   For her work, neighbors
    called her “Saint Jane”
Resources
   http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0851226.html
   http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/gildedage/terms.html
   http://media20.fastclick.net/w/safepop.cgi?mid=23159&sid=9972&id=1
    01300&len=0&c=8&nfcp=1
   http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/nash5e_awl/ch
    apter19/medialib/primarysources1_20_2.html
   http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~engi202/sherman.html
   http://www.marketingpower.com/live/mg-dictionary-view2863.php
   http://www.consortiuminfo.org/antitrust/sherman.shtml
   http://www.boondocksnet.com/cartoons/cartoons_nast03.html
   http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAnast.htmd
   http://www.bartleby.com/65/co/collecti-b.html
   http://www.svti-unite.com/history.htm
   American Odyssey: The United States in the 20th Century

				
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posted:3/15/2012
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