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The Napoleonic Era (PowerPoint)

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					The Napoleonic Era
        I. Napoleon Bonaparte

   War w/Brit., Austria, & Sardinia gave opps. for
    rising leaders
   1795-1799: Napoleon Bonaparte
       Suppressed uprising in Paris
       Corsican
       Military school in Fr. (artillery officer)
       Ambitious & military genius
   Napoleonic Wars (1796-1815)
   Could move troops rapidly to critical pts.
   1796: Directory appointed Nap. to lead army against Aust. &
    Sardinia
       Defeated Aust. 4 times
       Took control of northern Italy
       Directory worried about his rising status
   Nap. cont’d to seek new conquests (Egypt)
       1798: Nap. failed near Alexandria (Brits.)
       Lied about successes—still the hero!!
   Second Coalition: Brit., Aust., & Russia
       Drove Fr. out of Italy
        A. Napoleon’s Seizure of
        Power
   Poor domestic conditions gave Nap. opp.
   By 1799: people had lost confidence in Directory
   Plot to place Nap. in power
       Drove out 4 directors
       Dissolved Directory
       coup d’etat (seizure of power by force)
   Nap. became dictator of Fr.
       1799-1814: Napoleonic Era or Age of Napoleon
       People accepted this
       He supported changes by Fr. Rev.
        II. Napoleon & the Consulate

   Nap. reorganized admin. of Fr.
       Executive branch (3 Consuls) –the Consulate
           Nap. = “First Consul”
       None of Consulate’s legislative bodies had real power
       Nap. submitted his const. to people for vote thru a
        plebiscite
           People approved
   Fr. laws revised into the Napoleonic Code
       Promoted authority over individual rights
   Nap. est. Bank of Fr.
   Public education
   Civil Rights of the Clergy (1790)
       Nap. signed the concordant w/Pope (1801)
           Restored position of Church in Fr.
   Nap. destroyed the Second Coalition
       He kept his promises for peace, govt., & economic
        prosperity
        III. Napoleon as Emperor

   1804: people declared Fr. an empire & Nap. as
    Emperor
   Coronation at Cathedral of Notre Dame
       Nap. undermined Pope’s authority
   Fr. Empire was great!
   Was Brit. next?
       Third Coalition
   Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
       Brit. destroyed Fr. & Spanish fleets
       Brit. no longer in danger
        A. The Continental System

   Nap. sought to disrupt Brit. trade
   The Continental System = Fr. blockade of Brit.
    Isles
   Brits. imposed blockade against Fr.
       Hurt Fr.
       Nap. cont’d to win
       Dec. 1805: Third Coalition collapsed
        B. The Reorganization of Euro
   by 1808: Nap. dominated Euro
       Aust. & Prussia signed treaties
       Russia allied w/Fr.
       Confederation of the Rhine
       Abolished H.R. Emp.
       Unified all northern Italian states
       Placed members of fam. on conquered thrones
   Napoleonic Code, abolished feudalism & serfdom
   Awakened a nationalist spirit in those conquered
       Opposition copied Nap’s military strategies
        C. The Peninsular War
   1807: Port. refused to observe Continental System
       Fr. occupied Port.
   Nap. conquered Spain
       Placed Joseph Bonaparte (bro) on throne
       1808: Spanish revolt
   Brits. sent army to Spain & Port.
       Peninsular War—1808-1814
   1814: Spain gave Joseph the boot
       New const. = limited monarchy
          D. Catastrophe in Russia
   Czar Alexander I = alarmed w/Nap’s domination
   Continental System disrupted Russian/Brit. Trade
       1812: Russia ignores it
   Nap. invaded Russia w/his Grand Army
       Not as “driven” as earlier Fr. armies
   Spring 1812: Nap. marched into Russia
   Russian approach = scorched-earth policy
   Fall 1812: Fr. captured Moscow
       Russians burned it
       Harsh Russian winter
   Oct. 19, 1812: Fr. Retreat
   Nap’s retreat = one of greatest military disasters
   By Dec. = Grand Army lost over 2/3 of troops
   Russians pursued Fr.
        E. Final Defeat

   W. Euro. monarchs broke ties w/Nap.
   Prussia, Aust., G.B. joined Russia (alliance)
   Nap’s old strategy failed
   Oct. 1813: Nap. defeated at Saxony
   March 1814: allies captured Paris
   Nap. gave up claims to throne
       Retired to Elba
   Allies = Fr. will NEVER disrupt Euro again!
       Restored Bourbon monarchy (Louis XVIII)
        F. The Hundred Days

   Restored Bourbons made many enemies
       Nap plotted his return (escaped from Elba)
If there be one among you who wishes to kill his
    Emperor, he can. I come to offer myself to your
    assaults.
 Nap triumphed in Paris—began prd. called the
    Hundred Days
       Louis = fled
   Prussia, Brit., & Netherlands moved into Fr.
   June 18, 1815: Fr. army defeated at Waterloo
   Nap. abdicated, Bourbons returned
   Nap. sent to St. Helena (d. 1821)

				
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posted:3/14/2012
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