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LECTURE 14 THE EVOLUTION OF MILITARY TECHNOLOGY AND TACTICS _II_

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LECTURE 14 THE EVOLUTION OF MILITARY TECHNOLOGY AND TACTICS _II_ Powered By Docstoc
					Lecture 10: The Evolution Of Military
    Technology And Tactics (II)

  1. The Evolution Of Naval Technology

  2. The Industrialization Of War

  3. The Advent Of Nuclear Weapons

  4. The Evolution Of Issues

  5. Why Europe?
     The Evolution Of Naval Technology

1. The Historical Center Of Naval Technology
    -- The Mediterranean Sea And The Galley
2. Galley Used In Trade And War
    -- Small Ships With Shallow Drafts: High Value Cargo
    -- Sail And Oar Powered: Large Crews Required
    -- War Tactics: Ram and Board Opponent
3. Innovations In The Middle Ages
    -- Hinged Rudder From The Vikings
    -- Compass From China
4. After 1300 The Size Of The Galleys Increases
5. The Northern European “Cog” Appears about 1100
    -- Flat Bottomed, Sea Going Cargo Ship
                Naval Evolution II

1. The “Carrack” and the Portuguese “Caravel”
2. Weaknesses Of The Galley In Wartime
      A) Cannot Sustain Cannon Attack
      B) Cannot Mount Many Cannon
      C) Not An Ocean Going Vessel
3. The Rise Of The Galleon
4. The Spanish Armada 1588
      A) Signals Change In Tactics: Boarding Is Out
      B) Signals Spain's Decline Relative To Sea Powers
                Naval Evolution III
• Technological Evolution Changes International System
      A) First Truly Global Economy In World History
      B) Allows European Expansion Into Periphery
      C) Shifts Power To Central Government
      D) War Ship And Trading Ship Diverge
• “The Ship Of The Line” (1650-1850)
      -- Introduced with the Anglo-Dutch Wars
      -- HMS Victory: 100 Guns on Three Decks
      -- Tactics: Line Ahead, Melee, & Crossing the “T”
      -- 1805 Battle of Trafalgar
              Naval Evolution IV
• 1800’s: Punctuated Equilibrium
      A) Steam Power (Civilian 1802; War Ship 1814)
      B) Screw Propeller (1836)
      C) Iron And Steel
             -- French Ship La Gloire (1859)
             -- HMS Warrior (1861)
      D) Clash of Ironclads: American Civil War (1862)
      E) Mastless Ship: HMS Devastation (1873)
• Major 20th Century Changes
      A) The Dreadnought
      B) The Submarine
      C) The Aircraft Carrier
Pre-Dreadnought Battleships
     Britain France Russia Germany USA Japan Total
1880    7       3      1       0     0   0    11
1890 22        10      4       0     0   0    36
1900 22         9      6       5     8   4    54
1905 43        11      8      16    12   4    94

Dreadnought Class Battleships
1906   1       0       0         0    0    0    1
1910 10        0       0         5    4    0   19
1914 34        4       4        22   10    4   78
1918 44        7       5         0   17    9   82
1920 39        7       4         0   18   10   78
1925 21        6       3         0   18   10   58
1930 20        6       3         0   15    9   53
1935 15        5       3         2   15    9   49
1939 14        7       3         5   15    9   53
1943 15        0       2         4   21    9   51
1945 14        2       3         0   20    1   40
            Naval Evolution V



Summary: Changes In Naval Technology
     A) Rise Of International System
     B) Concentrates Power In Most Industrialized
     C) Sea Powers Are Traders
     D) Strongest Sea Power Shifts Across Time
           Industrialization And War

1. Commercialization Of The Economy
       And The Commercialization Of War
2. McNeill: Industrialization Of War
       Lags Industrialization Of Economy By 100 Years
3. Artisan Production: Dreyse Guns In Prussia In 1840
4. The “American System”: Springfield, MA (1820-1850)
5. Consequences Of The American System
       A) Makes Mass Conscription Feasible
       B) Allows Rapid Introduction Of New Technology
       C) Standardization Simplifies Supply
                 Industrialization Of War

1. Revolution In Transportation
   A) Mobilization Of Troops
   B) Movement Of Troops: The Schlieffen Plan
   C) Supplying Mass Numbers Of Troops Becomes Possible


2. The Internal Combustion Engine
   A) Transport
   B) Tank
   C) Aircraft
                 Nuclear Weapons
1. Only The Most Advanced States Can Develop
2. Shifts Technology From Offensive To Defensive
       -- Raises Costs Of Taking Territory;
       -- Makes Defending Territory Relatively Easy
3. Goal Of Deterrence:
       Raise Expected Costs Above Expected Benefits
4. First Strike Versus Secure Second Strike
                            RETALIATION
             FIRST STRIKE


        US                  USSR


5. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
      Relative Capability And Crisis Stability

                                    SOVIET UNION
                    SECURE                                NO
                    SECOND               FIRST          NUCLEAR
                    STRIKE              STRIKE          WEAPONS


     SECURE                         HIGHLY UNSTABLE
                  VERY STABLE:                          USSR FEARS
     SECOND       MAD WORLD
                                    US: PREVENTATIVE
                                                         COERCION
     STRIKE                         USSR: PREEMPTIVE


                HIGHLY UNSTABLE
      FIRST                           EXTREMELY         USSR FEARS
US               US: PREEMPTIVE
                                       UNSTABLE          COERCION
     STRIKE    USSR: PREVENTATIVE

       NO
                   US FEARS            US FEARS        CONVENTIONAL
     NUCLEAR       COERCION            COERCION           WORLD
     WEAPONS
        The Evolution Of Issues

1. Why Do States Fight Wars?
     -- Territory
     -- Economics
     -- Anti-regime
     -- Ideology

2. Holsti
      A) Many Types Of Issues
      B) Importance Of Issues Changes Over Time
          The “Rise And Fall” Of Issues
                     Why Europe?

1. Why Does Military And Industrial Revolution First
     Occur In Western Europe?
2. Great Person Theory Versus Great Timing Theory
3. China: Commercial Revolution Without Military
      And Industrial Revolutions
      A) Lack Of Protection For Private Property
      B) Political Centralization
      C) Merchants And Soldiers At Bottom Of Hierarchy
4. The Future: A Return To Chinese Dominance?
                                      Typical       Displacement      Power       Crew        Average Number of
    Year             Type           Length (feet)       (tons)        System      Size               Guns
  ----------        --------           -------        -----------     --------    ------              -----
500BC-1571          Galley              100               100           oar       huge            few; on deck
 1200-1400            Cog               100               100       lateen sail   small             merchant
 1300-1525          Carrack           125-180            1000       square sail   small   lots of small guns; on deck
 1400-1550          Caravel            50-60               ?        lateen sail   small   lots of small guns; on deck
 1525-1650         Galleons           150-180            1000       square sail   large    30 big guns; below deck
 1650-1850     “Ship of the Line”     150-200            2000       square sail   600-800 100 big guns; below deck

				
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posted:3/14/2012
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