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CONTROLLING

VIEWS: 62 PAGES: 25

									CONTROLLING

Ailyn Brillo Pineda
Controlling
   Is the use of formal authority to assure achievement
    of goals and objectives
   Performance is measured against pre determined
    standards
   Action is taken to correct discrepancies between this
    standards and actual performance
Functions
   Serves both as means and an end
   Promotes effective use of resources
   Provides professional reinforcements
   Maintains activity and expectations
Principles
   Critical few
     Fewer     people involved in control brings about best
      results
   Point of Control
     Centralization   or decentralization of authority
   Self Control or Discipline
               to personal acceptance of responsibility and
     Translates
      accountability
Kinds of Formal Control
   Pre action Control
     Controlling  by means of personal supervision and
      utilizing control checks
     Consist of procedures for any given task or function

   Post action Control
     Controllingas the task or function is being performed
      or may have been performed
     Correcting deviations from standards or plans
Types of Control
   Feed forward Control
     Focuses  on operations before they begin
     Prevent anticipated problems

     Example: preparing all supplies and equipments for IV
      insertion, Lumbar tap, safety systems, training programs
      and budgets
   Concurrent Control
     Apply  to processes as they are happening; enacted
      while work is being performed
     Examples: material/supplies for therapeutic care
Types of Control
   Feedback Controls
     Focuses on the result of the operations
     Guide future planning, inputs, and process designs

     Examples: timely reports (weekly, monthly, quarterly,
      annual)
Characteristics of Effective Control
   Control system must be designed appropriately to
    be effective

   Control standards should be flexible and realistic

   Control systems must prevent, not cause the problem
    they were designed to detect
Control Process
Steps in Control Process
1. Establish and Specify Criteria
and Performance Standards
   A. Standards
     Standard   is any guideline establish as the basis for
      measurement
     Created when objectives are set during the planning
      process
     Precise, explicit statement of EXPECTED results from a
      product, service, machine, individual or organizational
      unit
     Expressed numerically and is set for quality, quantity
      and time
    Development of Standards
   Types of Standards
     Structure   Standards
       Focus on the structure or management system used by an
        agency to organize and deliver nursing care
       Including the number and categories of nursing personnel who
        provide care
       Example: TL is responsible for no more than 20 patients, with
        fewer than 3 TM to provide care
     Process   Standards
       Refer to actual nursing care procedures or activities engaged in
        by nurses to administer care
Development of Standards
  Outcome   Standards
   Standards  that are designed for measuring the results of
    nursing care
   Conflict Management, Budgeting, Discipline
    1. Establish and Specify Criteria
    and Performance Standards
   B. Resource Controls
     Time controls relate to DEADLINES and TIME
      CONSTRAINTS
     Material controls relate to INVENTORY and MATERIAL;
      yield controls
     Equipment controls are built into the machinery

     Cost control help ensure COST STANDARDS are met

     Employee performance controls focus on ACTIONS and
      BEHAVIORS of individuals and groups of employees
     Budget control cost or expense related standards.
    1. Establish and Specify Criteria
    and Performance Standards
   C. Financial Controls
               achieving the organization’s PROFIT motive
     Facilitate

     One method of financial control is BUDGETING

     They become control tools by pointing out deviations
      between the standard and actual consumption
   D. Operations Control
     Assess how efficiently and effectively an organization’s
      transformation processes create goods and services
     Includes TQM statistical process control and inventory
      management control
1. Establish and Specify Criteria
and Performance Standards
   E. Statistical Process Control
     Use  of statistics or mathematical methods and
      procedures to determine whether production operations
      are being performed correctly
     To detect any deviations and to find and eliminate their
      causes
     A control chart displays the results of measurements
      over time and provides a visual means of determining
      whether a specific process is staying within predefined
      limits
1. Establish and Specify Criteria
and Performance Standards
   The Just-in-Time (JIT) System
     The  JIT system is the timely application of medications
      for the illness of a patient, and purchased materials just
      in time to be transformed into parts
2. Monitor and Measure Performance of Nursing Care
Services and Evaluate it against the Standards through
records, Reports and Observations

    Nursing Rounds
      Pay  particular attention to issues of patient care and
       nursing practice
      Satisfy needs and problems met or unmet

    Quality Assurance
      Monitors   compliance with established standards
    Nursing Audit
      Consists  of documentation of the quality of nursing care
       in relation to the standards established by the nursing
       department
2. Monitor and Measure Performance of Nursing Care
Services and Evaluate it against the Standards through
records, Reports and Observations

     Purpose of Nursing Audit
       Prioritizes   nursing care by promoting optimum nursing
        care
       Identify deficiencies in the organization and
        administration of nursing care
       Used to increase performance to assure that
        improvements have been maintained
3. Compare Performance with Standards, Models, or
Criteria to Determine Deviations or Differences

   Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
     Employs  a matrix that uses network of activities
      presented in a chart, including the goals or product
      desired, time management, budget and estimation
   Benchmarking
     Seeks out the best so as to improve its performance
     Provides standard or point of reference in measuring or
      judging quality, values and cost
4. Enact Remedial Measures or Steps to Correct
deviations or errors

   Correction of deviations and errors
   Master Control Plan
   Take necessary action
Management Control Strategies
   Market Control
     Budgets   and rules
   Bureaucratic control
   Self Control
   Clan Control
    Performance Appraisal Tools
   Trait Rating Scale
     Rating a person against the set standard
     JD, desired behavior and personal trait

   Job Dimension Scales
     Job   requirements and quality work performance
   Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
     desired   behaviors to improve performance
   Checklist
     Composed    of behavioral statements that represent desirable
      behavior
Performance Appraisal Tools
   Peer Review
     Itis a collegial evaluation of the performance done to
      promote excellence in the practice and offer
      information, support, guidance, criticism and direction to
      one another
   Self Appraisal
     Allows   employee to evaluate his own performance
    Errors in Appraisal
   Halo Effect
     Tendency  to overrate staff based on the rater’s first
      impression of the ratee
     Based on the good traits or good things one sees in a
      person
   Logical Error
     Based   on first impressions of the rater to the ratee
   Central Tendency Error
     Ratethe staff as AVERAGE. Used by the rater when
      feedback tools are inadequate
Errors in Appraisal
   Leniency Error
     Propensity  to overlook the weaknesses and mistakes of
      the person being evaluated leading to an inaccurate
      picture of the job performance
   Hawthorne Effect
     Behaviorof the ratee changes simply because he is
      observed by the rater
   Horn’s Effect
     Occurs when rating an employee very low because of
      an error committed

								
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