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Insect Notes

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					      Insects in the world
        Adapted from www.entomology.wisc.edu/diaglab/mg_pp.ppt



• Most successful animals
• Make up 2 out of three living things
• With other arthropods make up over 75% of
  all animals
• Have been around for 350 million years
Number of total species




             Insects

             other
             arthropods
             Other
             animals
   Arthropods= Insects and their
                       relatives
Do not have a backbone(invertebrates)
Jointed legged animals include;
Ticks, mites ,spiders ,millipedes
Centipedes, and insects
What is an insect?
                 Insect -characters
• Body divided
  into three
   regions
                       Insect -characters

• Three sets of
  legs
Easiest character to
see
                Insect -characters
• One pair of
  antennae
 May be
 small                    <antennae
                        Insect -characters
• Wings
• Only birds,
  bats and
  insects
• Only found in
  adult insects
• Not all insects
  have wings
  (fleas,springtails)
                     Spiders- Arachnids

• 4 pairs of legs
• No antennae
• No wings
• 2 body divisions
• Spiders are not
insects
Millipedes
     Insect Development
      or Metamorphosis

• Two forms of development
  (change)

1. Simple/ Partial/ Primitive
2. Complete/ Advanced
               Simple metamorphosis


       Egg- nymph- adult
All life stages look similar, behave similar
Whole family can live and feed together
Simple(gradual) Metamorphosis
Simple(gradual) Metamorphosis
Simple Metamorphosis Orders
            Complete Metamorphosis

• Egg -Larvae-Pupae-Adult
•   Larvae not look like adult- are wormlike
•   Can live in different environment
•   Eat different food
•   Larvae usually the main pest
Complete Metamorphosis
Complete Metamorphosis
Complete Metamorphosis Orders
Insect Larvae
                     Exoskeleton




Why do insects look so strange?
                         Exoskeleton
• Insect covered with
  hard outer shell
• Skin is very plastic
  like
• Difficult to sense
  environment
Exoskeleton
Molting
Cast skin of cicada




                      < notice slit
                      along back
               Insect Development

• Cold blooded- development
  influenced by temperature
• Most insects inactive below 50 0 F;
• Breed, eat, develop faster the
  warmer it is up to 95 0 F.
      Insect mouthparts-two types

• Chewing              damage
  mouthparts


                       damage
• Sucking
  mouthparts
<Piercing,sucking
mouth parts
Chewing mouthparts


            <chewing
            mouthparts
Chewing mouthparts


            <chewing
            mouthparts
           Insect reproduction

1. Short life cycles- most go
   through generation in 1- 6
   weeks
2. Large number of offspring
   / female -100-2,000 eggs
                      Insect reproduction

Experiment

Fruit flies- 2 week life
cycle
26 generations/year
100 eggs / female
             Insect Reproduction

In 1 year from 1 male and 1 female
  if all offspring survive to breed
           would produce
           10  41 flies-

     if pack 1000 flies/cu. in.
                 Insect Reproduction

A ball of fruit flies 96 million miles in
 diameter which is 2/3 of the distance
 from earth to sun
 ·                         
Why doesn’t it happen?
               Insect classification

• 26-28 Orders -to separate use

• Type of development

• Type of mouthparts
                 and
           Insect classification


If present, number and type
Order Orthoptera

•   Roaches
•   Crickets
•   Walking sticks
•   Mantids
•   Grasshoppers
Order Orthoptera

• Simple development
• Chewing mouthparts
• Two pairs of wings/
  first set are thickened and leather-like
          Orthoptera wings

1st pair leather like, thickened
                            >




  2nd pair thin flying wing
Orthoptera wings
Orthoptera
Earwigs- Dermaptera
     • Short wing covers-
       second pair not always
       developed
     • Simple development
     • Chewing mouthparts
     • Have terminal forceps
     • 20 species in North
       America
   True bugs -Order Hemiptera

•Simple development
•Sucking mouthparts
•Two pairs of wings/
  1st pair a half wing in Heterocera
   True Bugs- Hemiptera wings



Two sets of wings
                            < Half wingwing
                                 < half
1st pair thick for
1st half , thin for other
                Conifer seed bug




Half wing   >
          Aphids, scales, ciada
          Suborder Homoptera

•Simple development
•Sucking mouthparts
•Two pairs of membrane type wings
Adult cicada


      1



           2
Ash leaf-curl aphids
   Butterflies and moths -
       Order Lepidoptera

•Complete development-larvae are caterpillars
•Larvae have chewing mouth parts
•Two pairs of wings/ Covered with scales
Butterflies and moths -
Order Lepidoptera
Scaled wings
       Iris borer
<true legs           caterpillar


             <Prolegs with
             crochets
         Beetles- Order Coleoptera

•Complete development- larvae are grubs
•Chewing mouthparts larvae and adults
•Two pairs of wings-first hardened into
    wing covers
Beetles- Order Coleoptera

        Adult beetle



                  <wing cover
Asian Lady Beetle
Japanese beetle grubs


                        < 3 pairs of legs
           True Flies- Order Diptera


•Complete development-larvae are maggots
•Chewing mouthparts in larvae/
  variable in adults
•Adults only have 1 pair of wings
Horse fly




< 1 pair of wings
              Wing veins
Antennae




   16,914 species in North America
   113 Families
Rat-tailed maggots




     <larvae have no legs
                  Ants,bees,sawflies
                Order Hymenoptera


•Complete development-larvae are maggot like
•Chewing mouthparts in larvae
•Two pairs of wings- both membrane like
         hooked together to work as one
Elm sawfly adult
Hymenoptera wings
Sawfly larvae
                     Amazing insect facts
• Larvae eat 3-4 times
  their weight / day in
  food
• Aphids can process
  100 times weight in
  plant sap
• Some insects can
  survive being frozen
  solid

				
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