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SDH Basics

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					SDH Technology

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SDH Basics

Definition of SDH
SDH STANDS FOR: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
 An international standard for high-speed

optical/electrical telecommunications networks
 A synchronous digital transport system with a built-in

management channel for remote management of complex topologies
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SDH Basics Synchronous Multiplexer Interfaces
Tributaries
1.5 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s 6 Mbit/s 34 Mbit/s 45 Mbit/s 140 Mbit/s STM-1 Elect. STM-1 Optical STM-4 Optical LAN / MAN FDDI ISDN / BISDN ATM Video

Aggregates
STM-1 (155 Mbit/s) STM-4 (622 Mbit/s) STM-16 (2.4 Gbit/s) STM-64 (10 Gbit/s)

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SDH Basics
TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER

SDH Equipment
STM-N

ADD-AND-DROP MULTIPLEXER
STM-N ADM

E1-E4 TM STM-N

REGENERATOR

E1-E4 STM-N STM-N REG STM-M

STM-M

SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL CROSS-CONNECT
E1-E4

ADD-AND-DROP MULTIPLEXER WITH LOCAL CROSS-CONNECT CAPABILITY

STM-N STM-N SDXC STM-N LXC

STM-N

E1-E4 STM-N STM-M

STM-M
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SDH Basics Network Topologies
RING

CHAIN

MESH
POINT-TO-POINT STAR (HUB)

ADM / DXC TM
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SDH Basics Protection Schemes

Section Protection
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Path Protection
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SDH Basics Network Management

Ethernet Gateway Site 1

Management Station

Site 2

SDH Multiplexer Network
Site 3

Site 4

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SDH Basics Management Functions

 Alarm/Event Management  Configuration Management  Performance Management  Access and Security Management

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SDH Basics

SDH Transport System
STM-N 34 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s ... 2 Mbit/s

Fiber Highway

Asynchronous Transport System

Video

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SDH Basics SDH Network Segments
Multiplexer Section
Regenerator Section

Multiplexer Section
Regenerator Section Regenerator Section

Tributaries

SDH Terminal Multiplexer

SDH Add & Drop Multiplexer SDH Regenerator SDH Regenerator

SDH Terminal Multiplexer

VC Assembly

VC Disassembly

Path
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Tributaries

SDH Basics Multiplexing Structure
139.264 Mbit/s xN x1

STM-N

AUG

AU-4

VC-4
x3 x1

C-4

TUG-3
x3

TU-3

VC-3
44.736 Mbit/s 34.368 Mbit/s

AU-3

VC-3
x7

C-3
6.312 Mbit/s

x7

TUG-2

x1

TU-2

VC-2

C-2
2.048 Mbit/s

C VC TU TUG AU AUG
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Container Virtual Container Tributary Unit Tributary Unit Group Administrative Unit Administrative Unit Group

x3

TU-12
x4

VC-12

C-12
1.544 Mbit/s

TU-11

VC-11

C-11
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SDH Basics Signal Structure
F F N x M bytes F F

M Columns F B B B N x M bytes 1 2 Order of transmission B B N Rows B

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SDH Basics STM-1 Frame Structure
9 261 1

Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH)

3

4
5

AU Pointer

Payload

Multiplexer Section Overhead (MSOH) 9 270 Columns (Bytes) 9 rows x 270 columns x 8 bits / byte x 8000 frames / sec. = 155.52 Mbit/s
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SDH Basics STM-1 Virtual Container (VC-4)
Serial Signal Stream 155.52 Mbit/s F F F F

9 Rows

Path Overhead

Section Overhead

Payload Capacity = 149.76 Mbit/s Designed for 140 Mbit/s transport

260 Columns 9 Bytes x 1 Column
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SDH Basics Tributary Unit Frame Structure
Serial Signal Stream 155.52 Mbit/s F F F F

9 Rows

Path Overhead

Section Overhead

Tributary Unit Frame

STM-1 Container Capacity

260 Columns
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SDH Basics Tributary Unit Frame Structure
Serial Signal Stream 155.52 Mbit/s F F F F

9 Rows

Path Overhead

Section Overhead

TU Pointer VC Path Overhead Low-Rate Tributary Signal

Virtual Container Container

260 Columns
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SDH Basics Different Sizes of Tributary Unit Frames
TU-11 TU-12 TU-2 TU-3

9 rows 3 columns

4 columns

12 columns 6.912 Mb/s Optimised for a N. American DS2 (6.312 Mb/s) signal

86 columns 49.54 Mb/s Optimised for a N. American DS3 (44.736 Mb/s) signal, but will also carry a European 34.368 Mb/s signal

1.728 Mb/s 2.304 Mb/s Optimised for Optimised for a N. American a European DS1 (1.544 2 Mb/s signal Mb/s) signal
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SDH Basics TU-12 Numbering System

TU-3 3

TU-12 1-4-2 TU-2 2-4
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SDH Basics Synchronous Byte-Interleaved Multiplexing
t STM-1 SIGNAL “A” t STM-1 SIGNAL “B”

STM-1 SIGNAL “C”

ByteInterleaved Multiplexer

STM-4 (4 x STM-1)

STM-1 SIGNAL “D”

DENOTES 8-BIT BYTE AT STM-1 SIGNAL RATE

DENOTES 8-BIT BYTE AT STM-4 SIGNAL RATE

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SDH Basics STM-4 Frame Structure
STM-1 “A”
Serial Signal Stream
F

125 usec.
F F

622.08 Mb/s STM-1 “B” 9 Rows 9720 Bytes / Frame

STM-1 “C”

ByteInterleaved Multiplexer

9 Rows

STM-1 “D” 36 columns Interleaved Section Overhead 1044 columns 4 Interleaved VC-4s

9 columns Section Overhead
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261 columns VC-4

9720 Bytes / Frame x 8 Bits / Byte x 8000 Frames / Sec. = 622.08 Mbit/s
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SDH Basics Overhead Functions
 Define and build the SDH frame structure  Provide data transportation monitoring

indicators
 Provide alarm state indications  Enable maintenance activities

 Provide routing functions (protection

switching)
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SDH Basics
Section Overhead (SOH) Path Overhead (POH)
J1 Path Trace

Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH)

A1 Framing

A1 Framing

A1 Framing

A2 Framing E1 Orderwire

A2 Framing

J0 A2 Reg. Sec. Framing Trace

B1 BIP-8

F1 User

B3 BIP-8 C2 Signal Label G1 Path Status

D1 Datacom

D2 Datacom

D3 Datacom

H1 AU Pointer

H2 AU Pointer

H3 AU Pointer

B2 BIP-24

K1 MPS

K2 RDI

F2 User H4 Multiframe

Multiplexer Section Overhead (MSOH)

D4 Datacom

D5 Datacom

D6 Datacom

D7 Datacom

D8 Datacom

D9 Datacom

F3 User

D10 Datacom S1 Synch. Quality

D11 Datacom

D12 Datacom E2 Orderwire

K3 APS N1 Tandem Conn.

Z1 Growth

Z2 Growth

M1 REI

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SDH Basics STM-4 Section Overhead Byte Structure
36 columns
A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0 Z0 Z0 Z0 B1 D1 E1 D2 Administrative Unit Pointer(s) F1 D3

B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1
D4 D7 D10 S1 D5 D8 D11 M1

K2
D6 D9 D12 E2

Bytes reserved for national use

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Description: The series of slides present a simplified illustration of SDH principles