Communication Skills ppt _ BEC DOMS

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Communication Skills ppt _ BEC DOMS Powered By Docstoc
					Communication Skills




                       1
        Concepts
 Words Mean Different Things to
  Different People.
 The Initiation of a Message
  Provides No Assurance It Has
  Been Received.
 Communications Often Become
  Distorted as They Are
  Transmitted.

                                   2
 Why is Communication
      Important?
 Everything a manager does
  involves communication.
 Effective communication
  skills can lead to problems
  for the manager.
 Communication of content
 Supportive communication


                                3
      Communication of Content
 Channel choices
     In person
     Telephone
     Email
     Written
     Third party



                                 4
             Supportive
           Communication
• A focus on processes.
• Two categories:
1. Coaching: giving advice, direction or
   information to improve performance… focus
   on abilities
2. Counselling: helping the person understand
   and resolve a problem themselves by
   displaying understanding… focus on
   attitudes
                                            5
What Is the Interpersonal
Communication Process?
 Communication
 Sequential Steps
      Encoded
      Transmitted
      Decoding
      Noise
      Feedback

                            6
Exhibit 3-1: The Communication Process Model




                                               7
      Basic Interpersonal
     Communication Skills
 Avoid Barriers to Communication.
 Send Understandable Messages:
  Effective communication.
 Actively Listen.
 Utilize Non-verbal Signals.
 Give and Solicit Meaningful Feedback.
 Adapt to Diversity of Communication
  Styles… try multiple channels

                                          8
What Are the Barriers
To Communication?
   Frames of Reference
   Semantics
   Value Judgments
   Selective Listening
   Filtering
   Distrust

                          9
        Attributes of effective
           communication
 Problem oriented not person oriented

“I don’t like the way you dress for work.”
“You are not very professional.”




                                             10
       Attributes of effective
          communication
 Congruence versus incongruence
 Mismatch between what one feels/thinks
  and what one says

“I’m disappointed that we didn’t reach our
   target and that we aren’t getting our
   bonuses.”

                                             11
         Attributes of effective
            communication
  Descriptive versus evaluative
  Avoid judgment
  How:
1. describe objectively;
2. focus on the behaviour and your reaction not the
   other’s attributes;
3. focus on solutions
                  “You screwed up”

                                                  12
       Attributes of effective
          communication
 Invalidation:    Validation:
   Superiority    Respectful
   Rigidity       Flexible
   Indifference   Two way
   impervious     communication
                   Identify areas of
                   agreement

                                       13
       Attributes of effective
          communication
 specific not global
        “you never ask for my advice”
                 “You are lazy”




                                        14
       Attributes of effective
          communication
 Conjunctive not disjunctive
   Lack of equal opportunity to speak?
   Extended pauses?
   Who controls the flow?
A continuum…




                                          15
       Attributes of effective
          communication
 Owned not disowned
   Use of “I statements” not “you or other
    statements”
           “I’ve heard that you…”




                                              16
       Attributes of effective
          communication
 Two way not one way
   Listening by responding




                                 17
    Exhibit 3-2: Guides for Giving and Receiving Feedback

Criteria for Giving Feedback

1. Make sure your comments are intended to help recipient.
2. Speak directly and with feeling.
3. Describe what the person is doing and the effect the
   person is having.
4. Don’t be threatening or judgmental.
5. Be specific, not general (use clear and recent examples).
6. Give feedback when the recipient is open to accepting it.
7. Check to ensure the validity of your statements.
8. Include only things the receiver can do something about.
9. Don’t overwhelm the person with more than can be
   handled.
                                                               18
Exhibit 3-2: Guides for Giving and Receiving Feedback
                       (continued)

   Criteria for Receiving Feedback

   1.   Don’t be defensive.
   2.   Seek specific examples.
   3.   Be sure you understand (summarize).
   4.   Share your feelings about the comments.
   5.   Ask for definitions.
   6.   Check out underlying assumptions.
   7.   Be sensitive to sender’s nonverbal messages.
   8.   Ask questions to clarify.


                                                        19
   How Do You Receive and
Understand Messages Accurately?
    Listening
      Active Listening
        Sensing
        Attending
        Reflecting




                                  20
     How Can You
Utilize Nonverbal Cues?
     Visual
     Tactile
     Vocal
     Time and Space



                          21
         Exhibit 3.3: Means of Nonverbal Communication

                            VISUAL
Components             Examples                 Meanings Communicated

Image                  Clothing, hygiene        Values, competence
Facial Expressions     Frown, smile, sneer      Unexpressed feelings
Eye Movements          Looking away, staring    Intentions, state of mind
Posture                Leaning in, slumped      Attitude
Gestures               Handshake, wave          Intentions, feelings


                           TACTILE
Touch                  Pat on the back          Approval
                       Gentle touch on an arm   Support and concern




                                                                       22
         Exhibit 3.3: Means of Nonverbal Communication
                              (continued)

                               VOCAL

Components              Examples                 Meanings Communicated

How things are said     Loudness, pitch, rate    Different meanings, e.g.
Vocal intonations       Rhythm, pitch, clarity   Sarcasm, disapproval




                               SPACIAL

Body closeness          0 – 2 feet               Feelings of intimacy
Furniture arrangement   Large pieces far apart   Formal and serious




                                                                        23
How Can You Adapt to Diversity
  of Communication Styles?
  Differences in
   Communication Styles
      The Socializer
      The Director
      The Thinker
      The Relater


                                 24
Cultural Differences




                       25
Gender Differences




                     26
   How Can You Facilitate
Communication with Diversity?
     Assume Differences
     Emphasize
      Description
     Empathize
     Treat Interpretations
      as Guesses

                                27

				
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