Black gram 164

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					                                      Black Gram
                                       Booklet No. 164
                                     Pulse Crops: PCS - 4
Contents
Preface
I.     Introduction
II.    Climate
III.   Soil
IV.    Varieties
V.     Land Preparation
VI.    Seed and Sowing
VII.   Manures and Fertilizers
VIII. Irrigation
IX.    Disease Control
X.     Pest Control
XI.    Weeding
XII.   Other Intercultural Operations
XIII. Mixed Cropping
XIV. Crop Rotation
XV.    Unfavourable Climate
XVI. Harvesting and Yield
XVII. Industrial Value
XVIII. User's Products
XIX.. Economics of Cultivation.

Preface

         Black gram or urd is a popular pulse crop of India. It is a rich source of protein (about 26
per cent). It is used in the preparation of a number of dishes such as idli, dosa, mungora, etc. It
can be grown in a variety of soil and climatic conditions. This booklet describes the scientific
cultivation of black gram including varieties, seed and sowing, water and manurial requirements,
plant protection measures, etc.

Dr. K.T. Chandy, Agricultural & Environmental Education

I. Introduction

        Black gram (Vigna mungo) is an important pulse crop. It originated from its wild relative
Phaseolus sublobatus in India. It is grown in several parts of Asia and Africa, mainly in countries
like India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon. In India it is grown all over the country, as
kharif (summer) crop in northern India and as rabi (winter) crop in southern India with total area
of about 24 lakh hectares. The crop is extensively cultivated in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Andhra Pradesh, TamI Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Black gram is used in making delicious curry,
sweets, idlis, etc.

II. Climate

      Black gram requires a warm and humid climate. Its growth and development is proper
when atmospheric humidity is 50 -70 % with a temperature of 20 -25°C. A region with annual
rainfall above 500 mm is quite suitable for its cultivation. It can be grown in a wide range of
climate. It grows successfully from sea level to an elevation of 1800 metres or more.

III. Soil

       Black gram grows in a wide range of soils, therefore, it is mostly grown as a mixed crop.
Any soil, which is well drained is suitable for its cultivation. Sandy loam, clay loam or sometimes
heavy clay soils can be successfully used for its cultivation. The soil should be neutral in
reaction. Alkaline and saline soils are not suitable for its cultivation. A soil with pH 6.8 to 7.2 is
the best for this crop. In poor soils plant expresses stunted growth, while in rich soils, there is
excess vegetative growth resulting in less grain production.

IV. Varieties

            The description of some of the important varieties released so far is as under.

1. Mash-48
        The variety was released in 1948. It has good cooking quality and drought resistance. It
is attacked by leaf-spot. It is resistant to virus disease in humid climate. It is free from hard
grains. It is spreading type. The crop matures in 85 -90 days. Seeds are black. Its yield is about
8 -10 quintals of grains./hectare.

2. Mash-I-I
        It is suitable for humid areas of Punjab. Seeds are medium bold and black in colour. It is
tolerant to viral and fungal diseases. The crop matures in about 85 days and average yield is 10
quintals of grains per hectare.

3. Type-9
        It is most suitable for plains of U.P, especially for crop rotation with wheat and is also
good for growing in summer season. It is susceptible to yellow mosaic disease. The plant is
erect, leaves are dark green in colour, pods hairy, seeds medium sized and black coloured. It
matures in about 85 days and yields 8 -10 quintals of grains\hectare.

4. Type-27
        This variety is suitable for central and western tracts of Uttar Pradesh. It is a spreading
late type plants are tall with dark green foliage, flowers are yellow, pods
i are green at early stage but black at maturity, seeds are medium sized and black in colour. It
matures in 130- 140 days and yield is about 14 -15 quintals of grain \hectare.

5. Pant-U-19
        This variety was released in 1981 for general cultivation in northern plains. It is resistant
to yellow mosaic virus. Plant are short and erect, pods hairy and black at maturity, seeds
medium and black brown. It matures in 82 days and yields 13 -15 quintals of grains\hectare.

6. Pant-U-30
        It is recommended for cultivation in Central and Peninsular India. It is resistant to yellow
mosaic virus and powdery mildew diseases which are a problem to Central and South India.
Plant is short erect type, pods are hairy and black at maturity, seeds brown and medium sized.
It is an early maturing type and takes about 70 days to mature and yields 13 -15 quintals of
grains per hectare.
7. Typc-65
       It is most suitable for central and eastern district of Uttar Pradesh. Leaves are ovate and
dark green in colour, flowers yellow, pods straight and yellow hairy, green at early stage but
brownish at maturity~ Seeds are shinning green colour and medium bold. It is a late maturing
and takes about 135 days to mature. The yield is about 13 quintals\hectare.

8. Sindkhcra-l-l
       It is suitable for growing in Maharashtra. Seeds are black and bold. Plant is erect, pods
brown hairy. It branches more vigorously than local varieties. Pods contain 6 -8 black seeds. It
flowers in 40 -50 days, matures in 80 -85 days and yields 7 -9 quintals of grains\ hectare.

9. No. 55
       This variety has been developed at Nagpur. It is suitable for growing in Maharashtra.
The plant matures in 80 days and yields 6 quintals of grains\ hectare.

10. T-122
       This variety is suitable for growing in Assam. Seeds are medium sized, black in colour.
The crop matures in 80 -85 days and yields an average 11 -12 quintals of grains\ hectare.

11. Naveen
        It is a selection from local material of Bihar and is suitable for north Bihar, as cash crop
between maize harvest and wheat sowing, Its plants are spreading type, seed medium sized
and light yellowish green. It matures in 90 -95 days and yields an average 10 -12 quintals of
grains \ hectare.

12. BR-68
        t is a selection from local Bhagalpur and most suitable for Bihar. Seeds are black in
colour, medium bold. Pods are hairy and brown. It matures in about 115 days and yields about
10 quintals of grains/hectare.

13. Khargoan-3
       It suitable for Nimar and Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. Plants are semi erect type.
Seeds are black and bold. It matures in 78 days and yields about eight quintals of grains \
hectare.

14. Gwalior-2
        It is a selection from local varieties developed in 1956 in Madhya Pradesh. Seeds are
black in colour and bold. It matures in about 100 days and yields 10 quintals of grains \hectare.

I5.Pusa-l
       It is suitable for cultivation in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Andhra
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Rajasthan and Haryana. It is resistant to yellow mosaic virus
disease. The plants are medium, tall, semi-spreading. Pods are medium long, five to six seeded
and hairy. It matures in 85 days and yields about 15 quintals of grains\hectare.

16. Zandewal
       It is suitable for Gujarat region. Its seeds are black, I medium in size. It matures in 100
days and yields about 10 quintals of grains\hectare.

17. Krishna
       It was selected from local material in 1970 in Rajasthan. It is very good for growing in the
areas of Kota division of Rajasthan. The seeds are black in colour and bold. The crop matures
in about 90 days and yields about 10 quintals of grains per hectare.

18. CO-l
      It is suitable for growing in delta regions of Tamil Nadu. Seeds are black in colour and
medium sized. It yields about eight quintals of grains \ hactare.

19. CO-2
       It is suitable for multiple cropping in Tamil Nadu. It matures in 65 days and yields about
eight quintals of grains per hectare. It is an early maturing variety.

20. CO-3
         The variety is suitable for growing in Tamil Nadu. Seeds are black in colour and bold. It
is tolerant to stem fly. It matures in 85 days and yields about eight quintals of grains per hectare.
It is somewhat an early maturing variety.

21. KM-l
       It is suitable for multiple cropping in Tamil Nadu. It is a photo insensitive variety. Seeds
are black and bold. It matures in 65 days and yields eight quintals of grains\hectare. It is an
early maturing variety.

22. C-4
       It is suitable for growing in Tamil Nadu. Seeds are black, very bold. The crop matures in
70 days and yields 9 -10 quintals of grains \ hectare. It is an early maturing variety.

23. KM-2
      It is suitable for delta region of Tamil Nadu. It is tolerant to yellow mosaic virus. It
matures in 60 days and yields eight quintals of grains\ hectare. It is an early maturing variety.

24. ADT-2
       It is most suitable for Tamil Nadu. Its seeds are black and bold. The crop matures in
about 70 days and yields an average nine quintals of grains \ hectare.

25. B-76
       It is most suitable for planting from end of February to early July in West Bengal. It
matures in 80 -85 days.

26. Kulu-4
       It is suitable for Himachal Pradesh. Its seeds are black in colour and very bold. The crop
matures in 100 -120 days and yields an average of 11 -12 quintals of grains \ hectare. It is a late
maturing variety.

27. HPU-6
      It is most suitable for growing in Kangra and Kulu valley of Himachal Pradesh. The crop
matures in 100 -120 days. It is a late maturing variety.

28. D-67
        This variety rs suitable for Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, etc. In Uttar Pradesh
it can be grown in spring and summer. The variety matures in 100 days and yields about 15
quintals of grains \ hectare.
29. T-9
        This variety is most suitable for summer, and spring cultivation. It performs better in most
of the areas. It is a warm weather crop. It yields about 13 -15 quintals of grains \ hectare. It is an
early maturing variety.

30. A-46-5
        It is a selection from a local variety, most suitable for Gujarat. Its seeds are black in
colour, medium in size. It matures in about 100 days and yields an average 10 quintals of grains
\ hectare.

Some important varieties of black gram suitable for different regions are listed in table-I.

                        Table 1: Varieties of black gram for different states

 Sl.No.    State                    Variety
 1         Punjab                   Mash-48, Mash-1-1
 2         Uttar Pradesh            Type-9, Type-27,Pant-U-19, Pant-U-30, Type-65
 3         Maharastra               Sindkhera-1-1, No-55, D-67, A-46-5
 4         Assam                    T-122
 5         Bihar                    Naveen, BR-68
 6         Madhya Pradesh           Khargoan-3, Gwalior-2,D-67.
 7         Delhi                    Pusa-13.
 8         Gujarat                  Zandwal, D-67, A-46-5.
 9         Rajasthan                Krishna
 10        Tamil Nadu               CO-1, CO-2, CO-3, KM-1, CO-4, KM-2, ADT-2.
 11        West Bengal              B-76
 12        Himachal Pradesh         Kulu-U, UPU-6
 13        Andhra Pradesh           T-9, L-35-5, PDP-71-1, PDP-71-2.
 14        Orissa                   T-9, T-65.
 15        Karnataka                Khargoan-3, 7-9
 16        Jammu & Kashmir          T-9, Mash-1

V. Land Preparation

       Black gram crop requires well aerated and well drained soil. Therefore, fields are
ploughed and pre- pared to a fine texture. To improve its physical and chemical properties. a
heavy dose of farmyard manure i.e. 12 -15 tonnes\ha is mixed with soil one month before
sowing. All the debris and stubbles of previous crop are removed, clods are broken and field is
properly levelled.

VI. Seed and Sowing
       Seed and sowing of black gram involves following steps.

1. Selection of seed
       Seed should be free from insect, disease and other injuries. Floating seeds when dipped
in 5% salt solution are removed and the settled ones are thoroughly washed with fresh water
and properly dried. The quantity of seed required is more for summer sowing (i.e. Febuary-
March) than kharif sowing (i.e. June -July). About 20 kg seed per hectare is used for summer
crop, while 1.2 kg seed per hectare is enough for kharif crop.
2. Seed treatment
       The seed is treated with fungicides like Thiram @ of 2.5 gm \ kg seed in a seed dressing
drum to avoid occurrence of seed borne diseases.

3. Inoculation
       Black gram is a legume pulse. Therefore, to encourage the nitrogen fixing bacterial
growth, the seed is inoculated with black gram Rhizobium culture.

4. Method of sowing
       Seed is sown in line with the help of pora or seed drill, keeping space between lines 30
cm and between plants 5 -7 cm. The seed is sown at a depth of 4 cm in the optimum zone of
moisture in the soil. Some growers like to sow by broadcast method and use more quantity of
seed to save time required in sowing. However, this method is not recommended.

VII. Manures and Fertilizers

        Black gram is a leguminous crop which requires aeration with adequate soil moisture. To
get this physical property of the soil, a well decomposed farmyard manure (FYM) @ 10 -12
tonnes\ha is mixed with soil one month before sowing.
This crop requires very less quantity of nitrogenous fertilizers. Generally 20 kg nitrogen, 40 kg
phosphorus and 30 kg potash per hectare are applied, with the help
of pora or seed -drill at a depth 8 -10 cm while sowing. Sometimes these fertilizers are
broadcast at the last ploughing before sowing.

VIII. Irrigation
          Black gram is a rainy season crop, grown on such fields, where irrigation is not possible.
Sometimes, heavy rains cause water logging, requiring a good drainage. Under limited
irrigations and lack of sufficient rains, only light irrigations at development, flowering and pod-
formation stages are given.

IX. Disease Control
       The description of the some important diseases is given here.

1. Yellow mosaic
        This disease is more common in Uttar Pradesh and other states of northern India. The
newly emerging leaves, show the symptoms of this disease within a month of sowing, in the
form of yellow, diffused, round spots, scattered on the leaf lamina. The spots expand fast and
yellow patches appear on leaves, alternating with green colour of the leaves. The affected
leaves later on turn completely yellow and get reduced in size.

Control
1. Grow resistant varieties like Mash 1-1, Pant-U-27, T -27, etc.
2. Spray Metasytox (0.10/0:) or Malathion (0.1 %) at 10 days interval, twice or thrice.
3. Sow disease free seeds.
4. Remove the infected plants and burn them away from the field.
5. Practice 4 -5 years crop rotation.
6. Do not grow fresh crop in the infected field.

2. Cercospora leaf spot
       The disease is more common in Punjab, Haryana, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. The disease
is caused by Cercospora fungus. Small round spots, violet in colour are visible on leaves. The
spots increase in number and size during flowering and pod formation stage, when
environmental conditions are favourable for this spread. The spots appear 4 -5 weeks after
sowing of the crops, depending upon environmental conditions, particularly, day and night
temperature and relative humidity.

Control
1. Spray Dithane Z.- 78 or Dithane M -45 @ 2 kg in 1000 litres of water per hectare.
2. Sow fresh disease free seeds.
3. Remove all the infected plants and bum them away from the field.
4. Adopt 4 -5 years crop rotation.
5. Do not grow the crop in the previously infected plots.

3. Anthracnose
        The disease is caused by fungus Colletotrichum capsici. In this disease dark brown
circular spots appear on leaves. later these spots increase in size by developing concentric
ridges. The areas in between the concentric ridges remain ash coloured. The infection may also
spread to pods where dark coloured spots are visible on them. It is a dangerous disease and
the heavy infection reduces the plant growth and the affected plant may then die.

Control
1. Spray Dithane M -45 or Dithane Z -78 @ 2 kg in 1000 litres of water per hectare.
2. Sow healthy seeds.
3. Treat the seeds with Ceresan or Agrosan GN. 4. Repeat 4 -5 years crop rotation.
5. Remove the infected plants and burn them away from the field.
6. Avoid growing fresh crop in the infected field.

4. Leaf curl
        It is a viral disease. The disease starts appearing as early as 20 days, after sowing and
comprises of chlorosis around lateral veins and its branches near the margin of a leaf. The
leaves show, curling of margins downwards. The affected leaves become brittle with a tendency
for the entire trifoliate leaf to fall down even on a slight jurk. Plants showing symptoms earlier
than five weeks usually die and, therefore, results in total loss. Infected plants bears less
number of pods, containing smaller and lighter grains. Estimated loss due to disease varies
from 10 to 42% depending upon the cultivar.

Control
1. Sow disease resistant varieties like Khargoan -3, No -55, T -27, etc.
2. Spray Metesystox (0.1 %) at 10 days interval twice or thrice.
3. Remove the infected plants and bum them away from the field.
4. Growing of fresh crops in the infected fields should be totally avoided.
5. Sow the fresh and disease free seeds.
6. Adopt 4 -5 years crop rotation with cereals.

5. Leaf crinkle
         The symptoms of this disease start appearing 3-4 four weeks after sowing. Generally the
third trifoliate leaf shows the symptoms, first by an increase in the size and is lighter green in
colour. A week after, the typical leaf crinkle becomes more conspicuous.
Control
1. Sow the seeds of healthy plants only.
2. Remove the affected plants and burn them away from the field.
3. Avoid growing fresh crop on the infected fields.
4. Follow three years crop rotation.

6. Charcoal rot
        This is caused by a fungus Macrophomina phaseoli. It is more common in Orissa,
Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, etc. In this disease the roots and stem of the plant rot. Generally the
plants get infection after a month of sowing and die completely due to rotting of roots. The
fungus attacks the young seedlings at the ground level causing collar rot. A number of small dot
like sclerotia of the pathogen are found on the root and basal, portion of the stem. The pathogen
also attacks stem forming dark brown lesions, which kill the plant.

Control
1. Grow disease resistant varieties like T -29.
2. Spray Bavistin or Benomyle at 15 days interval.
3. Do not grow fresh seeds in the affected field.
4. Follow 3 -4 year crop rotation.
5. Remove the infected plants and burn them.

X. Pest Control

       The black gram is attacked by a number of insect pests at different stages of its growth.
About 20 -40% loss occurs due to these pests. The crop should be kept free
from these pests at all the times. The important pests attack the crop are as under.

1. Red hairy caterpillar
        Red hairy caterpillar (Amsacta moorie) is a serious pest of kharif crops of various states
of India. The female lay 350 -900 eggs in masses arranged in 4-5 lines on the lower side of the
leaves. They are yellow in colour and turn grey when about to hatch. The incubation period lasts
for 3 to 4 days. Larvae on emergence remain gregarious on the same surface of leaf for a few
days and on green leaf tissues. The leaf turns membranous and these can be spotted out. The
body of the caterpillar is covered with black or dark brown hairs. A fully developed larvae is 3 -5
cm long. The adult moth has white wings, red abdomen from the top, black spots on the
abdomen on dorsal lateral sides. They are active during night and remain hidden during day
time. The caterpillars eat away the green leaves and damage the crop at seedling stage.

Control
1. Spray Endosulfan 1.5litres in 1000litres of water.
2. Dust BHC 10% @ 25 -30 kg \ hectare to kill young caterpillars.
3. Flood the field early in the morning as the caterpillars will come out and be eaten by birds.
4. Avoid growing fresh crop in the previously affected fields.

2. Bihar hairy caterpillar
       Bihar hairy caterpillar (Spilosoma obliqua) attacks the crop during October -November in
       kharif and in spring also. The adult moth is pale-buff coloured, -medium sized, and with
       black dots on wings. Its body is of crimson colour, having black spots on dorsal and
       lateral sides of the abdomen. Female lay hundreds of eggs on the lower surface of the
       leaves during night hours. The incubation period lasts for 3 to 4 days. The young
         caterpillars feed on the leaf tissues and skeletonize the leaf, resulting in poor seed
         development.

Control
1. Dust BHC 10QtJ @ 25 -30 kg \ hectare to control early larval stage..
2. Collect newly emerged caterpillars and kill them.
3. Avoid growing fresh ,crop on the infected field.

3. White fly
        White fly (Bemisia tabacci) is a soft bodied insect about 1.0 mm long. It is also a vector
of a serious viral disease called yellow mosaic. It sucks the sap from leaves. Female lay eggs
on the lower surface of the leaves. Eggs hatch out in 2 -3 days. The nymphs are oval and pale
in colour. Warm and humid weather is more suitable for rapid multiplication of this insect.

Control
      Use systemic insecticides like Disulfoton or Phorate or Aldicarb at the time of sowing.

4. Leaf hopper
        Both the adults and nymphs of the hopper suck the juice from the leaves. Generally they
suck the sap from the lower surface of the leaves but sometimes from upper surface also. This
results in the leaves to turn brown and curl from the edge.

Control
       Apply Temik 10% granules or Phorate (Thimet) 10% granules @ of 10 kg\hectare. The
crop can also be sprayed with 0.04% Monocrotophos 40 EC.

XI. Weeding

         Weeds absorb the plant nutrients and reduce the yield by 30 -40% in black gram.
Therefore, it requires at least two weedings, 20 and 50 days after sowing, respectively, It can be
done by hand hoe or wheel hoe. It can also be done by spraying weedicides such as Basalin 1
kg a.i. in 800 liters of water per hectare as pre-planting spray on the soil surface well mixed with
upper 2 -3 cm soil before sowing.

XII. Other Intercultural Operations

        Hoeing the top soil enhances aeration, moisture retention capacity of the soil and
increases the nitrogen -fixing bacterial activities. Gap filling and thinning after 15 -20 days of
sowing increase each plants efficiency and plant population in the field respectively. Staking the
tender plants of black gram helps the plant to use sun light and saves it from excessive moist
condition and also from the attack by insects and diseases.

XIII. Mixed Cropping

      Black gram is mostly grown mixed with sorghum, maize, bajra and cotton during kharif
season. It is grown as intercrop in widely spaced crops such as arhar and sugarcane.

XIV. Crop Rotations

         The important crop rotations which are followed in North India with black gram are given
below.
1. Maize -potato -black gram 2. Blackgram - wheat -black gram 3. Maize -taria -black gram 4.
Paddy -wheat -black gram 5. Maize -wheat -black gram

XV. Unfavourable Climate

       Black gram is very sensitive to changes in the climatic conditions such as temperature
and moisture content of the soil. Low temperature during germination results in poor
germination. Similarly, low temperatures below 16°C at flowering stage results in less grain
formation. Hot dry winds, at 43°C temperature and 20% relative humidity (RH), during plant
growth stage, kills the plant. Moderate warm and humid air at 25° C at 70 RH, as it is usually in
monsoon season, favours insect pests and diseases. Heavy rains and stagnant water check the
bacterial activities.

XVI. Harvesting and Yield

        Black gram is harvested when pods are dry and plant as whole is wet green. It is done
during the early hours of the day when the pods are not brittle and are wet with dew, to avoid
shattering of grains in the field. Immediately after harvesting, the crop is taken to threshing
ground for drying, threshing and winnowing. Seeds are further dried to reduce the moisture
content up to 12 per cent.

       The yield per hectare depends upon the variety and the success in production of the
crop. About 10 -15 quintals of grain per hectare is generally obtained.

XVII. Industrial Value

      Black gram is used primarily as 'dal' which requires prior splitting of its cotyledons.
Processing is done in a dal-mill.

XVIII. User's Products

        Black gram is used as 'dal' as whole grain, as split husked, unhusked or parched. In
South India, the husked 'dal' is ground after soaking in water overnight, into a thick paste for one
day. This fermented paste is mixed with equal quantity of rice flour to make 'dosa' and 'idli'. Urd
is also fried to serve as salty dish. Urd grain contains about 24% protein, 60% carbohydrates,
1.3% fats. It is also used as fodder and as green manuring crop. It being a leguminous crop fits
well into multiple cropping system 'and in mixed cropping system.

XIX. Economics of Cultivation

       Economics of black gram cultivation can be calculated with the help of format given
below, using points applicable under a particular condition.

A. Fixed cost
    1. Cost of the land Rs
    2. Cost of farm building, storage structures, etc. Rs
    3. Cost fencing the field Rs
    4. Cost of the clearing, leveling and bunding of the land Rs
    5. Cost of farm implements Rs
    6. Cost of irrigation source or structures Rs
B. Recurring cost
   1. Cost of seed Rs
   2. Cost of land preparation and sowing Rs
   3. Cost of manures and fertilizers Rs
   4. Cost of pesticides Rs
   5. Cost of farm power Rs
   6. Transportation charges on different articles Rs
   7. Cost of farm labour (paid and unpaid)
          a. Seed treatment and sowing
          b. 1rrigation
          c. Thinning
          d. Application of manures and fertilizers Rs
          e. Application of pesticides Rs
          f. Harvesting Rs
          g. Processing Rs
          h. Storing and marketing Rs
          i. Any other labour involvement Rs
   8. Interest on fixed cost (@ 10%) Rs
   9. Rent or revenue paid for land Rs
   10. Depreciation
          a. On farm structure Rs
          b. On farm implements. Rs
   11. Repair and maintenance charges Rs

Total recurring cost Rs

C. Income
     1. Grain yield Rs
     2. Straw yield Rs
Net profit = Gross income -Total recurring cost

                        Purchase value -Junk value
Depreciation =   ---------------------------------------
                                  Life span

        Junk value is calculated only on those articles which can be resold after their life span.
Life span of building and machinery is 15 years and 10 years, respectively.

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