The Navajo (The Dineh) by 1pSSX0M


									The Navajo
(The Dineh)
         American Southwest
• Around 1200 BC to 1300 CE a native American cultures
  spanning the Southwest developed
• Towns and villages and roads
• Diet of corn, squash and beans - not enough game to
• Pottery and other crafts traded
• We call the Anasazi from the Navajo “our enemies”
• This culture produced the pueblo Indian cultures that

• Came out Northwest Territories of
  Canada around 1,400 AD
• Navajo is an Athabaskan or Na-Dene
  language. These languages are unlike
  most of the languages of other Native
       Martilineal Society
• Property is passed through women not
• Man when he marries joins his wife’s
• Women own the property
• Traditional Navajo Dwelling
Navajo Reservation
• When they arrived in the Southwest around
  1400 CE, they lived by raiding the Pueblo
• By 1700 still raiding but building flocks of
  sheep and horses
• Early 1800s Spanish tried to control them
• In 1823 when Mexico gained independence,
  Mexican government left them alone to raid
• In 1848 US took New Mexico and
  Arizona away from Mexico and initially
  left the Navajo alone
• In 1863 US became angry at raids on
  Americans so they sent Kit Carson to
  put an end to it
• Carson marched 8000 of the Navajo to
  Bosque Redondo in Northern, New
  Mexico where they were confined in a
  few square miles - The Long Walk
• Another 8000 hid out in the bad lands to
  avoid capture
• Barboncito fought against relocation to
  Oklahoma - with help of the Hopi, an
  agreement was made that if the Navajo
  stopped raiding they would be returned
  to part of their homeland
    Navajo had to learn
 new ways of making a living
• Silver jewelry - skill learned from
  Mexicans - featuring turquoise
• Blanket weaving - learned from
• Eventually they got it all back - around
  300000 Navajo today - second largest
  Native American tribe on the largest
  American reservation
• Language and culture still very much
         Navajo Language
• Tones - high, low, rising, falling
• Several sounds like lateral fricative and
  the cluster of t preceding the lateral
  fricative which is a but unusual
• Let’s listen to a language tape
•   The prefix complex may be subdivided into 11 positions, with some of the positions having even further subdivisions:
•   disjunct prefixes          conjunct prefixes stem
•   0           1a             1b                 2                 3                  4                 5                      6                  7
                8              9                  10
•   postposition
•   object      "null
•   postposition"              adverbial-
•   thematic iterative         plural             direct object     deictic            adverbial-
•   thematic mode-
•   aspect      subject        classifier         stem

•   Although prefixes are generally found in a specific position, some prefixes change order by the process of metathesis. For example, prefix ʼa-
    (3i object pronoun) usually occurs before di-, as in

•     adisbąąs "I'm starting to drive some kind of wheeled vehicle along" [ < ʼa- + di- + sh- + ł + -bąąs].

•   However, when ʼa- occurs with the prefixes di- and ni-, the ʼa- metathesizes with di-, leading to an order of di- + ʼa- + ni-, as in

•     diʼnisbąąs "I'm in the act of driving some vehicle (into something) & getting stuck" [ < di-ʼa-ni-sh-ł-bąąs < ʼa- + di- + ni- + sh- + ł + -bąąs]

•   instead of the expected adinisbąąs (ʼa-di-ni-sh-ł-bąąs) (note also that ʼa- is reduced to ʼ-).

•   Although the verb template model of analysis has been traditionally used to describe the Navajo verb, other analyses have been proposed by
• Some Navajos now Christian, some
  Native American Church, but many
  maintain the Navajo religion
• Navajo very superstitious
• Skinwalker - evil person who can
  transform to an animal - especially a
  wolf or coyote
• Only evil people are not afraid of the
• Never sleep on a skin with your head
  near the animals head on the skin
            Navajo Justice
• Navajo reservation is in a sense an
  independent country with its own police force
• Navajo believe that putting people in jail or
  prison is senseless
• Apology and restitution need to be made and
  that the “demon” that caused the crime needs
  to be controlled
            Some Videos
• Scenes from Alanis Morissette: Live in the
  Navajo Nation
         Navajo Justice

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