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					                          Angles

• Originally occupied parts of Germany

• Invaded by Britain with Saxons & Jutes (from
  Jutland) in 5th Cent.

• Formed people who became known as English
  (The name England is derived from them)
                                 Anglo-Saxons

• 450-Present

• “Volkerwanderung”

• Drove out Britons, Celts

• Gave name “Welsh” – strangers

• Divided into 7 kingdoms (Kent, Sussex, Essex)
   –   Brought Important Documents
            Christmas Berry Mocha Fudge - A Heavenly treat
                                1/4 lb. butter
                       12 oz. can of evaporated milk
                            3 1/2 Cups of sugar
               1 heaping tablespoon of INSTANT COFFEE
                10 oz. Hershey's Raspberry chocolate chips
                        2 oz. bittersweet chocolate
                        7 oz. Marshmallow cream
                               1 tsp. Vanilla
      In a heavy saucepan melt the butter. Add evaporated milk, sugar, and coffee.
  Bring to a rolling boil, stirring constantly until the temperature reaches 235 degrees.
Remove from heat and and raspberry chocolate chips and the bittersweet chocolate. Stir
 the mixture until all ingredients are melted. Add the marshmallow crème and stir until
         blended. Stir in the vanilla. Pour into a lightly greased 9 X 13 inch pan.
                          Cut in bite sized squared when cooled.
- 700 AD – All of England Christian (St Patrick)
      religious unity before political
- 7 Stable Kingdoms established
-Alfred the Great
- Divides into Shires (counties)
- 700 AD – All of England Christian (St Patrick)
      religious unity before political
- 7 Stable Kingdoms established
-Alfred the Great
- Divides into Shires (counties)
      Rules by an Earl
      Broke into hundreds, ruled by Thegn
• Hero of the Geats

• of the Danes

• 5th- 6th C.

• Battles 3 Foes (Grendel, Mother, Dragon)

• Epic Tale written in England (700-1000 AD)
              King Arthur

• Arthur Pendragon, Artorius, Aurelianus

• Figure of Mythology

• Ideal King in War & Peace

• Born in 5th C.
                        Arthur

• Celtic Legend?

• Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain

• Excalibur

• Merlin, Guinevere
                Arthur

• Knights of the Round Table

• Camelot

• We may never know

• Exciting Tale of Medieval History
History of Cup
- Joseph of Arimathea
- Taken to Britain (bodyguards)




Legends
- develop 12th-13th c.
- Chrétien de Troyes
- Arthurian Legend
- Knights Templar
       Four medieval relics

1.   Jerusalem – silver chalice in reliquary (7th c.)

2.   Constantinople – costly dish captured in 4th crusade, lost
     in Fr. Revolution

3.   Genoa* - carved from emerald, brilliant green dish

4.   Valencia* - gold chalice, brought by St. Peter to Rome

     * these survive today
                        This tapestry is entitled The Quest for the Holy Grail.

This tapestry was designed by Edward Burne-Jones and woven by Morris & Co. in 1895-96 and is one of six
panels illustrating the story of The Holy Grail.

It represents the arming and the departure of the knights of the Round Table, amongst which are Sir Bors, Sir
Percival and Sir Galahad.
JUSTICE SYSTEM ESTABLISHED


WItAN (council of earls, thegns)


thegn                           Judge
Doomsmen                        Jury


EDWARD THE CONFESSOR
     Told to many secrets, ha
• King Edward the Confessor (no heir to throne)

     Last Anglo-Saxon

• 3 way struggle for English Throne

     Harold Godwinson

     Harald Hardrada
      (king of Norway)


     Duke William
William fights E.C. Weather
       (curse or blessing?)


Meanwhile…
Harald defeated by Harold at Battle
of Stamford Bridge


Battle of Hastings
       Harold rushes down
       William Wins
                          Results
• Harold killed, Normans win

• England Oriented toward Europe, not Scandinavia

• French Becomes language of the Courts

• Basic unit of govt remains shire, now ruled by shire reeve
  (sheriff)

• All estates of Saxons                 William’s

• Lords serve or
King Edward. Where Harold, Earl of the English, and his retinue ride to Bosham.




                 Harold sails to Stamford Bridge to meet Hardrada
Where Harold gave his oath to Duke William.




     The death of King Edward the Confessor
A bad omen, a comet appears in the sky




    Eustace. Here the French do battle.
And those who were with Harold fell. Here King Harold was killed.




                       And the English fled.
              Achievements
• 1086 DOMESDAY BOOK

       Gave          clear record of land holdings

       Castle Building begins


• Curia Regis set up (council of clergy & Barons)

       Contract w/vassals (forerunner of Parliament)
           William


Rufus      Henry I         Robert
(Hunter)   (Momma’s Boy)   (Eldest, Crusader)
Henry is last of sons
and will rule as an
uneventful king!
Heir to the Throne
- William, sister Mathilda, other illegitimate children
                   Stephen         (1135-54)




• Weak Ruler

• Constant fighting with Barons

• Power struggle with cousins

• Young Henry II (cousin succeeds him)
                                Henry II
                                 (King of England)

• 1164 issues Constitution of Clarendon
   Clergy member may be punished by Royal Court
   No appealing sentences to Pope without King’s Permission


• Thomas ‘a Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury)
   Opposed Constitution
   Murdered by Henry’s Knights (4)
                   Henry II

• Fight for the Throne
• Sons all want it




          William , Henry , Richard , John , Geoffrey




                       WHO WILL WIN?
                      Richard I (the Lion-Hearted)

• Seems to win fight for crown (1189-99)

• Unknown to English

   – 6 months of 10 yr reign in England

   – 3rd Crusade v. Saladin

   – Captured in Austria (Leopold V)

• Imposed heavy taxes (nearly bankrupted)

• Shot and Killed w/ arrow
                           King John

• Richard’s younger bro (1199-1216)

• Fought many battles w/ French

• Dispute with Pope Innocent III

• Imposed illegal dues on his barons

   – Pay for war and bro


• Barons were upset, had enough in 1215!
                                  Magna Carta
• 1215

• Barons forced                   John to sign document

• Defined Rights & Responsibilities

• Protected Barons against unnecessary taxes

• Clergy allowed to choose their own bishops

• Could appeal to Pope for justice

   *It did nothing for the large population (serfs)

• Eventually led to provisions for all citizens of England
                                 Parliament
• Issue of taxes led to Parliament (to speak)

• Divided into 2 Houses




     House of Lords - bishops & nobles

     House of Commons - knights & burgesses
                            Feudalism
   System of govt. w/land, estate                contractual ownership

• Lord – dukes, marquis, counts, earls, viscounts, barons, etc.

• Vassal – serve the lord

• Carolingian (8th & 9th C.) based on wealth (stirrup)
      vs.
• Classical (11th C.) hereditary lineage


• Responsibilities?
                           Feudalism
•   Obligations of the Vassals
•   Give 40 days/nights annually (scutage –shield money)
•   Contribute to lord’s expenses (knighting, wedding, ransom)
•   Work the land, give “contributions”
•   Entertain and maintain estate
•   Absolved if Lord (tries to kill, enslave, steal, or seduce wife)

•   Obligations of the Lords
•   Could wage war, coin $, collect tolls, make alliances
•   Grant land (fief)
•   Protect, provide castle
•   Lead vassals & knights into battle
•   Maintain roads, bridges, defenses
            Notre Dame Cathedral
• Paris, France
• One of the 1st Gothic Cathedrals
• Use of Flying Buttress
• Construction 1163-1345
• The bell "Emmanuel" in the south tower weighs over 28,000 pounds. The
   clapper alone weighs about 1,100 pounds.
• It is said that when "Emmanuel" was recast in 1631, women threw their
   gold and other jewelry into the molten metal, giving the bell its unique, pure
   F sharp tone.
• The main vault inside the cathedral is 112 feet high.
• The towers of the western façade are 226 feet tall.
• 422 steps in a spiral staircase lead to the very top of the bell tower.
       Four medieval relics

1.   Jerusalem – silver chalice in reliquary (7th c.)

2.   Constantinople – costly dish captured in 4th crusade, lost
     in Fr. Revolution

3.   Genoa* - carved from emerald, brilliant green dish

4.   Valencia* - gold chalice, brought by St. Peter to Rome

     * these survive today
                        This tapestry is entitled The Quest for the Holy Grail.

This tapestry was designed by Edward Burne-Jones and woven by Morris & Co. in 1895-96 and is one of six
panels illustrating the story of The Holy Grail.

It represents the arming and the departure of the knights of the Round Table, amongst which are Sir Bors, Sir
Percival and Sir Galahad.

				
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