Factors Affecting Information Communication Technology Acceptance in Public Organizations in Saudi Arabia

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Factors Affecting Information Communication Technology Acceptance in Public Organizations in Saudi Arabia Powered By Docstoc
					                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

       Factors Affecting Information
  Communication Technology Acceptance in
    Public Organizations in Saudi Arabia
     Ph. D. Candidate WAEL SH. BASRI                                EMERITUS PROF. DR. MOHAMED
          Northern Border University
       Faculty of Business Administration                          International Islamic University Malaysia
               ArAr, Saudi Arabia                               Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences
         Email:                                         Kuala Lumpur Malaysia

Abstract- Recent developments in information                    this rapid change is having a serious effect
communication technology (ICT) have heightened                  on ICT project success rate and created
the need of more study in this topic. There is a real           problems     threaten    the    organization
risk of the acceptance of ICT by some and not                   existence [1]. The benefits and the
others contributing to the rejection. The paper
approaches the technology acceptance from the
                                                                problems       associated     with      ICT
perspective of administration by examining the                  implementation     and     adoption   needs
use of ICT and e-services in the public                         exploring.
environment. The theoretical framework variables
of the technology acceptance model (TAM) are                        This study is an investigation of Saudi
examined. The study also investigated the effect of             public worker behaviour. Besides that the
the model of organization readiness to change                   study investigates the actual behaviour;
(MORC) Individual Differences “recipients'                      worker     behaviour     and     acceptance
beliefs” as external variables, in addition                     behaviour of Saudi workers who use ICT.
subjective norm and volunteer as the mediating .                Then, analyze the relationship between
the study tested the current usage as mediating
                                                                social demographics, worker behaviour,
variable between ICT believes and attitude
behaviour. Most studies in ICT have been carried                and acceptance behaviour of public
out in private sectors in Saudi Arabia. The survey              workers. Lastly, this study also examines
instrument uses to collect the data is a self                   the intention to use and willingness to
administrated questioner developed based on the                 continue use ICT.
technology acceptance questioner as used by
Davis and Venkatesh. The research population is                            II.    RESEARCH PROBLEM
Saudi workers in public organization. The
research tool is structure equation modelling
                                                                     In general, There is increasing concern
(SEM), which required a minimum sample of 200
respondents.                                                    that most organizations, despite its extent,
                                                                have not been able to recognize the
Key words: Technology Acceptance model;                         complete merits brought by ICTs [2]. In
Information Communication Technology; ICT                       order to realize the full advantages of ICT
Usage, Public organization; structural equation                 solutions, organizations need to identify
modelling; Saudi Arabia and developing countries.               the factors affecting ICT acceptance [3]
                                                                [4] [5]. In addition, the failure rate in the
              I.     INTRODUCTION                               implementation of technology calls for a
                                                                better understanding of the process [6] [7]
    ICT is a critical means for achievement                     [8].
in private and public sectors together, but
ensuring ICT acceptance is very difficult                           The wide investment in technology
assignment for the organization given the                       infrastructure is support to ICT program.
barriers will face the project. However,                        Yet;     considering   organizations   are

                                                                                           ISSN 1947-5500
                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                         Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

investing in technology projects at an                   technology acceptance [19]. Dasgupta,
alarming rate, and the failure rate                      Granger and Teo and McGarry emphasis
associated with this investment call for the             that many TAM studies generate diverse
need to investigate on this issue is even                hint’s base on the empirical facts,
more critical Krigsman [9] affirms the                   Inconsistent finding’s overflow in terms of
worldwide cost of information technology                 the direction and the scale of the
projects failure over $6.2 trillion. Recent              assassination between TAM variables [20].
developments in public technology have                   Other      studies    showed     unreliable
heightened the need for study of the                     associations. Teo [21] and Ahmad et al,.
technology adoption factors. It is                       [5] argued that using predicted use as an
becoming increasingly difficult to ignore                alternative of actual use of ICT is
the factors cause the adoption failures in               deteriorating TAM studies.
the public organization and the low
production of the civil workers [10].                         Lee, Kazor and Larsen [22] and
                                                         Yousafzai, Foxall       and Pallister [23]
    Although ICT acceptance is rarely the                conducted a meta-analysis of TAM and
motivation for public workers in Saudi                   found that one of the major problems with
Arabia, it is an essential activity for many             TAM research was that scholars were
workers. However, little is known about                  performing replication studies that provide
public worker’s behaviours and their                     very little incremental advancement to the
preferences. This study will investigate                 literature. Researchers were not really
acceptance factors of public workers and                 expanding TAM. Lee et al,. [22] noted that
will    profile     worker       preferences.            many scholars felt that the concept of a
Organizations that target ICT can benefit                "cumulative tradition" was carried too far
from the understanding of employee’s                     in all the repetitious studies of TAM,
behaviour, and can gain advantages over                  because the model had become an inhibitor
those    organizations     that    are   less            of more advanced theories of ICT use.
knowledgeable about their user.
                                                             Acceptance of technology innovations
    Many researchers [11] [12] [13] [14]                 for communication needs and factors that
have argued research on how organizations                influence the acceptance, and adoption
manage      problems    associated     with              have been studied for decades. The
technology and e-services acceptance                     theoretical frameworks that were used to
needs to be undertaken before the                        inform the studies include the diffusion of
association between the factors affecting                innovation theory, the expectancy-value
the technology acceptance, use and finally,              model, and the technology acceptance
the adoption of the e-services. A                        model. The word ‘acceptance’ has been
commonly observed phenomenon, in e-                      used by different authors in different
services acceptance and adoption in Saudi                meanings and context. As a matter of fact,
Arabia and developing countries, is that                 the expression does not have any unique or
Saudis seems apprehensive to accept                      specific description in literature. TAM has
technology [15]. Some studies had an                     defined acceptance as user’s decision
emphasis for the need of direct measure of               about how and when to use technology
the effect the social norm and culture on                [24].
the acceptance and the adoption of e-
transactions in governments organizations                    The theory of planned behaviour Ajzen
in Saudi Arabia [12] [16]. Richardson                    [25] which developed out of the theory of
states one of the main streams of research               reasoned action Ajzen and Fishbein [26];
is the explanation and prediction of ICT                 Fishbein and Ajzen [27] [28], the model of
adoption in the developing countries [17].               readiness    for   organizational  change
                                                         (MROC) Holt, Armenakis, Feild and
    Turner,   Kitchenham,     Brereton,                  Harris [29] and TAM Davis, Bagozzi, and
Charters [18] and Budgen [18] said that                  Warshaw [30] provide the foundation of
TAM proposed in 1989 as a means of                       the model which is integrated in this
predicting technology usage, is the                      dissertation into the proposed theoretical
superlative   tool   that demonstrates                   model.

                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                        Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

    The study of people's behaviour to ICT              TAM emphasizes that human will use a
application has been a vital issue in ICT               technology if the reimbursement of doing
study in ICT research since the 1980s. The              so overshadowed the effort required to use
theoretical foundation for the study of                 it [24].
whether a person is willing to use a
technology comes from research on                           Among the behaviours commonly
adoption and diffusion [31]. Research in                measured are: system usage [40], and user
this area has continued to develop over the             satisfaction [41]. Some researchers have
decades producing other theories including              studied both of these dimensions as a
the theory of planned behaviour Mathieson               composite [42]. User satisfaction actually
[32] [33], social cognitive theory [34]and              represents a cognitive and affective
TAM [35] [24] [30] [36].                                outcome that is less tangible in terms of
                                                        classification as behaviour. Al-Gahtani and
    TPB has been used successfully for                  King [43] came up to the conclusion that
prediction purposes in various research                 ICT usage is an accurate measurement of
areas, including the use of structured                  ICT acceptance.
interview     techniques    for   selection
purposes, the forecast of managers'                          The intention to use ICT depend on the
personal motivation to enhance their own                behaviour of actual use of it, since
proficiencies after receiving feedback,                 individuals, perform as they planned to, so
readiness    for   organizational   change              long as they have control over their
Jimmieson, Peach and White [37]                         actions. Sequentially, the attitude to use
technology     adoption,   intent   toward              ICT     applications     depend    on   the
participating in a participation program                behavioural intentions to use it. Following
[38].                                                   the logic of the TRA framework, users'
                                                        attitudes are determined by beliefs about
    The stated purpose of TAM is to                     the system and about the consequences of
"provide    an     explanation    of     the            using it.
determinants of computer acceptance that
is general, capable of explaining user                      The     model     of    readiness    for
behaviour across a broad range of end-user              organizational    change     suggests   that
computing     technologies     and     user             (intended and unintended) behavioural
populations, while at the same time being               outcomes are due to intentions (and
both parsimonious and theoretically                     reactions) concerning those behaviours.
justified" [35]. It assumes rationality                 Researchers have previously argued that a
within the decision-making process.                     positive and favourable view toward
Studies have provided empirical support                 organizational change, based on the degree
for TAM [39]. TAM also compares                         workers believe a change is likely to
favourably     with    other    technology              contain positive beneficial implications for
acceptance theories [32]. Taylor and Todd               them, and the organization will lead to
[33] affirm that TAM customarily                        better reactions to change [44]. In turn,
annotates about forty percent of the                    these intentions and reactions are linked
discrepancy in a persons' intentions to                 with the attitude called readiness for
employ the ICT and the true usage of it.                change, which has been defined in
                                                        numerous ways [29]. This attitude is, in
    TAM proposes that the technology use                turn, believed to be due to various change-
is motivated by persons’ attitude toward                related beliefs.
using the it, which is a function of their
beliefs about using the technology and an                   Several attempts have been made to
evaluation of the value of actually using it.           define change recipients' beliefs [29]. In
This stands on ''the cost-benefit paradigm              addition, these change recipients' beliefs
from behavioural decision theory'' [24]                 are related to various antecedents that fit
p:321, which state that a person behaviour              within the aforementioned typology.
is based on his or her self-tradeoffs                   Subjective norms play a crucial role. The
between the effort to performance a work                proposition that subjective norms help
and the cost of this action. Therefore,                 predict intentions relating to supporting

                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                        Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

organizational change comes from the                    knowledge sharing behaviour were through
suggestion that collective influence will               the boosting and expression of faith of
create a load among workers who directs                 senior managers. The positivity of their
them to support change. Researchers have                attitudes, through encouragement and
suggested that practitioners should take                perceived behavioural control greatly
advantage of the group culture in                       influenced    intentions  to    advocate
organizations as a device for creating roots            knowledge sharing.
and union that can influence and inform
one another about a change in order to                      Perceived ease of use (PEU) is
generate support and produce shared                     described as "the degree to which a person
significance throughout the period of                   believes that using a particular system
change [45].                                            would be free of effort" [24] p:320. The
                                                        construct reflects the amount of effort that
     In addition, there are three relevant              would be required, relative to the people
behavioural beliefs originate from the                  perceived capabilities, in terms of being
literature that having an impact on the                 able to use the technology to accomplish
attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived              the intended functions.
behavioural control [25]. These beliefs
are: (a) affect approaches towards the                      A theoretical model put forth by
perception of behaviour, (b) regular                    Venkatesh [40] found a number of control-
assumptions      that   consist   of    the             intrinsic motivation-related and emotion-
fundamental components of these non-                    related determinants for PEU. Control was
objective standards, and (c) control faiths             divided into perceptions of internal control
that provide the basis for perceived                    (computer self-efficacy) and perceptions
behavioural control.                                    of      external     control    (facilitating
                                                        conditions). Intrinsic motivation was
    TPB suggests, subjective norm is the                conceptualized as computer playfulness,
antecedent generally associated with social             while emotion was conceptualized as
pressure. It reflects “ the individual’s                computer anxiety. Thus, computer self-
perception of social support or opposition              efficacy, facilitating conditions, computer
to his performance of the behaviour [27].”              playfulness, and computer anxiety were
Normative beliefs and motivation are the                system independent variables.
two elements subjective norms. Normative
beliefs are the individual’s perceptions                    The variables were examined, and were
that certain people want them to perform                found to play a very important role in
the     behaviour.     The     individual’s             shaping PEU beliefs related to the new
compliance     represents    the   relative             system.      The    influence   of   these
importance of the referent person to the                determinants was reduced over time due to
individual. This element of behavioural                 growing experience with the system.
intentions is determined by the extent to               Venkatesh put forth that objective
which the individual believes others who                usability, perceptions of external control
are considered significant times the                    (facilitating conditions) over system use,
individual’s desire to comply with the                  and perceived enjoyment would have a
wishes and desires of those significant                 stronger influence on PEU during
others who desire the behaviour.                        continuance.

    Lin and Lee [46] reported the results                   Perceived usefulness (PU) has been
for a study which described the knowledge               defined as “the degree to which a person
sharing behaviour of employees due to                   believes that using a particular system
social    pressure  created    by   senior              would enhance his/her job performance”
managers. The study found that opinions                 [24] p:320. The construct reflects an
of peers were more likely to influence the              employee’s level of conviction that a
decisions made by senior managers with                  particular system will increase their work
respect to knowledge sharing behaviour.                 performance [35]. The PEU and PU
The study’s results demonstrated that the               relationship may be reduced over time
main agents of overall company-wide                     [47].

                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                        Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

     The quality of the output, particularly            done manually are now done automatically
the more precise and up-to-date the                     with the aid of machines. Most
information provided, the greater the PU.               organizations increase the readiness to
In addition, the greater the ease of ICT                change because the nature of work is
accessibility, comprehension, and analysis,             changing [52] [53] [54].
the greater is the PU [48]. Goodwin [49]
opined that perceived usefulness depends                    Madsen, Miller and John [55] define
on the usability and the counting use of the            change as a transition from a stage to
technology,      represented    by     PEU.             another, and that existing structures are
Mathieson [32] and Szajna [47] reported                 broken down to create new ones.
that PEU accounts for a significant portion             According to Armenakis et al,. [44], there
of the variance in PU. In TAM II, Hence                 are certain features of a positive work
according to Venkatesh and Davis [36]                   environment; which generally tend to
“PU’s     significant   antecedents    have             include both workplace as well as
included subjective norm, image, job                    individuals. These thus encourage positive
relevance, output quality, and result                   behaviours    and    attitudes    for  the
demonstrability.” Li [50] discusses ICT                 organizational readiness for change.
adoption from the effects of the group.
Herding occurs when an organization                         One of the most significant current
adopts an ICT based on a “me too”                       discussions in commitment to change is
attitude. In many cases, the adoption of                work-related attitudes and behaviours.
technology is in response to not being left             Perceived risk and habit is an important
behind, the “herding effect.” The herding               component in the resistance to user
effect results when the first bureau adopts             resistance to a new technology [56]. In
a technology, and subsequent users adopt                addition, Mowday, Steers and Porter [57]
the technology in order to minimize the                 argued that a relationship exists between
risk of choosing an alternative technology.             job nature and affective organization
In situations of incompatible ICT about                 commitment,     is    described   as  the
technologies, committing to a technology                motivation and desire of an employee to
is more advantageous to the agency earlier              not only continue working for an
rather than later, due to the commitment                organization but also work to his full
power when the choice is irreversible [51].             potential to help achieve the said
                                                        organizations’ goals [57] p:225.
    This herding behaviour may appear
because of information flow, which occurs                   As already discussed, technological
when individuals of sound minds begin to                advancements lead to the need for change
ignore their own findings and instead                   in the organization. Technology also
continue in the footsteps of previous                   influences the nature of work, for instance,
decision makers [50]. In addition to                    from manual to automatic tasks. Adopting
informational cascading, Li [50] also notes             new technologies is mandatory for
that positive network feedback can cause                improved performance and retaining a
leading    technology    to   grow    more              competitive advantage for the organization
dominant. They usually result in positive               [58].    However,      the   organizational
network externalities that make an ICT                  readiness for change will depend on first,
adopter’s return positively correlated with             the availability of resources to adapt new
the number of adopters who have already                 technologies; and second the employees’
committed themselves to the same                        ability to coexist with the introduced
technology. Therefore, herding is rewarded              technology     [59].    New    technologies
by increasing the payoffs of those ICT                  necessitate the need for knowledge, skills,
adopters who associated themselves with                 and expertise on how to use them. When
the majority.                                           employees are unfamiliar with the new
                                                        technology, intimidation may occur, and
   As technology advances, organizations                hence resistance towards change.
adopt newer tasks. This can result to the
change of the nature of work in the                        The organizational readiness to change
organization. For instance, tasks that were             can therefore be achieved depending on

                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                        Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

how the organizational people are                       individual and the values he places on
introduced to the new technology. This                  motivation as well as satisfaction with job
requires training, which not only acts as an            on the work performance and organization
instrument towards empowering the people                change.
with the knowledge and skills for the
technology, but also motivates employees                    With regard to computer usage, Straub
in their work. Training is one way in                   [66] says that if an individual can
which the needs of personal development                 effectively communicate electronically
for the employees are met, and in turn                  with the clients, it thus reflects a high
benefits the organization with improved                 level of capability on part of the
performance. Therefore, training increase               individual. An effective employee, hence,
the organizational readiness for change, as             believes that he or she can assess the
the employees are empowered towards the                 usefulness of the computer-mediated work
acquisition of newer tasks. On the other                environment, thus bringing out positive
hand, lack of training reduces the                      changes in his or her behavioural intention
organizational readiness for change and                 and use of the technology. More
instead increases resistance to change.                 importantly, employee’s computer self-
Resistance to change in organizations at                efficacy is determined by experience,
the moment is associated with reduced                   observation,    social    persuasion,    and
business development. It has been                       affective    arousal.    Therefore,    one’s
suggested that commitment to change is                  computer self efficacy, being changeable
dependent of the job redesign and                       in nature, could be enhanced through
empowerment [60].                                       intervention,     which     may      include
                                                        specifically designed training [67] [5].
    For performance improvement, a lot of
key factors come into play, for instance                    The satisfaction on the new tool
the leadership style, the motivation that               depends on the performance of this new
employees get, and how the goals and                    instrument [68]. In a study done by Floh
values of the organizational culture are                and Treiblmaier [69] identified that
implemented.        This      means     that            satisfaction which represented by the
dissatisfaction in performance is greatly               management performance is a very
contributed by the perception that the                  important attribute of technology adoption.
employees have towards the organizational
structure, and the management models.                       Researchers tried to look into various
Supervisory models influence the effort                 elements linked to this and have developed
that the employees are willing to put in the            outlooks in terms of the affective,
work for the benefit of the organization in             cognitive and behavioural reactions that
terms of performance. Dissatisfaction in                different people exhibit to technology
performance also results from external                  along with outlining how different
factors such as competition. The biggest                elements impact the individuals to produce
problem often facing public organization                these reactions. No theoretical framework
when it comes to evaluation knows what to               has been more successful as TAM [35].
evaluate. It is much more important to
measure outcomes rather than inputs or                      On     the   other    hand,    defence
outputs [61]. Winslow and Bramer [62]                   mechanisms are typically utilized without
state that depict a model for human                     any active knowledge on part of the person
performance where optimum performance                   in question, when confronted with danger
lies in the middle of three intersecting                to one’s spirituality [70] [71], therefore,
circles of ability, context, and motivation.            the relationships between the research
A considerable of the study done by Burke               variables were hypothesized Figure 1:
and Litwin [63] a strong relationship
                                                                 H1: Attitude to change negatively and
between performance and organization
                                                                  directly influences Behavioural
change has been confirmed, moreover,
                                                                  intention (BI) to use.
have argued that numerous studies [64];
[65] have attempted to explain the impact
of reword, nature of work, the needs of an

                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
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                                         Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

     H1a: Subjective norms mediate the                                  directly          influences               perceived
      relationship between Attitude to                                   usefulness.
      change and BI.
                                                                        H6a: Valence negatively and directly
     H1b: Perceived voluntariness mediate                               influences perceived usefulness.
      the relationship between Attitude to
      change and BI.                                                    H6b: Valence negatively and directly
                                                                         influences perceived ease of use.
     H2: Usage “performance” positively
      and directly influences the intention to                          H7a: Appropriateness positively and
      change.                                                            directly influences perceived ease of
     H2a: Training mediates the relationship
      between usage and attitude to change.                             H7b: Appropriateness positively and
                                                                         directly    influences     perceived
     H2b: The nature of work mediates the                               usefulness.
      relationship between usage and attitude
      to change.                                              ICT acceptance is rarely the motivation for
                                                          public workers in Saudi Arabia; it is an
     H3: Usage mediates the relationship                 essential activity for many workers. However,
      between Perceived usefulness and                    little is known about public worker’s
      attitude.                                           behaviours and their preferences to use ICT.
                                                          This study will investigate acceptance factors
     H4: Perceived ease of use positively                of public worker and will profile worker
      and directly influences Perceived                   preferences. Organizations that target ICT can
      usefulness.                                         benefit from the understanding of employee’s
                                                          behaviour, and can gain advantages over those
     H4a: Usage mediates the relationship                organizations that are less knowledgeable
      between Perceived ease of use and                   about their user.
                                                             The study aims to answer the main
     H5a: Principal Support positively and               research question “what factors affect
      directly influences perceived ease of               employee behaviour to accept and adopt ICT
      use.                                                in the Saudi public industries?” and to what
                                                          extend the performance affect the ICT
     H5b: Principal Support positively and               acceptance and adoption.

    MROC Individual Differences        Technology                          Training
                                      User Believes                                                   Subjective norm
      System characters
                                       Perceived                                 H2a                           H1a
    Individual Differences            Ease of Use            H4a
      (Valance, Principle                                                             Behavioural                       Use Behaviour
    Support, Appreciation)                                                             Intention                         Person actual
                                            H4b                   ICT
    H7a & b, H6 a & b and                                                                                                 usage of the
                                                                                       “Attitude to                     technology and
          H5 a & b                                                                                             H1       continues to use
                                       Perceived                                        change”
                                       Usefulness           H3
       Social Influence                                                          H2b                          H1b
                                          TAM                              Work                        Volunteer
     Facilitating condition                                                Nature

                                         Figure -1 The Research model

                                                                                             ISSN 1947-5500
                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                             Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

    III.   METHODOLOGY AND FRAMEWORK                    Arabia. A letter of consent was obtained, and
                                                        the    questionnaires    were   issued.   The
    For this paper, the MROC presented by               participants in this study were 100% male,
Holt and colleagues [29] was combined with              majorities 46% of them are graduated. The age
components of TAM III [72], the third                   group between 30- 34 is the majorities of the
iteration of TAM [24]. The theoretical                  respondents. The survey would be highly
framework      proposed     specifies   potential       influenced by supervisors with income
relationships among variables from both TAM             between SR 6000 -7999.          Most of the
and the model of organizational readiness of            respondents have no training and almost 20%
change with other factors from the literature           of the trainees got their training in the
subjective norm and volunteer Figure 1. For             department for less than one week.
the theoretical model, the MROC serves as the
template and technology acceptance variables                Before issuing the questionnaire, a brief
are included into the model. The change-                explanation (verbal introduction) about the
related beliefs chosen for this research consist        purpose of visit, objective of the study and
of nine interrelated variables. The three beliefs       how to fill the questionnaire were all
referred to as the organizational change                instructed to the employees. Questionnaire was
recipients'    beliefs     (OCRBs)       include:       translated to Arabic and back translated again
appropriateness, "is this the right change";            to English. All the questionnaires were issued,
principal support, "has everyone bought into            filled and collected on the day of the visit or
making the change happen"; valence, "what is            sent by mail. After that the questionnaires,
in it for me" and commitment to change [73]             data was typed in manually into excel file,
[53]. In addition to the three change-related           then transfer to PASW 18.0 file format and
beliefs, the four primary beliefs of TAM,               coded.
seeming easiness in terms of the usage,
seeming usability, are also taken into account.             A.   Data analysis
                                                            The research at hand makes use of
    In addition to four factors which are nature        structural equation modelling (SEM), in order
of work, training, perceived voluntariness and          to construct a framework that showcases the
subjective norm as moderators. These                    links in terms of the four variables that have
variables are not explained in this section             been included in this research. These variables
since each one is focused on in greater detail          include intent to use, behaviour towards using
in the sections that follow within this literature      technology, seeming utility, and seeming
review. It is proposed that these beliefs are the       easiness in terms of use. Data was gathered via
result of sense making as it concerns any               a survey questionnaire which consisted of
number of antecedents that could be related to          queries regarding respondents attribute and
the     organizational      change      involving       various things for every single one of the four
technology.                                             variables included in the research. SEM was
                                                        picked up for the research and not a regression
   Finally, current usage the discrepancy               analysis. This is because it as a parallel
between the desired and the current                     analysis running which allows an assessment
performance levels can trigger the call for             of links in terms of the different variables
change in the organizations. Specifically, if           included along with the errors and issues that
the current performance is faced with                   every variable has, which are to be measured
perceived dissatisfaction, the organizational           independently, and this is not possible with the
construct suggests that changes occur in the            regression analysis.
organization [59]. Yousafzai, et al,. [23] argue
that the variance in the type of method,                   AMOS (Analysis of MOment Structures)
subject, technology and utilization are                 was used as the data analysis tool. AMOS is
typically prone to moderating the links that            the more recent analysis package which is
have been hypothesized.                                 user-friendly graphical interface, and it has
                                                        gained popularity as a much more easy manner
                                                        of    adding    specifications   to  structure
  Participants were 757 employees who are               dimensions. AMOS additionally has an
working at public organization in Saudi                 interface an alternate option known as BASIC

                                                                                        ISSN 1947-5500
                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

The sample was a convenience sample of at                  hand has been kept at 429 in order to ensure
least 200 of civic employees who work in                   that it fall within the specified requirements.
western Saudi Arabia. A self-administered
survey was used to collect data at Medina,                     B.   Result
Jeddah, and Yanbu. The study was conducted                     The analyses within the current section are
at different organization and ministries offices           of a statistical nature and look into the
to reduce bias.                                            descriptive statistics for the purpose of
                                                           measuring objective and examining how valid
   The instrument for data collection was
                                                           the measurement is within the scope of the
developed based on the review of the literature
                                                           current study. Subsequent to this, the model is
on technology acceptance studies change
                                                           tested in terms of the various fit indices and
behaviour and TAM I, TAM II and TAM III,
                                                           previously developed hypotheses.
Model of organization readiness of change.
                                                               C.   Descriptive Statistics
   Steps which involved SEM are as follows:
Data was checked to see whether there was                     Table-1 contains all constructs for
anything missing or left over. After this, the             descriptive statistics. The means lie above
data was validated and discriminate and                    3.00; however, this is not true for the principle
convergent validities of the information at                support which at 2.7 holds a different mean.
hand was developed. After this the problems                Standard deviations lie within the range of
associated with SEM itself were looked into.               0.77-1.24; this shows that the mean has a
For instance, in order to make sure that                   relatively narrow spread around it. In terms of
normality existed within the data, [74]                    the Skew we can see that the index lies
suggested the view of kurtosis indices along               between -0.6 - 2.0, along with which the
with skews shouldn’t go beyond the value of                Kurtosis also exhibited an index which ranged
10.0 and 3.0 respectively. For the results from            from -0.1 – 4.6. The data is normal in terms
SEM to be reliable it is important that the size           of the SEM as per the recommendations put
of the sample be kept at 100-150 [75]. The                 forth by [74].
size of the sample within the current study at

                             Table -1 Descriptive Statistics of the Study Constructs

                      Variables                Item      Mean         ST.D        Skewness         Kurtosis
                 Principle support               4       2.68         0.77          -0.9             0.1
                Motivation Valance               4       4.02         1.03          -0.6            -0.4
                   Appreciation                  5       4.24         0.99          -1.3            -0.9
                Perceive Ease of Use             4       4.22         1.09          -0.4            -1.1
                Perceive Usefulness              5       4.05         0.82          -1.2             1.6
                 Attitude to change              4       3.70         0.80          -2.0             5.5
                 Subjective Norm                 2       4.11         0.83          -2.0             4.6
                     Volunteer                   4       3.81         1.00          -1.1             1.3
                Behaviour Intention              5       3.90         1.08          -1.0             0.4

   D. Convergent Validity                                  recommended [76]. The third indicator of
    In assessing for convergent validity of the            convergent validity, average variance extracted, is a
measurement items, the item reliability of each            measure of the overall amount of variance that is
measure, composite reliability of each constructs,         attributed to the construct in relation to the amount
and the average variance extracted are examined.           of variance attributable to measurement error [77].
The item reliability of an item was assessed by its        Convergent validity is judged to be adequate when
factor loading onto the underlying construct. In this      average variance extracted equals or exceeds 0.50.
study, the composite reliability was used instead of       From Table-2, the average variance extracted and
the Cronbach’s alpha because the latter tends to           composite reliability met the recommended
understate reliability [75]. For composite reliability     guidelines, indicating that the convergent validity
to be adequate, a value of 0.70 and higher was             for the proposed items and constructs in this study
                                                           are adequate.

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                               Table – 2 Results for the Measurement Model

              Latent                                 Factor            Ave. Variance               Composite
             Variables                              loading          extracted (> .50)*        Reliability (> .70)*

                                       Ps1             0.7
                                       Ps2             0.8
         Principle support                                                    0.6                        0.7
                                       Ps3             0.7
                                       Ps4             0.5
                                      Mv1              2.2
        Motivation Valance
                                      Mv2              0.6
                                                                              0.6                        0.7
                                      Mv3              0.5
                                      Mv4              0.5
                                       Ap1             1.8
                                       Ap2             0.8
            Appreciation               Ap3             0.8                    0.7                        0.7
                                       Ap4             0.7
                                       Ap5             0.6
                                      PEU1             2.3
                                      PEU2             0.7
        Perceive Ease of Use                                                  0.7                        0.8
                                      PEU3             0.5
                                      PEU4             0.3
                                       PU1             2.5
                                       PU2             0.9
        Perceive Usefulness            PU3             0.6                    0.7                        0.7
                                       PU4             0.5
                                       PU5             0.3
                                       At1             2.7
                                       At2             0.7
         Attitude to Change                                                   0.7                        0.8
                                       At3             0.5
                                       At4             0.3
                                       Sn1             1.8
          Subjective Norm                                                     0.5                        0.9
                                       Sn2             0.9
                                       Vl1             2.4
                                       Vl2             0.7
             Volunteer                                                        0.7                        0.8
                                       Vl3             0.5
                                       Vl4             0.3
                                       Bi1             2.3
                                       Bi2             0.8
        Behaviour Intention            Bi3             0.8                    0.7                        0.7
                                       Bi4             0.5
                                       Bi5             0.3

   E. Test of the Measurement Model Fit                 and gauged the extent of the inconsistency in
                                                        terms of the observed and implied covariance
   The model of the research has been
developed through the structural equation               matrices. The (        ) statistic is used by
modal approach. The AMOS was used to                    researchers along with the SRMR, the
create it [78]. Numerous different indices have         standardized root mean residual, which is not
been implemented in this research. Hair et al.          used within this research. Parsimonious
[75] was of the view that utilizing fit indices         indices are closer to the indices that are
that stemmed from different sets was a good             absolute fit, however, they are different
idea. The ones used were absolute fit indices           because they account for the complexity of the

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model. The RMSEA the room of mean square                  highly sensitive to any augmentation in terms
error of approximation is used in great                   of the size of the sample along with the
quantities across the research spectrum as a              amount of variables that was to be examined
parsimonious fit index and P-CLOSE.                       [75]. This is the reason that the ratio of χ2 to

   The third table reveals the limit of what is           its extent of liberty to be calculated (    )
acceptable as a fit along with the fit indices            was implemented, through a ratio of 3 or
for the projected model for research within the           smaller, which was an indication that an
study at hand. The values were up to the levels           acceptable fit existed in terms of the sample
that were recommended in terms of the                     data, and the model developed through the
acceptable fit. In terms of the χ2 it was seen as         hypothesis [79].

                                 Table - 3 Fit Indices for the Research Model

   Model Fit Indices   Value                                                    References
                                 Guide lines
        (      )        1.6              < 0.3                      Kline and Littel 2010; Hair, 2010
   CFI                   0.9            > 0.9                      McDonald and Ho, 2002; Hair, 2010
   GFI                   0.9            > 0.9                Klem, 2000; McDonald and Ho, 2002; Hair, 2010
   REMSA                0.04            < 0.05                          McDonald and Ho, 2002
   PCLOSE               0.81            > 0.5                            Klem, 2000; Hair, 2010

   F. Test of Structural Model                               Table-4 shows appreciation and motivation
                                                          valance affected the PEF negatively, on the
    Overall, eight hypotheses were supported
                                                          other hand, PS significantly affects the PEF
by the data. At this point, of the assessment of
                                                          positively. PU found to be predicted by
the hypothesized path suggested in the
                                                          appreciation     and MV negatively,          and
structure model Figure 2, in this step of the
                                                          positively with PS. Overall, PEF and PU have
procedure the researcher checks, whether the
                                                          a significant direct positive relationship. PEU
path coefficients are significant and the same
                                                          has a positive association with current usage
direction assumes in the model. Also the
                                                          which opposite to the association between PU
mediators are inspected and evaluated in the
                                                          and current usage. Current usage with the
same way based on the literature which the
                                                          association to the intent of using along with
relationship      has     been       constructed.
                                                          the intent of using in link to BI was found has
Significantly, it is to check the affect of the
                                                          no effect or no significant effect.          The
new variables on the model. In general fifteen
                                                          mediators of the model were found to arbitrate
hypothesizes were recognized in the model for
                                                          the correlation.
the study. Table-4 illustrates the standardized
regression weight of the model hypothesizes in
Figure 2.
                                     Table- 4 Hypothesis Testing Results

                                                                     Std Regr.
        Hypotheses                     Path                                                       Result
             H7a              PEU                   Ap                 -0.29                 Not supported
             H7b               PU                   Ap                  0.20                  Supported
             H6b              PEU                   Mv                 -0.78                 Not supported
             H6a               PU                   Mv                  0.36                  Supported
             H5b              PEU                   PS                  1.46                  Supported
             H5a               PU                   PS                 -0.83                 Not supported

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                                                           Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

             H4                      PU                        PEU                               1.22                  Supported
             H4a                    Usage                      PEU                               -1.01                Not supported
             H3                     Usage                       PU                               0.81                  Supported
             H2                     Att. B                     Usage                             -0.19                Not supported
                                    Att. B                    Training
             H2a                                                                                  0.20                      Supported
                                   Training                    Usage
                                    Att. B                     Work
             H2b                                                                                  -0.02                Not supported
                                    Work                       Usage
              H1                     BI                        Att. B                            0.03                 Not supported
                                     BI                         SN
             H1a                                                                                  0.31                      Supported
                                     BI                        Att. B
                                     BI                         Vol
             H1b                                                                                  0.68
                                     BI                        Att. B                                                      Supported



                                                                                                  -0.02                          0.31

                                                                                                          ATT. B

                                                                                                                                        B. Int

                                                                                          -0.19                      0.03

              0                                                                                   0.20                          0.68




                                                Figure -2 CFA Of the Research Model

                                                                           been outlined in the upcoming seconds. The
                     V.       DISCUSSION
                                                                           study worked by looking into how applicable
                                                                           antecedents of belief variables of (MORC) on
    This research was trying to: (1) forecast                              TAM Technology user believes. Then the
factors affecting ICT in clearing up the                                   study examined the affect of current usage on
behaviour of accepting technology in a
                                                                           TAM model. Finally, the study examined the
developing Arab nation, especially Saudi                                   influence of training and work type on the
Arabia, (2) expand the TAM to expand on how                                relationship between current usage and
ICT is used behaviour wise, along with (3)
                                                                           attitude behaviour. Moreover, the study
scrutinize the part played by norm, volunteer,                             explored the affect of norm and volunteer on
training time and work type as mediators of                                the association between attitude behaviour and
the ICT acceptance and adoption in terms of
                                                                           behaviour intention to use.
elaborating on the behaviour linked with ICT
utilization. For the purpose of addressing the                                Andam, [80] proclaim that with the
objectives of the study the researcher has                                 appreciation in ICT, in particular in public
made used of a strategy for research as has                                organization, it has a positive influence.

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                                           Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

Unexpectedly, the        Table-4 shows the             high and produce a high motivation value, the
relationship between perceive ease of use, and         valance will then be a positive value [83].
appreciation is significantly negatively. This
due to the motivation method explains how                 On evaluating valance as a way of
individuals’ goals influence their efforts.            motivating employees, the research found out
                                                       that valance does not take in a specific means
   Davis [24]and Venkatesh [40] argue that             of motivation. There are various ways of
appreciation is the increasing value of the use        motivation valance [84]. This means that
of ICT. As well, it is the ways individuals            motivation does not come from the activity
appreciate the use of ICT. After looking at the        alone, but from other external factors [85]
principal of appreciation, it is important to          [86]. This study supported the valance
consider reviewing perceive usefulness.                instrumentality expectance claim of the zero
Perceive usefulness helps to determine the             effects or negative effect as Table-4 illustrates
reason why people in an organization accept or         the direct negative relationship between
reject information technology. Eventually, this        motivation valance and perceive ease of use.
research renders a similar result as Davis [24]
and Venkatesh [40]claimed, Table-4 shows                   Davis [24] and Venkatesh [40] notice after
that appreciation has a direct positive relation       making a careful observation of both principal
with perceive usefulness.                              support and perceive ease of use, we can see
                                                       that they are all deriving to the ICT
    The definition of valance is an individual         implementation. There is an essence of
strength of performance for a reward. Then             improving the ICT systems in order to provide
expectance is the probabilities of a particular        an ease to the users. With the ease, the
action    leading    to  a    desired    reward        organization finds that implementation of ICT
instrumentality indicate individuals estimate          is enhanced [40]. In fact, in this study the
that performance will result in achieving the          principle support has a direct significant
reward. This means that if an individual has a         positive effect on perceive ease of use as
particular goal to achieve, the individual must        Table-4 shows. The relationship in this study
produce certain behaviour in order to achieve          is supported.
this goal. Individuals also need to weigh the
like hood that various behaviours will help in            Researches affirm that there is the urge of
achieving the desired goals. If it needs certain       learning the new ICT within the employees;
behaviour as an expectation of more success,           yet, there is lack of commitment from the top
individuals will, then prefer a new particular         management [87]. At such a situation, the
behaviour [81].                                        management has not acknowledged the
                                                       importance of ICT causing the organization
   The table surprisingly shows direct positive        member’s reluctance as well. With the
relationship between motivation valances and           principal of support such, an organization
perceive usefulness. For the purpose of                requires to establish its weakness towards
developing better comprehension in terms of            accepting the new information system in order
the issue of valance, the expectancy, describe         to come up with good implementation of ICT
at time it is the performance reward                   [87].
proverbially. The expectancy theory gives the
probability the performance that will lead to a           Yet Table-4 shows that principle support is
desired goal or outcome [82].                          negatively affects the perceive usefulness,
                                                       which confirm what Bjorn and Fathul [1]
   To some extent, motivation becomes                  showed in their study that the lack of leaders
valance, instrumentality and expectancy. The           or high officials support contributes to sixty
three factors in the expectancy model can exist        per cent of e-government initiative’s failure.
in an infinite number of contributions
depending on the range of valance and the                 Perceive ease of use determines individual
degree of expectancy and instrumentality. The          behaviour intention to use information
achievement of high positive valance comes             technology. Perceive ease of use falls under a
out, when there is a combination that produces         broad topic called TAM. This is a theoretical
a high motivation. When the three values are           framework that outlines the manner in which
                                                       users   can     acknowledge    a     particular
                                                       technology. The theory goes on to state that

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the presentation of a new technology to the             introduction of computers will threaten their
users, there are numerous elements that can             job since they can use the system [91]. Also
impact their decision making process in terms           Winters, Chudoba, and Gutek and Teo, Lee
of the time and manner of their usage [88].             and Chai indicate that one’s attitude has a
                                                        considerable amount of impact in terms of
    PEU has shown a direct positive significant         being a forecaster of how some technology
effect on perceived usefulness in many studies          would be used if the user is given the liberty
[89]. After all, this study came up with the            to choose if he should or shouldn’t use
same output of the old studies which is                 computers [92] [93].
illustrated in Table-4. The level of significant
of regression weight is very low.                          Management may not fully grasp the actual
                                                        level of expertise required for organizational
   Rogers confirmed that perceive ease of use           members use the technology effectively. As
is not only the perception of inform a system           such, they often underestimate the training
by people but also is the extent where the              required and the time that it will take in
innovation has been seen by the user as easy to         implementing the new ICT [36].
understand, use and learn [31]. In contrary, the
study shows Table-4, the association between                The organization has to provide training to
current usage “performances” and perceive               its employees about the use of information
ease of use, is direct negative relationship.           systems. Besides that, the organization as well
This confirms the most recently study done by           is required to train the organization members
Nagli, Rahmat, Samsudin, Hamid, Ramli, MD               about ICT at large. Given the opportunity to
Zaini and Jusoff [90] which confirm that                learn about information systems (IS) and ICT
perceive ease of use has no significant in              at large, the members will develop interest [5].
today operation Table-4.
                                                            Attitude to change is not always positive.
   On the other hand, the table shows the               To the organization, change is something vital
relationship between perceive usefulness and            but the employee’s change is a threat. Many at
usage is a direct positive relation, with high          times the organizations may be glad to
level of significant regression weight. The             introduce change to their daily services
outcome of the study affirms the claim of               activities but organization members will
Nagli et al,. [90] that perceive usefulness has a       always be ready to resist the ICT applications.
direct positive relationship with performance           Theory of planned behaviour is significant for
and current usage.                                      the understanding of these variables. Theory
                                                        of planned behaviour specifies the natures of
   Part of the study is to provide how current          relation between believe and attitude.
usage positively affects the attitude to change.        Individuals’ evaluations of attitudes towards
The increasing and continuous use of ICT                behaviour     usually   are    determined   by
affects the attitude to change positively.              accessible believes about behaviour [94].
    Primarily, this study shows Table-4 that               A belief is basically one’s own concept of
current performance is negatively affects the           what will most likely going to happen i.e. a
attitude behaviour with a very low level of             certain act or behaviour will lead to a specific
significant. Due to Change management has               result. To be specific, the assessment of a
become critical in the modern world of                  result is a part and parcel to the behaviour and
business. All organizations are looking                 is positively linked to someone’s subjective
forward to manage change in order to achieve            likelihood that produces the outcome in
their objectives. Even if change is important           question [27]. Davis confirmed the relation
for the improvement of the organization                 between attitude and behaviour intention as a
performance, employees at time have resisted            direct positive relationship [24], this study did
change. The reason of change resistance                 not confirm the hypotheses as the table shows
among the employees is the fear of losing their         positive non significant weight relationship
job positions. Not all organization members             with the level of significant is 0.7.
will take this positively.
                                                          The stated purpose of TAM is to "provide
  Some organization members may not be                  an explanation of the determinants of
computer literate and will think the                    computer acceptance that is general, capable

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                                          Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

of explaining user behaviour across a broad               Third, this study expands the understanding
range of end-user computing technologies and          of TAM, and shows that it is very applicable
user populations, while at the same time being        to Arab countries (Saudi Arabia). However,
both parsimonious and theoretically justified"        this argument needs more investigation and
[35]. It assumes rationality within the               examination.
decision-making     process.    Studies   have
provided empirical support for TAM [39].                  Fourth, the research examined the
                                                      relationship     between    TAM      behavioural
    Subjective Norm in relation to an                 factors. The analysis revealed a prototype that
innovation was hypothesized to influence              is related to the Saudi public industries.
significantly the user’s behavioural intent to
adopt the innovation. The study shows                    Fifth, Lin and Lee [46]mention that
subjective norm mediates the relationship             subjective norm moderate ICT acceptance.
between attitude and behaviour intention, even        Also, Quaddus, Xu and Hoque [95] noted that
though the influence is not significant p level       that perceived volunteer influence the ICT
is smaller than 0.08 as according to Hair [75].       usage. This study confirms this allegation and
                                                      comes to similar result.
   Perceived     voluntariness   towards     an
innovation was hypothesized to influence                 Sixth, this study found that training
significantly the user’s behavioural intent to        insignificantly increase employee readiness
adopt that innovation. The table shows that           for change, this finding support Lan and Cayer
volunteer mediate the relation between attitude       [58] and Davis and Bostrom [96] argument
and behaviour the direct path has weight 0.81,        with insignificant influence, due to 80 % of
and P-level 0.3, which is significant to              the respondents had no training.
mediate the relationship according to Hair
[75].                                                    Seventh, this research found that current
                                                      usage has an insignificant negative impact on
    The table shows that training mediate the         the attitude behaviour, which validate
relationship between current usage and                Management Hub argument that some of the
attitude behaviour the direct path is 0.14 for        employees are not familiar in using ICT and
the relationship between training and attitude        may think that such change may disturb their
behaviour, and it is negative relation between        work.
usage and attitude behaviour. According to
Hair [75] the value of a path must be greater            Finally, work type did not moderate the
than 0.08 in order to be significant. The study       relationship between usage and attitude
concludes that Table-4 the nature of work did         behaviour, this contrasting Al-Adwani [56]
not mediate the relationship between usage            and Modway, Steers and Porter [57] argument
and attitude with a significant level of 0.9.         that a relationship exists between job nature
                                                      and affective attitude to change.
                                                          VII.      IMPLICATION FOR THE
   This study demonstrated association among                        ORGANIZATION
TAM variables. Yet, It could be observed from
the research analysis that ICT usage has                 The objectives of this investigation are
affected the relationship between TAM                 knowledge the typologies of employees and
variables.                                            their preferences of ICT acceptance and
                                                      adoption. And to identify the factors behind
    Second, the research technology beliefs           the ICT acceptance and adoption failure. So
PEOU and PU have an opposite impact on the            that the public organizations have upper hand
ICT usage. The PEOU has a direct negative             over ICT acceptance and adoption failure in
effect on usage (-1.1). The PU effect on usage        the future.
is -0.8. Therefore, PU is a deciding factor on
ICT acceptance. What is less clear is if the             In this part the study will provide some
current usage has a motivation effect on              understanding of the obstacles to ICT adoption
attitude behaviour due to a low level of usage        in GO’s in Saudi Arabia. Seven important
and training.                                         issues were identified in the survey’s out-
                                                      come given as follows: At the first, the most

                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                           Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

important concern for the public organization          of e-government were females because of
to deal with is had to do with the question of:        cultural issues in which women are expected
will the worker be able to use the new system?         by custom to stay at home. Due to their
Are they prepared to use it? Have they had the         spending long time at home, they will likely
suitable training? The employee’s willingness          use the e-services at home frequently for the
and the organizations’ readiness were                  convenient sake.
observed to be near to the ground in
developing countries. These two issues impact             Lastly is the issue of leadership support. It
significantly the ICT acceptance and soon              was reported by the head of the information
after the adoption of ICT. The research                systems department at the Ministry of Finance
instrument showed that approximately 80 % of           that having leadership support plays an
the workers had no training.                           essential role in the execution and spreading
                                                       of e-government. According to the official,
   Therefore, employees should be trained on           there must be high priority for ICT, and it
the way the system works on the parts that are         should be considered as the major contributor
associated with their jobs. In a nutshell,             to    economy     otherwise    any    important
achieving a close understanding into the how           development initiatives such as IT education
the whole system work is imperative than what          will not be paid attention to. Leadership
the user needs as a part.                              support has great influence on the allocation
                                                       of resources for technology and e-government
    Second, the resistance of change issue, this       adoption. Furthermore, the undersecretary of
matter related to the low e-readiness among            the Ministry of Commerce also argued that
employees. Research affirms that workers fail          leadership and top officials’ commitment to
to use the new ICT system due to the lack of           ICT is also crucial. Such has the capability of
training, which cause workers to oppose the            affecting the allocated budget for ICT
ICT applications. Consequently, providing a            adoption and development in any organisation.
better solution for the ICT applications uses          However, the official stated that budgets
is a necessity to reduce the resistance.               cannot just be raised to bring about the
                                                       increase in the awareness of ICT but some
   Third issue is language barrier associated          other institutions of government usually
with the new technologies. According to the            budgeted for ICT and have their top officials
undersecretary of the Ministry of Commerce,            willing to work hard with their time and
language is an important barrier to any e-             energy devoted to ICT. There are other
systems where the majority of people speak             organisations with low budget allocation to
Arabic.                                                ICT while some such as Ministry of Education
                                                       have a commitment to ICT.
   Fourth, skilled workers are required to
level up the ICT Knowledge. According to the              VIII.      LIMITATION AND FUTURE STUDY
survey less educated workers have low ICT
acceptance. It was also reported by the
                                                          The findings of this study have some
officials that absence of adequate know-how
                                                       important implications. One, TAM extended is
hinders governments to adopt and start ICT-
                                                       very relevant to a non-western nation where
based projects.
                                                       there is changing degree of explanatory power.
    Fifth, Porter and Lawler [84] propose the          However, more studies are still required
construction of the job environment keeping in         particularly when the explanatory power of the
mind the objective of internal and external            model employed is not as high as TAM.
rewards to create fulfilment work and could be
                                                          There is still needs for more investigation
followed by the growth of the job, which will
                                                       of additional probable variables, which likely
make the job more motivating. It is more
                                                       give high boast in analysing ICT in terms of
interesting and thus become more satisfying
                                                       the behaviour in different nations, apart from
fundamentally. Reward in the mean of high
                                                       the west. Two, TAM extended or UTAUT
salary which, consequently provides the
                                                       model may be employed to analyse other
employees’ a motivation to work.
                                                       behaviour of ICT. Three, the requirement for
   Sixth, according to the top administrator of        future inspection in terms of the part that
the Ministry of Civil Status, most of the users        experience plays when it comes to acceptance

                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                 Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2012

 modelling for technology, and this was shown              [5]     Ahmad, T., Basha, K. , Marzuki, A. , Hisham,
 by the findings. Therefore, there is room for                     N. and Sahari, M., "Faculty's acceptance of
 future research, particularly with respect to                     computer based technology: Cross-validation
 training and compensation. Also needed for                        of an extended model. Australasian Journal of
 future study is an intensive study of usage as a                  Educational Technology," Australasian
 mediating variable. More research designs are                     Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 26,
 likely to strengthen the insight into the                         no. 2, pp. 268-279, 2010.
 aggregated model. A cross-section of people
 within the ICT in government organization                 [6]     Xue, Y., Liang, H., Boulton, W.and Snyder,
 usage context was investigated. Therefore,                        C., "ERP Implementation Failures in China:
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