Earth, Moon, & Sun System

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					Earth, Moon, & Sun System
                    (Physical Characteristic)

• Approximately 149,597,890 km (92,955,820 miles) or 1 AU from
  the Sun
• Diameter at the equator is 12,756 km (7,926 miles), and its
  circumference is 40,075 km (24,901 miles)
• Mass is 5.9737 x 1024 kg (6.58 x 1021 tons)
• Gravity is 9.8 m/s2
• Density is 5.515 g/cm3
• The average temperature is 14oC (57oF) and ranges from -89oC –
  58oC (-128oF  136oF)
• Atmosphere consists of 78% Nitrogen (N2), 21% Oxygen (O2)
  and 1% of other gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
• Orbits the Sun in 365.24 Earth days
• Rotates in 24 hours
• Tilted 23° on its axis  reason for the seasons
• Has three layers - crust, mantle, and core
                    (Special Features)

• Ideally situated away from the sun life can exist
• Has oceans that help maintain a stable temperature
• Has a molten iron core that generates a magnetic
  field around the planet  helps protect the planet
  from the harmful effects of solar winds and cosmic
• Has oxygen which is essential for life
• Has an ozone layer (composed of O3) that resides in
  the stratosphere  absorbs harmful UV light
•     Patterns of temperature changes and other weather trends over the
      course of a year are known as seasons
•     Results from Earth’s 23° tilt on its axis and its orbit relative to the Sun
        – Equinox – sunlight shines equally on the northern and southern hemispheres
        – Solstice – sunlight is at its maximum in one hemisphere and a minimum in the
          other hemisphere
                                                                    Which hemisphere
                                       September Equinox            would have these
                                                                   particular seasons?
                              October                             August


         Winter                                                                          Summer
    December Solstice         148,000,000 km                   153,000,000 km          June Solstice

                    January                                                     May

                              February                               April
                                                                                            Not to scale
                                               March Equinox
                    (Physical Characteristic)

• Approximately 384,400 km (239,000 miles) from the Earth
• Diameter is 3479 kilometers (2162 miles), which is about 1/4
  the diameter of the Earth
• Mass is 7.35 x 1022 kilograms (8.1 x 1019 tons), which is about
  1/80 the mass of the Earth.
• Gravity is 1.6 m/s2, which is about 1/6 the gravity of Earth
• Density is 3.340 g/cm3
• Does not have an atmosphere
• The average temperature on the surface of the Moon during the
  day is 107°C and during the night, the average temperature
  drops to −153°C
• Orbits the Earth in 27.3 Earth days
• Rotates in 27.3 Earth days
• Tilted 70 on its “axis”
• Orbit is tilted 50
• Has three layers - crust, mantle, and core

                                           Image taken from:
                     (Special Features)

• Has impact craters that are the result of small
  objects from space striking the Moon’s surface
• Has mare (maria - pl.) which are large, dark plains of
  solidified lava
• The same side of the Moon always faces the Earth;
  this is because of tidal locking
• Is thought to have formed after a giant collision
  between early Earth and a smaller space body
• Is moving away from the Earth at a rate of 3.8

•   The lunar phases result from the positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun.
     – Waxing – the phase after the new moon when the amount of reflected light
     – Waning – the phase when the full moon has passed and the amount of
       reflected light decreases
                                                                What we see

                                                             NewFull Quarter
                                                             Waning Moon
                                                              Waxing Crescent
                                                               Waning Gibbous
                                                               Third Crescent
                                                                1New (Again)
                                                                 st Quarter

                                                                  Moon viewer

•   An eclipse occurs when the Earth, Moon, and Sun are in line with each
    other and a shadow makes the Sun or Moon seem to grow dark.
     – Lunar eclipse – the phase after the new moon when the amount of reflected
       light increases
     – Solar eclipse – the phase when the full moon has passed and the amount of
       reflected light decreases
                                                                What we see

                                                                  New Moon

                                                                  Moon viewer

• Tides occur because the Moon’s gravity
  changes the shape of Earth’s oceans
  – Lunar eclipse – the phase after the new moon when
    the amount of reflected light increases

                                         What do you think
                                            happens to the
                                         tides when the Sun
                                           and Moon are on
                                         directly in line with
                        (Physical Characteristic)

•   Approximately 149,600,000 km (92 million miles) from the Earth
•   Approximately 1,390,000 km in diameter which is over 100 times the
    diameter of the Earth
•   Mass is about 2 x 1030 kilograms, which is is over 300,000 times the
    mass of Earth
•   Has an atmosphere
•   Consists of about 70% Hydrogen, 28% Helium and 2% of metals such as
•   The surface at the equator rotates once every 25.4 Earth days. The
    rotation near the poles is around 36 Earth days. Also the surface swirls
    in high and low pressure areas, similar to those that occur on Earth.
•   Its temperature is extremely hot, with the surface being about 5000°C
    (9032oF) and the center core at about 15,600,000° C (28,080,032oF)
•   Has three layers - core, radiative zone,
    and convection zone
•   Rotates every 25.38 Earth days

                                                  Image taken from:

• continually emits a stream of charged particles
  consisting mostly of electrons and protons called
  solar winds
• shoots out streams of high energy particles called
  solar flares aurora borealis
• Contains sunspots which are spots on the photosphere
  that are cooler than surrounding areas
• Prominences are huge loops of glowing gas that
  extend into the corona
• Atmosphere photosphere, chromosphere, and

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