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DIGITAL CIRCUITS

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									                Welcome To Technology
                     Department




           Introduction to Digital Technology
                      Workshop
                 Dr. Kamal Shahrabi
                  Dr. Ali Setoodehnia

August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
               INTRODUCTION TO
                 TECHNOLOGY
  WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY
  DIGITAL CIRCUITS TECHNOLOGY
  OTHER TECHNOLOGICAL
   SYSTEMS
  THE DESIGN PROCESS OF
   TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS



August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
       WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY

  DEFINITION OF TECHNOLOGY
  SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  TECHNOLOGY THROUGHOUT THE
     HISTORY




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 DEFINITION OF TECHNOLOGY

  Technology is the technical means people use to
   improve their surroundings.It is knowledge of
   using tools and machines to do tasks efficiently.
  We use technology to control the world in
   which we live.
  People use technology to improve their ability
   to do work. Through technology, people
   communicate better, make more and better
   products, travel in more comfort and
   speed. Yes, technology is everywhere
   and can make life better.

August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  Often the terms, technology and science, are
   confused. Technology is said to be "applied
   science". This is not true .
  Science tells us that objects will fall to the earth
   (law of gravity).
  Science explains why only certain plants are found
   on the Mojave Desert (plant ecology).
  Science tells us that steel exposed to oxygen will
   rust (chemistry).



August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 CONTINUE
  Science tells us that cross-pollinating plants will
   produce predictable results (biology).
  Science tells us that oil is most likely found near
   certain rock formation (geology).
  On the other hand, Technology deals with the
   human-made world.
  It is the study of ways people develop and use
   technical means - tools and machines.
  It tells us how to control the natural and human-
   made world.

August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 CONTINUE
  Technology is the study of the ways people
   uses these technical means to transport,
   manufacture, construct, and communicate.
  This is not to say science and technology
   are unrelated. Science deals with
   "understanding" while technology deals
   with "doing".



August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
      TECHNOLOGY THROUGHOUT
            THE HISTORY




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
            Iron Age Roundhouse




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
      TECHNOLOGY THROUGHOUT
            THE HISTORY
  THE STONE AGE
  THE BRONZE AGE
  THE IRON AGE
  THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  THE 20 CENTURY




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                     THE 20 CENTURY
                             Technology Timeline
    1903 The Wright brothers fly the first airplane. The flight lasted for 12 seconds
     and 120 feet.
     1910 The first electrically powered washing machine was invented by Alva J.
     Fisher.
     1916 Frigidaire invents the first electric refrigerator.
     1923 Dr. Vladimir Zworkin demonstrates an early television prototype.
     1939 John Atanassoff constructed the first semi-electric digital computing device.
     1946 Raytheon invents the microwave oven.
     1951 : UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) becomes the first computer to
     handle both numeric and alphabetical data.
     1954 Jonas Salk tested the first effective polio vaccine. Color television
     broadcasts begin.
     1969 Neil Armstrong becomes the first human to walk on the moon.
     1971 First MICOPROCESSOR INTEL 4004 VCR introduced.
     1977 First personal computer (Apple) introduced.
     1978 The first modern, public cellular phone network is tested. 1985 Dr. Jack
     Copeland implants a Jarvik-7 artificial heart into Michael Drummond.
     1994 Consumer Internet usage takes off.
     1996 First digital television broadcast by a commercial television station in
     the United States.
     1998 John Glenn rides a shuttle back into space, three decades after his
     first historic flight. The launch is broadcast live in digital HDTV by Harris
     Corporation.

August 9(16), 2005              Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi           asetoode@kean.edu
               DIGITAL CIRCUITS
                 TECHNOLOGY
  WHAT IS DIGITAL CIRCUIT (D.C.)?
  WHAT ARE THE CLUES THAT AN
   ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS CONTAINS D.C.?
  ADVANTAGES OF D.C. OVER ANALOG
   CIRCUIT (A.N.)?
  WHERE ARE D.C. USED?
  HOW DO YOU DESIGN D.C.?
  HOW DO YOU CONSTRUCT D.C.



August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
    WHAT IS DIGITAL CIRCUIT
  Engineers generally classify electronic
   circuits as being either analog or digital.
  Analog circuit works with sinusoidal signals
  Digital circuit works with discrete signals
  Most newly electronic devices contains at
   least some digital circuitry



August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                      SIGNALS
    Signals can be analog or digital. Analog
    signals can have an infinite number of
    values in a range; digital signals can have
    only a limited number of values.




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                     ANALOG SIGNALS




August 9(16), 2005      Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                 DIGITAL SIGNALS




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
         DIGITAL versus ANALOG




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
    WHAT ARE THE CLUES THAT AN
 ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS CONTAINS D.C.?


 Does it have an alphanumeric display?
 Does it have a memory or can it store
  information?
 Is it programmable?




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Advantages of D.C. over A.C

  Easier to design using integrated circuit
  Information storage
  Programmable
  More accurate and precision
  Less effect by electrical noises




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
         WHERE ARE D.C. USED?
  Calculator
  Computer
  Robot
  Measurement devices
  Telecommunications
  Transportations
  Etc.


August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
  INTEL




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 HOW DO YOU DESIGN D.C.?
  Understand function of the circuit
  Define input/output of the circuit
  Variable assignment for input/output
  Convert variables to binary codes
  Map the circuit functions between input/output
   binary codes
  Minimize functions
  Construct functions using logic gates
  Test the circuit


August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Sample D.C for one bit binary Addition

  What is Binary number system?
   – Binary number system uses only the two
     symbols 0 and 1
   – Has base 2
   – Bit is 0 or 1
  Functions of one bit Binary Addition
      x
      y                                        S
                     adder                     C out
       C in



August 9(16), 2005     Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Continue

       – Inputs of Adder-circuit:
             • First bit is 0 or 1
             • Second bit is 0 or 1
             • Carry bit is 0 or 1
       – Output of Adder-circuit:
             • Sum
             • Carry




August 9(16), 2005       Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Input/output Variable Assignment

  Input Variables
    – First input number is: X
    – Second input number is: Y
    – Carry input number is: Ci
  Output Variables
   – Sum of one bit adder: S
   – Carry out: Co


August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Convert variables to binary codes
    Table of combinational codes
      Carry in       Input-2     Input-1          Output-2 Output-1
          Ci           Y             X                 Co             S
          0            0             0                  0             0
          0            0             1                  0             1
          0            1             0                  0             1
          0            1             1                  1             0
          1            0             0                  0             1
          1            0             1                  1             0
          1            1             0                  1             0
          1            1             1                  1             1
August 9(16), 2005             Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi       asetoode@kean.edu
 Circuit Functions
  Sum Function:
       S(X,Y,Ci) = Ci´ . Y´. X + Ci´ . Y . X´ + Ci. Y´ . X´ + Ci . Y . X

  Carry Function
       Co(X,Y,Ci) = Ci´ . Y . X + Ci . Y´. X + Ci . Y . X´ + Ci . Y . X




August 9(16), 2005        Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Minimize Functions

  S(X,Y,Ci) is minimized


  Co(X,Y,Ci) = Y . X + Ci . X + Ci . Y




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Construct Adder Circuit Using Logic
               Gates




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Construct Adder Circuit Using Logic
  Gates and Seven segment display




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
      How to Design and Construct PC
                  Board




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
Steps to Making a Printed
      Circuit Board
 Step One - Art Work
  Generate artwork for each single layer of the board
  Artworks generated should be positive (black should be
     where you want copper to be on finished board, blank
     where you do not want copper to be.)




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Step Two- Expose the Resist Layer
  A pre-sensitized PCB has
   a layer of green or blue
   ink that is sensitive to
   UV light.
  Any portion of the ink
   that is exposed to the
   light will come off the
   board when placed in a
   chemical developer bath.
  TIP - To hold the
   transparency sheet on the
   surface of the board,
   place a piece of glass on
   top of the board. This
   will ensure the trace lines
   are sharp.
August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Step Three – Develop the Resist Layer
                      The resist layer allows you to control the
                         removal of copper during the etching
                         process.
                        Place the exposed board into the
                         developer, copper side up.
                        Rock gently for up to 2 minutes in the
                         developer.
                        After the first 5-10 seconds, an image
                         should start to appear. (If an image does
                         not appear until 25 seconds or more, it is
                         time to change the developer.)
                        Remove board from developer ( be
                         careful not to touch the copper face)
                         Handle the board by the edges.
                        Wash the board in cool standing water for
                         two minutes. This will stop the chemical
                         action of the developer

August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Step Four- Etch the Printed Circuit
 Board
  Pour the etchant into a
   plastic or glass tray.
  Immerse board in the
   etching solution.
  Remove board and rinse in
   cool standing water for two
   minutes to terminate the
   etching process.

August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 Step Five – Finalize project
  Tin plate circuit board
   (optional)
  Drill and shape circuit
   board




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                     Thank You

August 9(16), 2005    Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                 TECHNOLOGICAL
                    SYSTEMS
  MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
  CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS
  COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
  TRANSPORATION SYSTEMS




August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                 MANUFACTURING
                    SYSTEMS
  There are four major types of manufacturing
   systems which include the following:
  1. Custom manufacturing
  2. Intermittent and batch manufacturing
  3. Continuous manufacturing (like care)
  4. Flexible manufacturing (USE COMPUTER)
  Each of these systems is used today to make
   products. Each has advantages and
   disadvantages.

August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
   CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS
  Construction is a series of carefully planned events.
   Construction technology uses materials, work,
   processes, and equipment to build a structure on a site.
   Management organizes these resources and uses them
   efficiently.
  Building anything requires completing a series of steps.
   These have to be done in the right order. The steps are
   part of one technical process. It is called the
   construction process.
  Construction projects almost always follow the same
   steps. The major steps are:
     1. Planning
     2. Constructing
     3. Servicing
August 9(16), 2005     Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
  Everyone communicates with other people. Humans have developed
     complex technological systems to improve this type of communication.
     Machines and devices have been produced to help us communicate
     better and easier. People-to-people communication includes five basic
     systems. These are:
    1. Telecommunication systems
    2. Audio and video recording systems
    3. Printing systems
    4. Photographic systems
     5. Drafting systems
 Other communications are:
  Machine- to –people
  People-to-machine
  Machine-to-machine
August 9(16), 2005      Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                     TRANSPORATION
                        SYSTEMS
  Transportation is the movement of people and goods
     from one place to another. Transportation technology
     is built around the vehicle. This vehicle must be
     designed to suit the purpose. Every vehicle must have:
    1. A Structure
    2. A means of Propulsion
    3. A means of Transmission
    4. A Guidance System
    5. Control Systems
   6. Measurement Devices
August 9(16), 2005     Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
          THE DESIGN PROCESS

  THE PROBLEM
  THE DESIGN BRIEF
  INVESTIGATION
  DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE
  SOLUTIONS
  CHOOSING A SOLUTION
  MODELS AND PROTOTYPES
  TESTING AND EVALUATING
  MANUFACTURING

August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                     THE PROBLEM

  The process of designing begins when there is a need.
  Wherever there are people there are problems needing
   solutions. In some cases the designer may have to
   invent a product. An example might be a game for
   blind persons.
  At other times the designer may change an existing
   design. (If the handle of a pot becomes too hot to touch,
   it must be redesigned.)
  Designers also improve existing products. They
   make the product work even better. Could
   the chair in the waiting room of a bus or train
   station be altered so that waiting seems shorter?
August 9(16), 2005    Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
               THE DESIGN BRIEF
  A design brief should describe simply and clearly what is to be
     designed. The design brief cannot be vague. Some examples of
     problems and design briefs are listed below:
    PROBLEM: Blind people cannot play many of the indoor games
     available to sighted people.
    DESIGN BRIEF: Design a game of dominoes that can be played
     by blind people.
    PROBLEM: The handle of a pot becomes too hot to hold when
     the pot is heated.
    DESIGN BRIEF: Design a handle that remains cool when the pot
     is heated.
    PROBLEM: Waiting time in a bus or train station
     seems too long. There is nothing to do.
    DESIGN BRIEF: Modify the seats so that a small
     television can be attached.

August 9(16), 2005     Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                     INVESTIGATION
  Writing a clearly stated design brief is just one step. Now you must
     write down all the information you think you may need. Some
     think to consider are the following:
    1. FUNCTION: A functional object must solve the problem
     described in the design brief. The basic question to ask is: "What,
     exactly, is the use of the article?"
    2. APPEARANCE: How will the object look? The shape, color,
     and texture should          make the object attractive.
    3. MATERIALS: What materials are available to you? You
     should think about the cost of these materials. Are they
     affordable? Do they have the right physical properties, such as
     strength, rigidity, color, and durability?
    4. CONSTRUCTION: Will it be hard to make?
     Consider what methods you will need to cut, shape,
     form, join, and finish the material.
    5. SAFETY: The object you design must be safe to use. It
     should not cause accidents.
August 9(16), 2005      Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
      DEVELOPING
 ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
  You should produce a number of solutions. It is very
   important that you write or draw every idea on paper
   as it occurs to you. This will help you remember and
   describe them more clearly. It is also easier to discuss
   them with other people if you have a drawing.
  These first sketches do not have to be very detailed or
   accurate. They should be made quickly. The important
   thing is to record all your ideas. Do not be critical. Try
   to think of lots of ideas, even some wild ones. The more
   ideas you have, the more likely you are to
   end up with a good solution.


August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
      CHOOSING A SOLUTION
  You may find that you like several of the solutions.
   Eventually, you must choose one. Usually, careful
   comparison with the original design brief will help you
   to select the best.
  You must also consider:
        Your own skills.
        The materials available.
        Time needed to build each solution.
        Cost of each solution.
  Deciding among the several possible solutions
   is not always easy. Then it helps to summarize
   the design requirements and solutions and put
   the summary in a chart. Which would you choose?
   In cases like this, let it be the one you like best.
August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
            DETAILED DRAWING
  In the next step, make a detailed drawing of the
     chosen solution. This drawing must include all
     of the information needed to make your
     product. It should include the following:
         The overall dimensions
         Detailed dimensions
         The material to be used
         How it will be made
         What finish will be required

August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
  MODELS AND ROTOTYPES
  A model is a full-size or small-scale simulation of an
   object. Architects, engineers, and most designers use
   models.
  Models are one more step in communicating an idea. It
   is far easier to understand an idea when seen in three-
   dimensional form. A scale model is used when
   designing objects that are very large.
  A prototype is the first working version of the
   designer's solution. It is generally full-size and often
   handmade. For a simple object such as a pencil holder,
   the designer probably would not make a
   model. He or she may go directly to a
   prototype.

August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
  TESTING AND VALUATING
  Testing and evaluating answers three basic questions:
       Does it work?
       Does it meet the design brief?
       Will modifications improve the solution?
  The question "does it work?" is basic to good design. It has
   to be answered. An engineer designing a bridge, by the
   designer of a subway car, or by an architect planning a new
   school would ask this same question. If you were to make
   a mistake in the final design of the pencil holder what
   would happen? The result might simply be unattractive. At
   worst, the holder would not work well. Not so
   if a designer makes mistakes in a car's seat belt
   design. Someone's life may be in danger!

August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
                     Thank You

August 9(16), 2005    Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu
August 9(16), 2005   Dr. Setoodehnia & Dr. Kamal Shahrabi   asetoode@kean.edu

								
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