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AP Biology Chapter 6 Study Guide 1. Explain the basic concept of metabolism. 2. Explain the basic role of enzymes. 3. Explain what a catabolic pathway is. 4. Explain what an anabolic pathway is. 5. Explain how anabolic and catabolic pathways are related. 6. What are bioenergetics? 7. Explain the difference between kinetic and potential energy. 8. What is chemical energy and where is it stored? 9. Explain where the chemical energy organisms use to survive comes from. 10. Contrast system and surroundings with regard to thermodynamics. 11. Contrast an open and a closed system. 12. Explain how organisms are open systems. 13. Explain the first law of thermodynamics. 14. What is the second law of thermodynamics. 15. Explain what entropy is and use an example in your answer. 16. In what form does the increase in entropy take in our universe? 17. How does heat figure into energy transformations? 18. Make a statement that combines the 2 laws of thermodynamics. 19. Do living organisms violate the 2nd law? Explain 20. Differentiate between spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes. 21. Explain the concept of free energy then give the equation for determining it. 22. According to this equation what happens to a system with an increase in temperature? 23. Explain how free energy can be thought of as a measure of the stability of a system. 24. Give the equation for measuring a change in free energy. 25. What are the requirements for a system to be spontaneous? 26. The greater the decrease in free energy………………(finish this statement) 27. Explain the concept of equilibrium with regard to free energy. 28. Do movements away from equilibrium require energy? Explain 29. Explain what an exergonic reaction is with regard to delta G. Are they spontaneous or non-spontaneous? Explain 30. Explain why delta G is a negative number with regard to cellular respiration. 31. Explain what an endergonic reaction is. Will delta G be positive or negative? Explain 32. Are endergonic reactions spontaneous or non-spontaneous? Explain 33. Explain what would happen if delta G were 0 in an organism and why. 34. Explain what metabolic disequilibrium is and how cells maintain it. 35. Explain what is meant when a reaction is “pulled” in one direction. 36. Contrast the photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organisms and their source of energy. 37. Give the 3 kinds of work a cell does and an example of each. 38. What is the immediate source of energy for this work? 39. Describe the structure of ATP. 40. How is energy harvested from ATP? What is the net result of ATP being hydrolyzed in a cell? 41. Are the ATP bonds high energy bonds? Explain 42. Explain why hydrolyzing an ATP molecule yields so much energy. 43. Explain why the phosphate region of an ATP molecule is so instable. 44. Explain what happens to the energy harvested from ATP. 45. Explain what phosphorylated means. 46. Explain how ATP is recycled. 47. Explain the process of regeneration and its result. Part B 1. Give the general function of an enzyme. 2. Explain what a catalyst does. 3. Explain what activation energy is and what it does to the reactants in a reaction. 4. What happens to the activation energy in an exergonic reaction? 5. Why is activation energy necessary? 6. Explain how delta G is determined in a reaction. 7. Does room temperature normally provide enough energy for a reaction? Explain 8. Does the surrounding environment of a cell normally provide enough energy for activation? Explain 9. Give a positive and a negative result of adding heat to a cell’s environment. 10. What effect do enzymes have on activation energy and reactions? 11. Do enzymes change delta G? Explain 12. Use an example to help you explain what a substrate is and what happens when an enzyme binds to its substrate. 13. Explain what sucrase is and what it does. 14. Explain what an active site is and what specificity means. 15. Explain the concept of induced fit and why it is necessary. 16. Explain how substrates are held to an active site. 17. Explain the function of R groups in this process. 18. How fast do enzymes work? 19. Are enzymes reusable? 20. Are most reactions involving an enzyme reversible? Explain which direction 21. Explain how enzymes are able to lower activation energy and speed up reactions. 22. What determines the rate at which enzymes work? Explain 23. Explain what is meant by enzyme saturation. 24. How would one counteract enzyme saturation? 25. What determines an enzymes shape? How could its shape be an advantage to a reaction? 26. Explain how an increase in temperature can affect reaction rates. 27. Is heat always an advantage? 28. Describe the relationship between enzymes and pH. 29. Use an example to explain what a cofactor is and what they do. 30. Explain what a coenzyme is and what it does. 31. Explain what an inhibitor is and what they do. Are they reversible? Explain 32. Explain what competitive inhibition is. 33. Explain what noncompetitive inhibition is. 34. What is the result of binding by an inhibitor? Part C 1. Explain what a reversible, noncompetitive inhibitor is. 2. Explain what an allosteric site is and the result of enzyme binding there. 3. What is the structure of most allosteric enzymes? 4. Explain the behavior of allosteric enzymes. 5. Explain the function2 of allosteric regulators. 6. Do allosteric inhibitors and activators compete? Explain using ATP as an example. 7. Explain the idea of feedback inhibition. 8. Explain the concept of cooperativity and its result. 9. Explain how enzymes can function to bring order to some metabolic pathways. 10. Give the methods enzymes can be concentrated within a cell.
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