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					          Sexting Exposed:
A Qualitative Study Research Proposal




       EMESE C. PARKER, RN, MS, WHNP-BC
           MPH CAPSTONE PRESENTATION
                                MAY 2011


          CAPSTONE ADVISOR: DR. HINDIN
                    ADVISOR: LEE BONE
                       Roadmap


 Definition
 Literature review:
    Highlights
 Study proposal:
    Aims
    Questions
    Methods
    Analysis
 Conclusion
          Literature Review: What is Sexting?

 No single definition


 Broadest: (9-17)
     Sexually explicit:           “Your wardrobe needs
       Messages                    updating...how about
       Photos                      trying me on”(1)
       Videos

     Sent/posted, received,       “Forget M&Ms: I melt in
      forwarded                     your hands”(1)
     Using any electronic media
       Cell phones
       Internet
       Email
Hunting for Data

 •Aim:
 -Primary research on
 U.S. sexting (12-26 yrs)

 -Through 2011
 -English language


 How?
 -Traditional and non-
 traditional methods



 Found:
 -8 studies for final
 review(9-16)
                         Sexting Prevalence(9-16)

                          Any type (12-26 yrs)
                                19-59%
      Explicit Visuals                                Messages


 Sending            Receiving                Sending             Receiving
 Posting                                     Posting


    Teens              Teens                  Teens
 (11-19 yrs):       (11-19 yrs):           (13-19 yrs):
   4-22%              13-31%                   39%


                   Young People                              Young People
                    (13-25 yrs):                              (13-26 yrs):
Young Adults          18-35%               Young Adults         29-56%
 (18-26 yrs):                               (20-26 yrs):
   20-33%                                      59%
                Sexting Highlights (Cont)

 Who are young people              What do they think about
 sexting?(9, 10, 12, 17)            sexting?(10,12)

                                       “Dangerous” (54-66%),
    Boyfriends/girlfriends (53-        “stupid” (54-64%), “gross”
     75%)
                                        (33-41%), “lame” (33-39%,),
    People they dated/hooked           and “immoral” (34-40%)
     up (19-38%)
    People they wanted to             “Flirty” (12-68%), “hot” (10-
     date/hook up with                  51%), and “fun” (10-49%)
     (21-27%)                              Sexters thought more
                                            positively about it than
                                            non-sexters19
   Why Sext?

Studies difficult to
compare 9,10,14,16




•Examples:



•“In response to one sent
to me/someone asked
me” (43-46%)



“From pressuring” (25-
65%)16,18
               Sexting Highlights (Cont)

 Gender/Age Differences?        Real World Impact?
    Age: Increases among           Sharing (13-26 yrs):(1,13)
     older age groups(12-14)          16-30% (13-26 yrs) had
    Gender: unclear(12-14)            explicit visual of someone
                                       shared with them
                                      15-17% shared explicit visual
 Perceived Negatives?                 with someone else
 (13,16)

    “Dangerous” (90%) (13-18
                                    Relationships (13-26 yrs):
     yrs)
                                      Exchanging content
    Could have “serious               dating/hook ups(16)
     negative consequences”           More forward/aggressive(16)
     (78%) (13-26 yrs)
                                      Unprotected intercourse(11)
Study Proposal


   DETA I L S
                      Study Aim



 To better understand,      To explore the thoughts,
 among 18-26 year olds,      feelings and attitudes
 the popular methods of      older teens and young
 communication within        adults have towards
 existing/potential:         sexting
    Friendships                18-19 year olds
    Relationships              20-26 year olds
      Romantic
      Sexual
                       Study Questions



 What are popular               What are the thoughts,
 methods of                      feelings, and attitudes
 communication used by           older teens and young
 older teens and young           adults have towards
 adults within                   sexting?
 existing/potential
    Friendships ?               What do they perceive
    Relationships ?             are surrounding
      Romantic                  circumstances and
      Sexual
                                 potential consequences?
                                  Study Design

 Focus groups:
     8 (single-sex):
         18-21 yrs: Females (x2), males (x2)
         22-26 yrs: Females (x2), males (x2)
     6-9 participants/group
     1.5 hrs/group
     Private room, on campus


 Who?
     Santa Rosa Junior College
      community (SRJC) (Santa Rosa, CA)
         18-26 yrs, any race/ethnicity
         Fluent English speaker
         Human Sexuality course, on
          campus
         Spring term 2011
                        Recruitment

 Obtain approval from
  SRJC Recruit in
  classes and via flyers
     Sign-up sheet
     Phone screening and
      assignment to group
     Goal: Approx 65 people

 Incentives:
   Free food and drink
   Raffle for $75 Simon gift
    card
   Help community
                  Focus Group Format

1) Food!
2) Oral consent
3) Demographic
  questionnaire
4) Group Discussion
    Participants wear #
    Data collection:
      Notes
      Audio taping
Group
Discussion
Questions



SAMPLES
Data
Analysis
            Transcription:
               Audio Text

            Review data Code
               Similarities/differences?
               Emerging themes?

            Comparisons:
               Within and across groups
                   Same age and sex
               Older vs. younger groups
               Male vs. female
                             Conclusion

 Implications:
   Research
          Future research: Real world implications
           • Health and wellbeing
           • Gender and age differences
          Help organize future research inquiries via proposed
           categorization: Sext senders’ self-reported desired outcomes

    Local community impact: Share results with SRJC psych
     department and school health center to determine next steps

    Ultimate Goal: Better support today’s young people through
     public health programming
Thank you
                                       References

1)   Sexting examples. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2011, from http://sextingexamples.org/
2)   Brunker, M. (2009, January 15). ‘Sexting’ surprise: Teens face child pornography charges. MSNBC.
     Retrieved March 4, 2011, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/28679588/ns/technology_and_science-
     tech_and_gadgets/
3)   Celzic, M (2009, March 6). Her teen committed suicide over “sexting.” Today.com. Retrieved March 4,
     2011, from http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/29546030/ns/today-parenting/
4)   United Nations (2005). World Youth Report 2005: Young people today, and in 2015. Retrieved
     October 5, 2010, from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/documents/wyr05book.pdf
5)   Lenhart, A., Purcell, K., Smith, A., & Zickuhr, K (2010). Social media and mobile internet use
     among teens and young adults. Pew Research Center. Retrieved March 7, 2011, from
     http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2010/PIP_Social_Media_and_Young_Adu
     lts_Report_Final_with_toplines.pdf
6)   Lehart, A., Ling, R., Campbell, S., Purcell, K. (2010). Teens and mobile phones. Pew Research
     Center. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from
     http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2010/PIP-Teens-and-Mobile-2010-with-
     topline.pdf
7)   Lenhart, A., Madden, M., Macgill, A., & Smith, A. (2007). Teens and social media. Pew Research
     Center. Retrieved October 18, 2010,
     fromhttp://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2007/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final
     .pdf
8)   Ito, M., Baumer, M., Bittanti, M., Boyd, D., Cody, R., Herr-Stephenson, B.,…Tripp, L. (2010).
     Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out: Kids living and learning with new media.
     Available from http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/full_pdfs/Hanging_Out.pdf
                                    References (Cont)
9) Cox Communications, in partnership with National Center for Missing & Exploited Children and John Walsh
      (2009). Teen online & wireless safety survey. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved October 5, 2011, form
      http://www.cox.com/takecharge/safe_teens_2009/media/2009_teen_survey_internet_and_wireless_safety
      .pdf
10)    AK Tweens (April 21, 2009). Survey from AK Tweens reveals “sexting” not just a teen problem; Girls ages 10-
       15 are also sending, receiving and/or posting “sexy” photos, texts and emails. Retrieved April 5, 2011, from
       www.docstoc.com/docs/30798529/SURVEY-FROM-AK-TWENNS-
       REVEALS%E2%80%9CSEXTING%E2%80%9D-NOT-JUST-A
11)    Ferguson, C.J. (2010). Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: Incidence and association with
       other high-risk sexual behaviors. Psychiatr Quarterly, p. 1-5.
12)    Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J.W. (2010). Sexting: A brief guide for educators and parents. Cyberbullying Research
       Center. Retrieved March 25, 2011, from http://www.cyberbullying.us/Sexting_Fact_Sheet.pdf
13)    Knowledge Networks (2009). The MTV-Associated Press poll: Digital abuse survey. Retrieved September 7,
       2010, from http://surveys.ap.org/data%5CKnowledgeNetworks%5CAP_Digital_Abuse_Topline_092209.pdf
14)    Lenhart, A. (2009). Teens and Sexting. How and why minor teens are sending sexually suggestive nude or
       nearly nude images via text messaging. Pew Research Center in partnership with University of Michigan.
       Retrieved September 3, 2010, from http://pewresearch.org/assets/pdf/teens-and-sexting.pdf
15)    LG-One (2010). LG Text Ed research report. [PowerPoint slides]. Obtained March 5, 2011, from personal
       correspondence with study contact: Erica Samadani (Erica.Samadani@lg-one.com)
16)    National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, in partnership with Cosmogirl.com (2008).
       Sex and Tech: Results from a survey of teens and young adults. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from
       http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/sextech/pdf/sextech_summary.pdf
                               References (Cont)

17) Katzman, D.K. (2010). Sexting: Keeping teens safe and responsible in a technologically savvy world.
   Canadian Paedriatric Society, 15 (1), 41-2.
18) Athinline.org (n.d.). 2009 MTV-AP Digital Abuse Study, Executive Summary. Retrieved September 7,
   2010, from http://www.athinline.org/MTVAP_Digital_Abuse_Study_Executive_Summary.pdf
19) Tompson, T. (Personal Communication, March 9, 2011).

				
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