Big Idea: Forming a Foundation (Reading) by CX341yAP

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									                                                                   Code Reference Sheet
                                                                         Science

Program of Studies
The Program of Studies outlines the minimum content standards required for all students before graduating from Kentucky public high schools.
Academic Expectations- common for all Big Ideas
2.1   Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.2   Students identify, analyze, and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future
      events.

Big Idea: Structure and Transformation of Matter (Physical Science)
A basic understanding of matter is essential to the conceptual development of other big ideas in science. During the middle years, physical and chemical
changes in matter are observed, and students begin to relate these changes to the smaller constituents of matter—namely, atoms and molecules. The
use of models (and an understanding of their scales and limitations) is an effective means of learning about the structure of matter. Looking for patterns
in properties is also critical to comparing and explaining differences in matter.
Academic Expectations
2.4     Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and predict
        other characteristics that might be observed.
2.5     Students understand that under certain conditions nature tends to remain the same or move toward a balance.

Big Idea: Motion and Forces (Physical Science)
Whether observing airplanes, baseballs, planets, or people, the motion of all bodies is governed by the same basic rules. At the middle level, qualitative
descriptions of the relationship between forces and motion will provide the foundation for quantitative applications of Newton’s Laws.
Academic Expectations
2.3     Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.

Big Idea: The Earth and the Universe (Earth/Space Science)
The Earth system is in a constant state of change. These changes affect life on Earth in many ways. Development of conceptual understandings about
processes that shape the Earth begin at the elementary level with understanding what Earth materials are and that change occurs. At the middle level,
students investigate how these changes occur. An understanding of systems and their interacting components will enable students to evaluate
supporting theories of Earth changes. The use of models and observance of patterns to explain common phenomena is essential to building a
conceptual foundation and supporting ideas with evidence at all levels. In middle school, students begin to look beyond what can be directly observed as
they explore the Earth-sun-moon system, as well as the rest of our solar system, employing the concept of scale within their models. Patterns play an
important role as students seek to develop a conceptual understanding of gravity in their world and in the universe.
Academic Expectations
2.3     Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
2.5     Students understand that under certain conditions nature tends to remain the same or move toward a balance.

Big Idea: Unity and Diversity (Biological Science)
All matter is comprised of the same basic elements, goes through the same kinds of energy transformations, and uses the same kinds of forces to move. Living
organisms are no exception. In middle school, students begin to compare, contrast, and classify the microscopic features of organisms—the cells, as well as
investigate reproduction as the essential process to the continuation of all species. Expected patterns of genetic traits are predicted. Distinctions are made
between learned behaviors and inherited traits. Emphasis at every level should be placed upon the understanding that while every living thing is composed of
similar small constituents that combine in predictable ways, it is the subtle variations within these small building blocks that account for both the likenesses and

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differences in form and function that create the diversity of life.
Academic Expectations
2.3      Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
2.5      Students understand that under certain conditions nature tends to remain the same or move toward a balance.

Big Idea: Biological Change (Biological Science)
The only thing certain is that everything changes. At the middle school level, students study relationships among populations and ecosystems that
contribute to the success or demise of a specific population or species. Students construct basic explanations that can account for the great diversity
among organisms.
Academic Expectations
2.5     Students understand that under certain conditions nature tends to remain the same or move toward a balance.
2.6     Students understand how living and nonliving things change over time and the factors that influence the changes.

Big Idea: Energy Transformations (Unifying Concepts)
Energy transformations are inherent in almost every system in the universe—from tangible examples at the elementary level, such as heat production in
simple Earth and physical systems to more abstract ideas beginning at middle school, such as those transformations involved in the growth, dying and
decay of living systems. The use of models to illustrate the often invisible and abstract notions of energy transfer will aid in conceptualization, especially
as students move from the macroscopic level of observation and evidence (primarily elementary school) to the microscopic interactions at the atomic
level (middle and high school levels).
Academic Expectations
2.3     Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
2.4     Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and predict
other characteristics that might be observed.

Big Idea: Interdependence (Unifying Concepts)
It is not difficult for students to grasp the general notion that species depend on one another and on the environment for survival. But their awareness
must be supported by knowledge of the kinds of relationships that exist among organisms, the kinds of physical conditions that organisms must cope
with, the kinds of environments created by the interaction of organisms with one another and their physical surroundings, and the complexity of such
systems. In middle school, students should be guided from specific examples of the interdependency of organisms to a more systematic view of the
interactions that take place among organisms and their surroundings. Students growing understanding of systems in general will reinforce the concept of
ecosystems. Stability and change in ecosystems can be considered in terms of variables such as population size, number and kinds of species,
productivity, and the effect of human intervention.
Academic Expectations
2.3       Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
2.4       Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and predict
other characteristics that might be observed.




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      What do the codes for the Program of Studies (POS) mean in the combined curriculum document? (There are no numbers on the original
      Program of Studies Document.)


Content Codes     Grade      Big Idea                        Desired Results   Ways Students Demonstrate   Objectives
                  Level                                      for Learning      Learning
SC - Science      6          STM – Structure and             U - Enduring      S - Skills and Concepts     Objectives are numbered in the order they
                  7          Transformation of Matter        Knowledge and                                 appear in the original document.
                  8          (Physical Science)              Understandings
                             MF – Motion and Forces
                             (Physical Science)
                             EU – The Earth and the
                             Universe(Earth/Space Science)
                             UD – Unity and Diversity
                             (Biological Science)
                             BC – Biological Change
                             (Biological Science)
                             ET – Energy Transformation
                             (Unifying Concepts)
                             I – Interdependence (Unifying
                             Concepts)




      A typical Program of Studies code for Mathematics may look like SC-6-STM-S-1. This means the following:

      SC-6-STM-S-1
      SC – Science (Content Code)
        6 – Sixth Grade (Grade Level)
           STM – Structure and Transformation of Matter (Big Idea)
              S – Skills and Concepts (Ways Students Demonstrate Learning)
                 1 – First objective listed in (Ways Students Demonstrate Learning)




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  What do the codes for the Core Content of Mathematics Assessment mean?

Grade Level Codes               Subdomains                          Organizers                                       Standards
06                       1 = Physical Science      1 - Structure and transformation of Matter           Objectives are numbered in the order
07                       2 = Earth/Space Science   2 - Motion and Forces                                they appear in the original document.
08                       3 = Biological Science    3 -The Earth and the Universe                       Numbers indicates standard of core
                         4 = Unifying Concepts     4 - Unity and Diversity                              content.
                                                   5 - Biological Change                               State assessed standards (bold print)
                                                   6 - Energy Transformation                           Supporting content standards (italicized
                                                   7 - Interdependence                                  print) not assessed but critical for
                                                                                                        students to master
                                                                                                       State-assessed standards in Core
                                                                                                        Content has a ceiling DOK level indicated.

                                                                                                Some Core Content standards contain additional
                                                                                                information in parentheses.
                                                                                                      List preceded by an e.g. – the examples
                                                                                                        included are meant to examples and may
                                                                                                        be on the state assessment. Other
                                                                                                        examples not included may also be on the
                                                                                                        state assessment.
                                                                                                      List not preceded by an e.g. – the list is to
                                                                                                        be considered exhaustive and items
                                                                                                        inside the parentheses are the only ones
                                                                                                        that will be assessed.


  A typical Core Content code may look like SC-06-3.4.1. This means the following:

  SC-06-3.4.1
  SC - Science (Domain)
    06 – Sixth Grade (Grade Level)
        3. – Biological Science (Subdomain)
           4. – Unity and Diversity (Organizers)
              1 –First Standard (Standards)




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Depth of Knowledge - DOK
Four Depth of Knowledge (DOK) levels were developed by Norman Webb as an alignment method to examine consistency between the cognitive
demands of standards and the cognitive demands of assessments.

                                                    Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Levels for Science

Recall and Reproduction – Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Level 1
Recall and Reproduction requires recall of information, such as a fact, definition, term, or a simple procedure, as well as performing a simple science
process or procedure. Level 1 only requires students to demonstrate a rote response, use a well-known formula, follow a set procedure (like a recipe),
or perform a clearly defined series of steps. A “simple” procedure is well defined and typically involves only one-step. Verbs such as “identify,”
“recall,” “recognize,” “use,” “calculate,” and “measure” generally represent cognitive work at the recall and reproduction level. Simple word problems
that can be directly translated into and solved by a formula are considered Level 1. Verbs such as “describe” and “explain” could be classified at
different DOK levels, depending on the complexity of what is to be described and explained.

A student answering a Level 1 item either knows the answer or does not: that is, the answer does not need to be “figured out” or “solved.” In other
words, if the knowledge necessary to answer an item automatically provides the answer to the item, then the item is at Level 1. If the knowledge
necessary to answer the item does not automatically provide the answer, the item is at least at Level 2.

Skills and Concepts/Basic Reasoning – Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Level 2
Skills and Concepts/Basic Reasoning includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a response. The content
knowledge or process involved is more complex than in level 1. Items require students to make some decisions as to how to approach the question
or problem. Keywords that generally distinguish a Level 2 item include “classify,” “organize,” ”estimate,” “make observations,” “collect and display
data,” and “compare data.” These actions imply more than one step. For example, to compare data requires first identifying characteristics of the
objects or phenomenon and then grouping or ordering the objects. Level 2 activities include making observations and collecting data; classifying,
organizing, and comparing data; and organizing and displaying data in tables, graphs, and charts.

Some action verbs, such as “explain,” “describe,” or “interpret,” could be classified at different DOK levels, depending on the complexity
of the action. For example, interpreting information from a simple graph, requiring reading information from the graph, is a Level 2. An item that
requires interpretation from a complex graph, such as making decisions regarding features of the graph that need to be considered and how
information from the graph can be aggregated, is at Level 3.

Strategic Thinking/Complex Reasoning – Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Level 3
Strategic Thinking/Complex Reasoning requires deep knowledge using reasoning, planning, using evidence, and a higher level of thinking than the
previous two levels. The cognitive demands at Level 3 are complex and abstract. The complexity does not result only from the fact that there could
be multiple answers, a possibility for both Levels 1 and 2, but because the multi-step task requires more demanding reasoning. In most instances,
requiring students to explain their thinking is at Level 3; requiring a very simple explanation or a word or two should be at Level 2. An activity that has
more than one possible answer and requires students to justify the response they give would most likely be a Level 3. Experimental designs in Level
3 typically involve more than one dependent variable. Other Level 3 activities include drawing conclusions from observations; citing evidence and
developing a logical argument for concepts; explaining phenomena in terms of concepts; and using concepts to solve non-routine problems.


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Extended Thinking/Reasoning – Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Level 4
Extended Thinking/Reasoning requires high cognitive demand and is very complex. Students are required to make several connections—relate
ideas within the content area or among content areas—and have to select or devise one approach among many alternatives on how the situation can
be solved. Many on-demand assessment instruments will not include any assessment activities that could be classified as Level 4. However,
standards, goals, and objectives can be stated in such a way as to expect students to perform extended thinking. “Develop generalizations of the
results obtained and the strategies used and apply them to new problem situations,” is an example of a Grade 8 objective that is a Level 4. Many, but
not all, performance assessments and open-ended assessment activities requiring significant thought will be Level 4.

Level 4 requires complex reasoning, experimental design and planning, and probably will require an extended period of time either for the science
investigation required by an objective, or for carrying out the multiple steps of an assessment item. However, the extended time period is not a
distinguishing factor if the required work is only repetitive and does not require applying significant conceptual understanding and higher-order
thinking. For example, if a student has to take the water temperature from a river each day for a month and then construct a graph, this would be
classified as a Level 2 activity. However, if the student conducts a river study that requires taking into consideration a number of variables, this would
be a Level 4.



Follow the link for additional information and supporting materials for DOK Levels in Science:
http://www.education.ky.gov/users/jwyatt/Support_Materials/CCA%20SCIENCE%20SUPPORT.doc




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