The Vietnam War by wangnianwu

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									The Vietnam War
  America’s Longest War
    American Support for France
   Ho Chi Minh had begun a revolutionary
  movement against the French in the
  1930’s
 Ho Chi Minh was a US ally during WWII
 After WWII the Japanese were forced out
 Ho Chi Minh and the Vietminh declared
  Vietnam free
 In the late 1945 the French came back to
  reclaim their colony
 The US funded $1 Billion towards the
  French war effort from 1950-1954
    Vietminh Drive out the French
 In 1953 IKE and the US viewed Ho as a
  communist aggressor
 IKE feared The Domino Theory and
  thought it might occur if Vietnam was lost
 In 1954 despite massive US aid the
  French are defeated at Dien Bien Phu
 From May through July 1954 seven
  countries meet with the Vietminh and the
  anti-communist South in Geneva to agree
  to peace
 The Geneva Accords divided Vietnam at
  the 17th parallel, Free Elections in 1956
    Diem Cancels the Elections
 Ho Chi Minh was popular in the North by
  redistributing land to peasants
 South Vietnam’s anti-communist and
  Catholic President Ngo Dinh Diem refused
  to take part in the Geneva Accord
  elections of 1956, supported by the US
 In 1957 the Vietcong or Communist
  Guerillas began attacks in the South by
  assassinating members of Diem’s
  government
 In 1959 the Ho Chi Minh Trail or supply
  line to communists in the South was
          JFK and Vietnam
 Like IKE JFK chose to “sink or swim” with
  Diem in Vietnam
 By the end of 1963 more $ and 16,000 US
  military advisors were in South Vietnam
 Diem popularity was plummeting, his
  Hamlet Program was unsuccessful
 His attacks on Buddhism and the protest
  of Buddhist monks was increasing
 On Nov. 1st 1963 a US supported South
  Vietnam military coup was carried out
  and Diem was assassinated
     LBJ Expands the Conflict
 After Diem death the South was unstable
 LBJ felt US creditability is at stake and he
  does not want to give in to communist
  aggression
 In August 1964, a North Vietnamese gun
  boat fired a torpedo at The USS Maddox
 Two days later the Maddox and another
  destroyer opened fire on the North
 LBJ launches limited bombing attacks
 Congress adopted the Gulf of Tonkin
  Resolution which gave LBJ broad military
  powers in Vietnam
USS Maddox
   The public did not know
    the US was conducting
    secret raids against the
    North
   The USS Maddox was
    collecting information
   LBJ had prepared the
    resolution months
    before hand
   In response to another
    attack Operation Rolling
    Thunder was launched
   By June of 1965, 50,000
    US troops were fighting
    in Vietnam
US Involvement and Escalation
   In March 1965 LBJ began sending troops
   Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara and
    Sec. of State Dean Rusk advised LBJ to
  deploy troops
 LBJ went back on his 1964 campaign
  promise, but he looked to be containing
  communism
 In 1965, 61% supported US policy in Nam
    US Troop Buildup Accelerates
 By the end of 1965, 180,000 US troops
  were sent to Vietnam
 General William Westmoreland continued
  to request more US troops
 He was not impressed with the Army of
  the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) (South
  Vietnam)
 By 1967 there were 500,000 US troops in
  Vietnam
            An Elusive Enemy
   The Vietcong used hit-and-run and
    ambush tactics
 The Vietcong was part of the civilian
  population, US troops could not tell friend
  from foe
 The Vietcong had a network of tunnels to
  launch attacks and disappear quickly
 The jungle was laced with booby traps
    and land mines
   US troops dealt with jungle terrain, rice
    paddies, heat, leeches, and Mekong Rot
               War of Attrition
   US bombers pounded VC and North
    Vietnamese positions
   Despite high causalities the VC would not
    surrender
   The North was receiving supplies from China
    and the USSR
   The US tried to win ‘Hearts and Minds”
   The US used Napalm to set fire to the jungle
   The US used the defoliant Agent Orange in
    Operation Round-up
   By 1967 there were 3 million refugees due to
    US Seek and Destroy missions
           Sinking Morale
 Guerrilla warfare, brutal jungle, and
  failure to make headway, and mounting
  causalities frustrated US troops
 Many soldiers turned to alcohol,
  marijuana and other drugs to escape the
  war
 South Vietnamese civil war within the
  civil war made the war tough to manage
 Many US troops fought bravely and POW
  fought just to stay alive, even facing
  torture and the infamous Hanoi Hilton
     The Early War in the US
 LBJ’s Great Society Programs suffered
  due to lack of funding, $6 billion was cut
  from the programs (Taxes went up as
  well to curb inflation and pay for the war)
 The war cost $21 billion every year
 Americans saw the horrific images on TV
 Over 16,000 American troops were killed
  between 1961 and 1967
 Many charged that a “creditability gap”
  between what the LBJ reported and what
  was actually occurring (Fulbright
  Hearings)
     A Nation Divided-A
    Generation in Conflict
 Why  was Vietnam a working
  class war?
 What were the roots of
  opposition to the war?
 What was the anti- war
  movement?
 Why was their growing division
  in the US over the war?
          Roots of Opposition
 College students became more involved
  in social protest
 The New Left demanded sweeping
  changes in American society
   Students for A Democratic Society (SDS)
  charged that large Corporations and large
  government institutions had taken over
  the US (They wanted democracy and
  individual freedom)
 In 1964 The Free Speech Movement grew
  out of a dispute between administrators
  and students at Univ. of CA at Berkeley
    Teach-Ins and Large Protests
 Professors and students used teach-ins to
  protest the war ( Sit-In for the campus)
 In April 1965, SDS organized a march on
  Washington of 20,000, then 30,000
 By 1969 SDS had chapters on 400
  campuses
 In spring of 1967 nearly 500,000
  gathered in NYC’s Central Park “Hell no
  we won’t go!” “Burn Cards not People!”
 In October 1967 100,000 anti-war
  protestors marched from the Lincoln
  Memorial to the Pentagon ( 1,500 injured,
       War Divides the Nation
   Hawks v Doves
 In December 1967, 70% of Americans
  felt that the protests were “acts of
  disloyalty”
 Backlash to the Protestors organized
 “America Love it or Leave It!”
 “Support our men in Vietnam!”
 “College professors, students…don’t love
  our country.”
 LBJ was determined with slow escalation
 Sec. of Defense McNamara resigned in the
  end of 1967
        Ch 23 Sec 3 The
        Counterculture
What   was the counterculture
 of the 1960’s?
What   was its impact on art,
 fashion, music and attitudes?
What was the conservative
 response or “backlash” to the
 counterculture?
      The Counterculture of the
              1960’s
   Counterculture was a movement made up
    of mostly white, middle-class college
    young people who were disillusioned with
  the war and injustices of society
 They turned their backs on traditional
  American and founded a society based on
  peace and love
Hippies
 Materialism,
  Technology, and war
  were hollow
 Harvard Psychology
  and counterculture
  philosopher Dr.
  Timothy Leary urged
  the youth to “Tune in,
  Turn On, Drop Out!”
 Many left home, work,
  and school to create
  an ideal community of
  peace love and
  harmony
           Hippie Culture
 The Age of Aquarius
 Rock ’n’ Roll Music
 Sexual Revolution (Free Love)
 Marijuana and LSD ( Illegal Drugs)
 Eastern Religions (Zen Buddhism)
 Ragged Jeans, Tie-dye shirts, military
  garments, love beads and muslin shirts
 Long hair and beards
 Many joined communes
 Haight-Asbury District of SF
             Art of the 1960’s
   Pop-Art by Andy
    Warhol
           Music of the 1960’s
 The music was a form of protest that
  grew out of African-American rhythm and
  blues of the 1950’s (Folk and Rock)
 The Beatles, The Doors, Jimi Hendrix,
    Janis Joplin, Jefferson Airplane, the
    Grateful Dead, the Who, Bob Dylan, Joan
    Baez and the Rolling Stones
 In 1969 the appex of the counterculture
  was the music festival Woodstock
 The 1970 Concert at Altamont Speedway
  was a disaster and ended the era of peace
  and love
The Working Class Goes to War
   Many dogged the draft as Americans
    doubted the war (Draft included 18-26
    year old males)
 Some got medical exemptions
 Some joined the National Guard or Coast
  Guard
 Some got a college deferment
 The less economically privileged fought
  the war which included lower economic
  class whites and minorities
 African Americans made up only 10% of
  the population but 20% of the combat
  deaths
 Draft lottery was instituted in 1969
      Women Join the Ranks
 10,000 Us Women served in Vietnam
 Most served as military nurses (China
  Beach)
 Thousand more served in the Red Cross
  and the USO (United Services
  Organizations)
LBJ The Great
   Society
  1963-1968
         Essential Questions:
 What political path led LBJ to the White
  House?
 What were the goals of the Great
  Society?
 What were some of the major programs
  of the Great Society?
 How did the Supreme Court reflect the
  wave of liberal reform that characterized
  the Great Society?
 How were the rights of the accused
  expanded?
 What was the short term and long term
        LBJ’s Path to Power
 LBJ ran for Congress as a “New Dealer” in
  1937
 In 1948 LBJ won a seat in the US Senate
 LBJ was a master of party politics and
  behind the scenes political maneuvering
 LBJ efforts helped the Civil Rights Act of
  1957 to be passed
 LBJ was JFK running mate in 1960
 After JFK’s assassination LBJ urged
  Congress to pass the civil rights and tax-
  cut bills that JFK had sent to Congress
 In Feb. 1964 Congress
  passed a tax cut which
  spurred economic
  growth and lowered the
  budget deficit
 In July, LBJ pushed
  through the Civil Rights
  Act of 1964 which
  prohibited discrimination
  based on race, religion,
  sex, and gave the federal
  government new powers
  of enforcement
           The War on Poverty
   Early in 1964 LBJ had declared a War on
    Poverty
 In Aug. 1964 Congress passed the
  Economic Opportunity Act (EOA) which
  provided $1 billion for youth programs,
  antipoverty measures, small-business
  loans, and job training
 (EOA) created:
    – Job Corps Youth Training Programs
    – VISTA –Volunteers in Service to America
    – Project Head Start – Ed. For underprivileged
      kids
    – Community Action Programs (CAPS)
         The Election of 1964
   LBJ (D) Vs Barry Goldwater (R)
 Goldwater believed the federal
  government had no business trying to
  right the wrongs of poverty ,
  discrimination, and economic opportunity
 Goldwater wanted to make Social
  Security voluntary, and sell the TVA
 Goldwater mentioned he might use
  nuclear weapons on Cuba and Vietnam
 LBJ won in a landslide and the Democrats
  increased their majority in Congress
LBJ launches The Great Society
   LBJ wanted to end poverty and racial
    injustice
   The Elementary and Secondary Education
    Act of 1965 provided $1 billion in aid to
  help public and parochial schools
 Medicare provided low-cost health
  benefits to Americans 65 or older
 Medicaid extended health insurance to
  the poor or welfare recipients
   Department of Housing and Urban
    Development was established (HUD)
    240,000 low rent public houses, and $
         The Great Society II
   The Immigration Act of 1965 opened the
  door for many non-European immigrants
  to settle in the US by ending the quotas of
  the 1920’s based on nationality
 The Water Quality Act of 1965 required
  states to clean up rivers, it resulted from
  Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring about
  pesticides, and spurred the environmental
  movement
 Congress established safety standards for
  cars as a result of Ralph Nadar’s Unsafe
    at Any Speed
 The Wholesome Meat Act of 1967
 The Truth in Packaging Act of 1966
    Other Great Society Programs
   The Higher Education Act of 1965 funded
    scholarships and low-interest loans for
    college students
   National Foundation for the Arts and the
    Humanities Act of 1965 was created to
  assistance to painters, musicians, actors,
  and other artists
 Corporation of Public Broadcasting 1967
 The Voting Rights Act of 1965
 The Highway Safety Act of 1966
 The Air Quality Act of 1967
            The Warren Court
   Chief Justice Earl Warren
   Brown vs. The Board of Education – 1954
  Banned Segregation in public schools
 Banned state sanctioned prayer in public
  schools
 Declared Loyalty Oaths unconstitutional
 Baker Vs Carr 1962 and Reynolds Vs
  Simms 1964 stated that Federal Courts
  could tell states to redivide their districts
  for more equal representation
  (Reapportionment – the drawing of
    election districts) “One Person, one Vote.”
         Rights of the Accused
   Mapp Vs Ohio (1961) Evidence seized
  illegally could not be used in state courts
 Gideon Vs Wainwright ( 1963) Free legal
  council to those who cannot afford it
 Escobedo Vs Illinois (1964) Accused
  person has the right for a lawyer to be
  present during questioning
 Miranda Vs Arizona ( 1966) All suspects
  must have their rights read
 Liberals praised the decisions,
  Conservatives hated the decisions
  because they impeded police officers
    Impact of the Great Society
 Poverty fell from 21% in 1962 to 11% in
  1973
 Spending for the Great Society increased
  the growing year to year budget deficit
 Limited $ reached poor people due to
  complex programs that were tough to
  implement
 Disillusioned inner city residents rioted in
  protest
 A Conservative backlash began to take
  shape (Reagan Gov. of Ca 1966)
 Vietnam War overshadowed it and took $
 Violence Erupts in the cities of
           the North
 Centuries of de facto segregation had
  produced social and economic inequalities
 Slums, high unemployment, poor schools
  all contributed to desperation
 Aggressive Police was a point of
  contention
 In July 1964, a race riot erupted in
  Harlem after a 15 year old black student
  was killed
 On Aug. 11th, 1965 the worst riot erupted
  in Watts, Los Angeles
     The Kerner Commission
 What caused race riots and the
  destruction?
 People suffered in the cities from
  heightened expectations from the civil
  rights movement and LBJ’s promises in
  the Great Society that were not realized
 “White Racism” created an explosive
  mixture of poverty, police brutality, and
  the commission recommended extensive
  public housing, integrated schools, 2
  million new jobs, and a national system of
  income supplementation
 Watts- 34 deaths,
  $200 million in
  damages
 Detroit 1967 – 43
  deaths, $40 million in
  property damages
 In 1966 and 67 more
  than 100 riots and
  violent clashes took
  place
 Newark, San
  Francisco, Milwaukee,
  Phila., Cleveland, and
  Dayton
    Ch 22 Sec 4 – 1968 A
      Tumultuous Year
What was the Tet
 Offensive? How did it effect
 the American public?
What were the domestic
 disturbances of 1968?
What led up to the 1968
 Presidential Election?
    1968:A Tumultuous Year
 On Jan 30th 1968 during the Vietnamese
  New Year celebration the Vietcong
  launched massive attacks across Vietnam
 The Tet Offensive lasted for one month,
  100 cities and towns were attacked, 12
  US air bases, and even the US Embassy in
  Saigon ( 40,000 Vietcong deaths)
 The Tet Offensive increased the
  creditability gap and shook the public
 Tet changed millions of minds, including
  new Sec. of Defense Clark Clifford who
  thought the war was unwinnable
     LBJ declines to run in 1968
 Democrats looked for candidates to run
  against LBJ in the primaries
 Senator George Mc Govern opposed LBJ
 In the NH Primary LBJ got 48% of the
    vote McGovern 42%
 RFK sensing weakness entered the race
 On March 31, 1968 LBJ announced the US
  would seek negotiations to end the war,
  with more involvement from South
  Vietnam and he would not run for re-
    election in 1968
      A Turning Point - 1968
 On April 3rd, 1968 DR. MLK addressed a
  crowd in Memphis
 He was there to support the city striking
  garbage workers
 He gave his famous
  “Promised Land” Speech
  He was assassinated
  one day later by James
  Earl Ray on his hotel
  balcony
       Violence and Protest
 On April 4th Dr. MLK was assassinated in
  Memphis
 Violence ripped through more than 100
  US cities (27,000 had been jailed)
 On June 4th, 1968 RFK won the
  Democratic Primary on June 5th he was
  gunned down by Sirhan Sirhan after
  giving a speech in the hotel kitchen
 During the first 6 months of 1968, 40,000
  students took part in 200 demonstrations
  on 100 campuses ( Columbia University)
    Reaction to King’s Death
 RFK passionate plea
  for non-violence in
  Indianapolis
 Over 100 cities
  exploded in flames
 Baltimore, Chicago,
  KC, and Washington
  were the worst
 RFK was killed in
  June 1968 by Sirhan
  Sirhan
     The Civil Rights Act of 1968 and
                  Beyond
 The Civil Rights Act of 1968 targeted
  de facto discrimination
 It ended discrimination in housing
 By 1970, 2/3 of African Americans
  were registered to vote
 Black elected officials grew from 100
  in 1965 to more than 7,000 in 1992
 In the late 1960’s early 1970’s
  Affirmative Action programs were
  started
          The DNC of 1968
 In August at the DNC Convention in
  Chicago thousands of anti-war and other
  protestors “Yippies” converged on the
  city (Youth International Party)
 The Democratic nomination was between
  Eugene McCarthy and LBJ’s VP Hubert
  Humphrey
 Mayor Richard J. Daley mobilized 12,000
  Chicago Police officers “…there will be
  law and order.”
 On Aug. 28th Rock and bottles met
  nightsticks and mace, “The whole world is
          The Election of 1968
   Richard M. Nixon (R) vowed to restore
    law and order, and to end the war in
    Vietnam
   Hubert H. Humphrey (D)
   Former Gov, of Alabama George Wallace
    ran as the American Independent Party
    candidate
    “White Backlash” won 5 Southern states
    and middle-class white Northerners tired
    of inner-city riots and anti-war protests
Richard Nixon won a close race and
 inherited the Quagmire of Vietnam
           The Black Panthers
   In October 1966, Huey Newton and
    Bobby Seale founded the political party
    the Black Panthers
 It advocated self-sufficiency, full
  employment opportunities, decent
  housing and no military service due to the
  unfair numbers being drafted and killed in
  Vietnam
 Police shootouts occurred and the FBI
  conducted many investigations
 Panthers helped out with many
  community projects in urban ghettos
CH.23-An Era of
 Social Change
The Counterculture and
  Continuing Social
     Movements
Ch 23 Sec 1 Latinos and Native
   American Seek Equality
 How   did the population of Latinos
  grow in the US during in the 1960’s?
 How did Latinos fight for Civil
  Rights?
 How did Native Americans secure
  reforms of US government policy?
 How did Gay/Lesbian Americans
  fight for equal rights?
    Latinos of Varied Origins
 Mexican Americans – 1miilion came in
  1910’s following the Mexican Revolution,
  some came in the 1940’s and 1950’s as
  braceros, and 1 million came in the 60’s
 Puerto Ricans began immigrating after
  the Spanish American War of 1898, and
  by 1960’s 1miilion in the US (1/2 NYC)
 Cubans fled Castro after 1959 and large
  communities formed in NYC, Miami, NJ
 During the 1960’s thousand of Central
  and South American emigrated
 Most Latinos lived in barrios
      Latinos Fight For Change
   In 1966 Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta
    merged their new unions to form the
  United Farm Workers Organizing
  Committee
 Chavez believed in non-violence in
  dealing with California’s large fruit and
  vegetable companies (Ex. Boycotts/Fast)
 In the 1960’s the Chicano Movement took
  off, “Brown Power” and the “Brown
  Berets” demanded Spanish speaking
  classes and Chicano studies programs at
  universities (Bilingual ED. Act of 1968)
      Latino Political Power
 During the 1960’s eight Hispanic
  Americans served in the House and
  Joseph was elected to the Senate
 In the 1940’s and 1950’s the League of
  United Latin American Citizens fought in
  the courts for school desegregation and
  gov. funding
 In the 1970’s La Raza Unida ( Mexican
  Americans United) ran Mexican
  Candidates in many local elections
 In 1963 the more radical Alianza Federal
  de Mercedes seized a Texas courthouse
 Native Americans Fight For Equality
 NativeAmericans suffered the
 highest unemployment rates,
 alcoholism, infant mortality rates
 and suicides
   1954 Native Americans had to
 In
 deal with the government’s
 Termination Policy
 In 1961 reps from 61 tribes drafted
  the Declaration of Indian Purpose
 In 1968 LBJ established the National
 Council on Indian Opportunity
            Voices of Protests
   In 1968 the AIM (American Indian
    Movement) was formed to demand lands,
    burial grounds, fishing/ timber rights,
    and a respect of their culture (George
  Mitchell and Dennis Banks)
 In 1972, AIM leader Russell Means
  organized “The Trail of Broken Treaties”
  march on DC ( Occupied the BIA building)
 In 1973, the AIM led 200 Sioux to occupy
  Wounded Knee, SD where a massacre of
  Sioux had occurred in 1890
 After negotiations a shootout with the
              “Red Power”
   Russell Means     Dennis Banks
    Native American Victories
 In 1975 Congress passed the Indian-Self-
  Determination and Education Act which
  gave tribes control to govern their own
  affairs including education
 In 1970 the Taos of NM regained sacred
  Blue Lake Land
 In 1971 the Alaska Native Claims
  Settlement Act gave 40million acres and
  $962 million
 Political Representation improved by
  working through the system (Ex. Senator
  Ben Nighthorse Campbell)
The Asian American Movement
 In 1968 the Asian American Political
  Alliance (AAPA) was founded at Berkley
  which unified Chinese, Japanese, Korean
  and Filipino activists
 Protested the Vietnam War and racism
  directed at Asians
 1969 “Shut it Down” strikes at Berkley
 “Yellow Power” Conference to learn of
  Asian American history and destiny
 1968 San Francisco’s Chinatown
  Grievances (Housing and Medicine)
 Japanese American Citizens League
  brought forth the issue of internment
    The Gay Liberation Movement
 In the 1950’s the Mattachine Society and
  the Daughters of Bilitis were campaigning
  to reduce discrimination towards G/L
 1960’s The Society for Individual Rights
  was founded in Greenwich Village/SF
 June ,1969 the Stonewall Inn Riot in NYC
  pitted aggressive police against bar
  patrons “Gay Power” appeared
 After Stonewall the Gay Liberation Front
  (GLF) was formed (Gay Pride Marches)
 In 1975 the Gov. ended its ban on
  employment of G/L
   Ch 23 Sec 2 Women Fight
          for Equality
 What factors led to the women’s
  movement of the 1960’s?
 What were some early gains and
  some losses within the women’s
  movement?
 What was the legacy of the women’s
  movement in employment,
  education, and politics?
    Women Fight for Equality
 In 1920 the 19th Amendment was passed
  giving women the right to vote (Women’s
  Suffrage)
 In the 1960’s Feminism was the belief
  that women should have economic,
  political, and social equality with men
 In 1963 Betty Friedan’s Feminine
  Mystique identified the “problem that has
  no name” Women were not happy in the
  1950’s (Men’s work v Women’s work)
 In the 1960’s women were forced into
  clerical work, retail, social work, nursing,
  and teaching
      Women’s Activism of the
             1960’s
 Women were members of SNCC and SDS,
  and active in the civil rights movement
 In 1966 28 women including Friedan
  founded the National Organization for
    Women (NOW)
 NOW fought against gender bias in hiring
  and in the workplace and pushed for
  child-care facilities
 In 1968 the New York Radical Women
  protested the Miss America Pageant in AC
 “Women’s Garbage” into “Freedom’s
  Trashcan”
   In 1969, a
    journalist and
    political activist
    Gloria Steinem
  joined the feminist
  movement
 She founded the
    National Women’s
    Party Caucus
   In 1972 she
    founded and wrote
    for Ms. (Women’s
    Magazine)
               Roe V Wade
 Feminist groups supported a woman’s
  right to chose to have an abortion
 In 1973 the Supreme Court ruled in favor
  of the feminists
 Extremely Controversial
   Pro-Choice v Pro-Life
    The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
 Congress passed the ERA in 1972, it was
  first introduced in 1923 (Men and Women
  same rights and protections)
 38 states needed to ratify it to make it
  part of the Constitution ( 35 received)
 A Stop-ERA campaign was launched by
  conservative religious groups, and anti-
  feminists led by Phyllis Schlafly
 Radical Feminist “hate men, marriage,
  and children”
 Fears of women being drafted, no
  husband responsibility, and possible
      The New Right Emerges
 In order to combat pro-
  choice and the ERA
  conservatives formed the
  “pro-family” movement
  which became the New
  Right (Social
  Conservatism when
  dealing with social,
  cultural, and moral
  problems)
 They debated family
  centered issues and
  played key role in Pres.
  Reagan’s election in 1980
  The Nixon
Administration
   1969-1974
Man Walks on the Moon!
       Essential Questions:
 What were Nixon’s plans to lead the
  nation on a more conservative course?
 What was stagflation and what steps did
  Nixon take to battle it?
 What was Nixon’s Southern Strategy?
 What major foreign policy moves did
  Nixon make?
 What was the Watergate Scandal and
  how did it lead to Nixon’s resignation
  from office?
    Nixon’s New Conservatism
 Nixon was determined to turn the US into
  a more conservative direction with a
  sense of order
 The US was intensely divided over Nam
 Nixon felt LBJ’s Great Society programs
  gave the federal gov. too much respons.
 Nixon’s plan was New Federalism which
  was to distribute a portion of federal
  power to state and local government
 Under the Revenue Sharing Plan state
  and local gov. could spend Fed. $ how
  they saw fit
          Welfare Reform
 Nixon wanted to overhaul welfare which
  he felt had grown inefficient
 In 1969 Nixon introduced the Federal
  Assistance Plan (FAP) which a family of
  four would receive a basic family income
  of $1,500 to $4,000, job training would
  be given and any job would have to be
  accepted by the participant
 It passed the House, but was attacked by
  both parties in the Senate and the bill
  was defeated
    Two Sides to New Federalism
 The Nixon administration increased Social
  Security, Medicare, Medicare and made
  food stamps more accessible
 Yet Nixon tried to eliminate the Job
  Corps, and in 1970 he denied funding for
  (HUD)
 By 1973 Nixon had impounded more than
  $15 billion in funds for housing, health,
  and education (Courts overturned the
  impounding)
 Nixon abolished the Office of Economic
  Opportunity
      Law and Order Politics
 Nixon pledged to end the war in Vietnam
 He pledged to mend American divisions
 He played to the “silent majority”
 Nixon used the FBI and CIA to investigate
  American dissidents and political enemies
 The IRS was used to audit anti-war and
  civil rights activists returns
 Nixon had a “enemies list” of who to
  harass
 VP Agnew attacked liberals, the media,
  and anti-war protestors ( Pit-bull)
      Nixon’s Southern Strategy
 Nixon tried to get support from white
  southern democrats who were unhappy
  with federal desegregation policies and a
  liberal supreme court
 Nixon favored slow desegregation, in
  1969 he ordered the Dept. of Health, Ed,
  and Welfare to delay segregation in Miss.
  and SC ( Overturned by the Supreme
  Court)
   Desegregation though school busing
    became a civil rights issue ( Whites in
    Detroit and Boston opposed it) Nixon was
    opposed to it
 Ch 22 Sec 5 The End of the War
         and Its Legacy
What was Nixon’s policy of
 Vietnamization?
What  was public reaction to
 Nixon’s war in Vietnam?
What was the final outcome of
 the Vietnam war?
What was the war’s painful
 legacy in the US and SE Asia?
        Nixon’s Vietnamization
   Sec. of State Henry Kissinger opted for
    Vietnamization which was a reduction in
    US troops by turning active combat
    operations over to the South Vietnamese
  while negations continued
 By August 1969 25,000 troops came
  home
 Between 1969 and 1972 the # of US
  troops dropped from over 543,000 to less
    than 25,000
   Nixon spoke of “peace with honor” while
    the US continued bombing campaigns
    Trouble on the Home front
 Nixon appealed to the “silent majority”
 In Nov. 1969 Americans learned of the My
  Lai Massacre ( 100 innocent Vietnamese
  civilians mostly old men women and
  children were gunned down by a US
  Platoon)
 Out of 25 officers only Lt. William Caley
  Jr. was convicted and imprisoned
              10 year sentence
              (House arrest 3yrs.)
      The Invasion of Cambodia
           and Kent State
   In April 1970 Nixon announced the US invaded
    Cambodia to clear out VC and North Vietnam
    supply centers
   Colleges burst out in protests, 1.5 million
    students closed more than 1,200 campuses
   On May 4th, 1970 at Kent State after the ROTC
    building was burned down and rocks were
    thrown at the National Guard, they opened fire
    on protestors
   4 were killed nine wounded at Kent State
   At Jackson State 2 were killed, 12 wounded
              The Hardhats
 Americans supported the National Guard
  and according to polls the students “got
  what they deserved.”
 In May of 1970, 100,000 members of the
  building and Construction Trades Council
  held a rally supporting the government in
    NYC, they broke up an anti-war rally
   These were construction workers and
    blue collar Americans, “the Hardhats”
       The Pentagon Papers
 Congress was angry with the extension of
  the war into Cambodia, and in Dec. 1970
  they repealed the Gulf of Tonkin
  Resolution
 In June 1971,Former Defense Dept.
  worker Daniel Ellsberg released the
  Pentagon Papers to the press
 The papers stated that the government
  had drawn up plans for entering the war
  as early as 1964, and they showed their
  was never any plan to end the war even if
  it was unsuccessful
             End of the War
 In March of 1972 the North Vietnamese
  launched their largest attack since Tet
 Pres. Nixon ordered a massive bombing
  campaign on Hanoi and other cities, and
  mined Haiphong Harbor
 National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger
  had been secret negotiating with Le Duc
  Tho of North Vietnam
 On Oct. 26th, 1972 just days before the
  election
    Kissinger announced “Peace is at Hand!”
 Talks stalled due to
  South Vietnamese
  rejection of the
  Kissinger Plan
 Nixon unleashed the
  “Christmas
    Bombings” of Hanoi
    and Haiphong,
    100,000 bombs over
    11 days
 Jan 27, 1973 an
  agreement was
  reached
 On March 29, 1973
  the last US troops left
  for home
         The Fall of Saigon
 With-in months of the US departure the
  cease fire-was broken
 In March 1975 North Vietnamese
  launched a full scale invasion
 The US sent $ to South Vietnam but no
  troops
 Pres. Ford did not want another
  nightmare
 On April 30th, 1975 North Vietnamese
  tanks rolled into Saigon and the South
  fell, it was renamed Ho Chi Minh City
      Painful Legacy of Vietnam
 There were no victory parades for Vietnam Vets
 Many faced bitterness and hostility
   15% or 3.3 million soldiers developed post
    traumatic stress disorder
   58,000 US troops were killed
   1 Million Vietnamese were killed, and chemicals
    like agent orange have polluted the
    environment and caused birth defects and
    cancer, 400,000 re-educated by the
    communists
   The Communists forced 1.5 million people out
    of Vietnam , 50,000 boat people perished
   Cambodia’s civil war in which Khmer Rouge led
    by Pol Pot killed 1 million Cambodians
  Lasting Legacies of Vietnam
 The US abolished the draft
 In Nov. 1973 Congress passed The
 War Powers Act in which the
 President must inform Congress
 within 48 hrs. of sending forces
 Troops cannot remain longer than 90
 days without authorization from
 Congress
In 1982 the Vietnam Veterans
 Memorial was unveiled in
 Washington DC
         Causes of Stagflation
   Between 1967-1973 the US faced high
    unemployment and high inflation
    (Stagflation)
 High Inflation was caused by LBJ funding
  the war and the Great Society through
  deficit spending
 Increased International Competition in
  trade
 Floods of new workers (Domestic Baby
  Boomers and Foreign)
 Heavy dependence of foreign oil
            OPEC and War
 During the 1960’s the Organization of
  Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
  raised the price of oil
 The Six Days War in 1967 impacted prices
 The 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel
  and Egypt and Syria rose prices
 The US sent massive military aid to Israel,
  Arab OPEC nations cut oil sales to the US
  (Oil Embargo) By 1974 price increased 4x
 Major gas lines and shortages in the US
  early, mid 1970’s
          “Shuttle Diplomacy”
   Secretary of State
    Henry Kissinger
  traveled back and
  forth between Middle
  Eastern countries
 Kissinger’s efforts
  paid off
 In January 1974
  Egypt and Israel
  signed a peace accord
 In May Israel signed a
  cease fire with Syria
    Nixon Battles Stagflation
 To reverse deficit spending Nixon raised
  taxes and cut the budget (Congress
  opposed)
 Nixon tried to reduce the amount of $ in
  circulation by pushing for higher interest
  rates
 Nixon took the US off the gold standard
 In 1971 Nixon froze wages, rents, fees
  and prices for 90 days it helped
  temporality but the recession continued
     Nixon and the Environment
   Nixon supported the creation of the
    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
 Nixon improved the Clean Air Act of 1963
 Nixon supported the Water Quality
  Improvement Act of 1970
 In 1973 the Endangered Species Act was
  passed
 Membership in the Sierra Club took off
  due to new concerns over the
  environment
 On April 2d, 1970 the first Earth Day was
      Nixon’s Foreign Policy
 Kissinger  promoted the idea of the
  “realpolitik” which was political
  realism (Foreign policy is based on
  consolidation of power)
 US should confront and deal with the
  powerful nations
  (Negotiations/Militarily)
 Nixon and Kissinger had a flexible
  approach in dealing with Comm.
 They pushed for “détente” or a
  relaxing of Cold War tensions
         Nixon Visits China
 Since 1949 the US had not recognized the
  Communist Chinese Government
 “Ping-pong” diplomacy began in 1971
 Nixon wanted to play the “China Card”
  and take advantage of the rift between
  the China and the USSR
 Nixon’s visit to China was symbolic and it
  opened up diplomatic and economic
  relations
 Both would cooperate and participate in
  scientific and cultural exchanges
Nixon and Premier Zhou En-lai
       Nixon Visits the USSR
 In May 1972, three months after
  visiting China, Nixon became the first
  President to visit Moscow
 Nixon met with Soviet leader Leonid
  Brezhnev
 They signed the Strategic Arms
 Limitation Treaty (SALT I)
 Itlimited ICBM’s and sub missiles to
  1972 levels
 Nixon offered to sell $ 1 billion in
       Nixon and Watergate
 “Dirty Tricks” were used by the
  administration to withhold information
  from the public, discredit critics, and gain
  illegal campaign contributions for the
  1972 election
 The “plumbers” were established to stop
  leaks of information
 Former CIA agent E. Howard Hunt and
  FBI agent G. Gordon Liddy headed the re-
  election team
 “The Enemies List” First target was Daniel
  Ellsberg who released the Pentagon
Hunt and Liddy
       The Imperial Presidency
 Nixon expanded the power of the
  Presidency with little thought of
  Constitutional Checks
 Impoundment of funds for fed. programs
 Invading Cambodia without the approval
  of Congress
   Nixon felt the office of the Presidency
    was above the law
          The President’s Men
   Fierce loyal
    advisors
   H.R. Haldeman –
    Chief of staff
   John Ehrlichman –
    Chief Domestic
    Advisor
   John N Mitchell –
    Attorney General
   John W. Dean III –
    White House
    Council
The Drive Towards Re-election
   Nixon feared losing elections
   Committee to Re-elect the President was
  formed (CREEP) with Mitchell as its
  leader
 CREEP hired a security team to bug the
  DNC headquarters at the Watergate
  Office Complex in DC
 On June 17, 1972 five men were caught
  by a security guard Frank Wills
 The group’s leader James McCord was
  former CIA and Security Coordinator for
            The Cover-Up
 Nixon was concerned about the break-in
 Documents were shredded in Haldeman’s
  office
 The White House asked the CIA to urge
  the FBI to stop investigating the break-in
 CREEP passed out $450,000 o the
  burglars to buy their silence
 The burglary was of little interest to the
  public and the press
 Washington Post reporters Bob
  Woodward and Carl Bernstein kept on the
  story ( Received info. from “Deepthroat”)
         The 1972 Election
 Nixon ran a successful negative campaign
  against Senator George McGovern (D)
 They let the press know that McGovern’s
  VP candidate Senator Thomas Eagleton
  had undergone shock therapy for
  depression
 Voter turnout was an all time low
 With promises of peace in Vietnam Nixon
  won in a landslide
      The Cover-Up Unravels
 In Jan. 1973 McCord sent a letter to
  Judge John Sirica (Presiding Judge)
 He lied under oath, and hinted others
  were involved
 On April 30th, Nixon fired John Dean and
  announced the resignations of Haldeman,
  Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard
  Kleindiest
 Nixon went on TV to promote his new
  Attorney General Elliot Richardson and he
  suggested a “Special Prosecutor” be
  appointed to investigate Watergate
    The Senate Investigates
 Senator  James Ervin began calling
  Administration officials to give
  testimony
 Dean admitted the President had
  been deeply involved in the cover-up
  (White House denial)
 Presidential Aid Alex Butterfield
  revealed the tapes of Oval Office
  Conversations
 A year long battle for the tapes
  began
 The Saturday Night Massacre
 Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox took
  Nixon to Court in 1973
 Nixon ordered Attorney General
  Richardson to fire Cox
 Richardson refused the order and
  resigned (Saturday Night Massacre)
 Solicitor General Robert Bork fired Cox
 New Special Prosecutor Leon Jaworski
  wanted the tapes as well
 A few days earlier VP Agnew resigned for
  accepting bribes while Gov. of MD
 New VP Gerald Ford was appointed
          The Fall of Nixon
 In March 1974 a Grand Jury indicted
  seven presidential aids on charges of
  conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and
  perjury
 Nixon released 1,254 pages of edited
  transcripts
 In July 1974 The Supreme Court ordered
  Nixon to give up the unedited tapes “I am
  not a crook!”
 In Aug. Nixon released the tapes with an
  18.5 min. gap (Rose Mary Woods
  accidentally erased the most crucial part)
    Impeachment or Resignation
 The House Judiciary Committee approved
  three articles of impeachment:
  obstruction of justice, abuse of power,
  and contempt of Congress
 On August 8th , 1974 Nixon announced his
  resignation
 Nixon admitted no guilt, some judgments
  “were wrong”
 Gerald Ford was sworn in as President
 Ford gave Nixon a full Presidential pardon
 25 administration members served prison
  terms

								
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