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					In the Renaissance a new philosophy,
       HUMANISM, emphasized:
 1. INDIVIDUALISM: glorifying potential,
   talents and accomplishments of
   individual human beings.

  2. CLASSICISM: Re-discovery and
   appreciation of ancient Greek &
   Roman culture (especially in
   Italy…why is that?)

 3. SECULARISM: emphasis on this
 world (the “here & now”) and its
 material pleasures rather than the
 afterlife (“hereafter”) or spiritual world.
  Why the change in philosophy?


•The medieval outlook of fatalistic
Christianity reflected the realities of the
Middle Ages.


•Manors were isolated; no change came
from the outside.


•Life on the manor was traditional &
determined by heredity; no change came
from within.
•With nothing changing, it was easy to
believe that change wasn’t possible
unless God willed it.



•Since the Church taught that God
had created the world and
everything in it, it was logical to
assume that God wanted you to do
whatever it was you were doing in
life.
   Since the vast majority, the
   serfs, lived lives of poverty,
extremely hard manual labor and
         overall misery…
 …it’s not difficult to understand
why they were obsessed with the
              afterlife
    By the Renaissance, peoples’
   reality had changed, at least in
         the towns and cities
           •Wealth increased

     •A new middle class developed

•Trade increased & new products appeared

       •New skills could be learned

      •New occupations were created

            •Prosperity spread
       An individual could now:

•Leave the manor


•Learn an occupation different from his
parents

•Improve his status and economic standing


•Acquire nice things and enjoy some of
life’s pleasures
   By no means did this mean
     rejecting Christianity or
questioning the basic teachings
 of the Roman Catholic Church.
  But it did mean that on the way to
   the afterlife the possibilities for
individual achievement and pleasure
    in the secular world would be
    explored and enjoyed in ways
inconceivable to the denizens of the
            medieval manor.
The arts are often an accurate
mirror of the society in which
     they are produced.



Nowhere is this more true than
    in the Renaissance.
Renaissance art clearly depicts the
  philosophy of humanism in its
          emphasis on:


       INDIVIDUALISM

         CLASSICISM

        SECULARISM
True “Renaissance Man” and all around
   genius Leonardo da Vinci painted
 several versions of the Madonna and
     Child (Virgin Mary and Jesus)
    Here’s one of them:




The Madonna of the Carnation, 1478-80
  Remember the
medieval Madonnas?




                     How is this different?
                                   atmospheric
                                   perspective
                                          (hazy)




chiaroscuro
(shading)                          linear
                                   perspective
                                   (smaller)




     Some basic Renaissance art techniques
 How does this painting reflect humanism?

INDIVIDUALISM                SECULARISM


                                 “3-D”
                              landscape
Mary is a real
person, not a                 Concern with
medieval                      details
“zombie”

                              Emphasize the
Why doe she                   “real world”
look “real?”                  setting
       But this is still a religious painting


Renaissance                         The Church is
Europe is still                     still a major
a very                              power & art
religious                           patron
society




 But the art is now done in a realistic style by
 professionally trained artists, not untrained monks
      Here’s Michelangelo’s famous
       sculpture, the Pieta, 1499


The Pieta
is another
common                        What is
theme in                      being
Catholic                      depicted
art, just                     here?
like the
Madonna
and Child
     What do these two famous works
            have in common?




Right! Religious…detailed…realistic…other things?
      They share a common composition




The triangular organization suggests stability and
order, values held by the ancient Greeks & Romans
It also suggests the Trinity, a basic
      aspect of Christian belief


              God the Father




God the Son               God the Holy Spirit
     Here’s another famous
Renaissance painting: Botticelli’s
    Birth of Venus, c. 1845
How is this similar to Leonardo’s Madonna?




            How is it different?
      Yes, it’s realistic and detailed




But the lady is naked! We haven’t seen that
 before; certainly not in any medieval art.
How does this work reflect humanism?




     What about her nakedness?
What about the subject of the painting?


                                 She’s
                                 Venus

                                 Roman
                               goddess of
                                love and
                                 beauty


  Remember, one of the hallmarks of
     humanism is CLASSICISM
In addition to classical scenes, another
type of painting appeared that we didn’t
    see in the Middle Ages: portraits




        Leonardo: Lady with an Ermine, 1490
Botticelli: Giuliano de   Raphael: Pope Leo X (detail),
Medici, 1476-7            1518-19
Portraits: what could be a better
          expression of

      INDIVIDUALISM

Remember, too, that the Romans
    were big on portraits


        CLASSICISM
 With reminders of their classical past all
around them, Italians engaged in a rebirth
         of Roman architecture




   That’s the Cathedral of Santa Maria
    del Fiore in Florence on the right
What’s the most noticeable aspect of
          its architecture?




Right! In fact, this cathedral is usually
  referred to as Il Duomo, the Dome
The 15th
century
Florentines
outdid
Rome’s
architectural
masterpiece,
the Pantheon
Notice the difference in scale of the
  Dome compared to a medieval
         Gothic cathedral
The Gothic
cathedral is
much taller
Casting the
eye toward
heaven, the
focus of
medieval life
The Renaissance cathedral is more down
     to earth, more human in scale




Appropriate for the Renaissance focus on
     man & life in the secular world
 As you have seen, Italian Renaissance art
clearly reflects Humanism in its empasis on:

  1. INDIVIDUALISM: glorifying potential,
    talents and accomplishments of
    individual human beings.

   2. CLASSICISM: Re-discovery and
    appreciation of ancient Greek &
    Roman culture

  3. SECULARISM: emphasis on this
  world (the “here & now”) and its
  material pleasures rather than the
  afterlife (“hereafter”) or spiritual world.
Raphael, The
Madonna

				
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posted:3/13/2012
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