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					    生態學 (Ecology)

            靜宜大學 生態學系

Ayo 台南站: http://mail.nutn.edu.tw/~hycheng/
Email add: Japalura@hotmail.com
 Manuel C. Molles Jr.
 (2005)
 Ecology: Concepts
  and Applications.
 3rd ed.
 McGraw Hill.

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About the Author
 Manuel C. Molles Jr.
 Professor of Biology at the university of
  New Mexico (since 1975)
 Ph.D. (Dept. Ecology and Evolutionary
  Biology of the University of Arizona)
 He has taught and conducted ecological
  research in Latin American, the Caribbean,
  and Europe.
 Originally trained as a marine ecologist
  and fisheries biologist.

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 His research has covered a wide range of
  ecological levels, including behavioral
  ecology, population biology, community
  ecology, ecosystem ecology, biogeography
  of stream insects and the influence of a
  large-scale climate system (El Nino) on the
  dynamics of southwestern river and
  riparian ecosystems.
 His current research concerns the effects
  of flooding and exotic vegetation on the
  structure and dynamics of the Rio Grande
  riparian ecosystems.
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   Dr. Molles has attempted to combine
    research, teaching, and service, involving
    undergraduate as well as graduate
    students in his ongoing projects.

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Table of Contents
       Chapter 1 Introduction: What is Ecology?
 Section     I Natural History (自然史)
 Section     II Individuals (個體)
 Section     III Population Ecology (族群生態學)
 Section     IV Interactions (互動)
 Section     V Communities and Ecosystems
   Section VI Large-scale Ecology (大尺度生態學)

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   Section I Natural History (自然史)
       Chapter 2 Life on Land
       Chapter 3 Life in Water
   Section II Individuals (個體)
       Chapter   4   Temperature Relations
       Chapter   5   Water Relations
       Chapter   6   Energy and Nutrient Relations
       Chapter   7   Social Relations

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   Section III Population Ecology (族群生態學)
       Chapter   8 Population Genetics and Natural Selection
       Chapter   9 Population Distribution and Abundance
       Chapter   10 Population Dynamics
       Chapter   11 Population Growth
       Chapter   12 Life Histories
   Section IV Interactions (互動)
       Chapter 13 Competition
       Chapter 14 Exploitation: Predation, Herbivory,
        Parasitism, and Disease
       Chapter 15 Mutualism

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   Section V Communities and Ecosystems (社群與
       Chapter 16   Species Abundance and Diversity
       Chapter 17   Species Interactions and Community
       Chapter 18   Primary Production and Energy Flow
       Chapter 19   Nutrient Cycling and Retention
       Chapter 20   Succession and Stability
   Section VI Large-scale Ecology (大尺度生態學)
       Chapter 21 Landscape Ecology
       Chapter 22 Geographic Ecology
       Chapter 23 Global Ecology

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 The accelerating pace of ecological
  discovery makes staying current with the
  field very difficult.
 However, with careful organization and
  modern tolls, such as the Internet, they
  come close.

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Unique Approach
   1991, Paul Risser challenged ecology instructors
    to focus their attention on the major concepts of
    the field.
   If we subdivide a large and dynamic subject,
    such as ecology, too finely, we cannot cover it in
    one or two academic terms.
   This book attempts to address Risser’s challenge.
   Each chapter is organized around two or
    four major concepts, presenting the student
    with a manageable and memorable
    synthesis of the subject.

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 Basic chemistry
 Mathematics
 General biology (physiology, biological
  diversity, and evolution)

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Features designed with the student in
   Introduction
   Concepts
   Concept discussions
   Application & Tools
   Investigating the Evidence (Boxes)
   Illustrations
   Summary
   End-of-Chapter material
       Review questions
       Suggested readings
       On the Net
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End-of-Book Materials:
   Appendixes
       Abbreviations used in this text
       List of Chapter Concepts
       Statistical Tables
 Glossary
 References

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Useful supplements
 Digital content Manger (DCM)CD-Rom:
 Instructor’s testing and Resource CD-Rom:
 Transparencies
 Online Learning Center (OLC)
       http://www.mhhe.com/ecology
   Ecology essential study partner CD-Rom:

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Packaging opportunities
   Exploring Environmental science with GIS
   General Ecology Lab Manual, 8th edition
   Field and Lab methods for General Ecology, 4th
   Conservation Biology workbook
   Annual Edition: Environment
   Taking slides: Clashing views on controversial
    environmental issues
   Sources: Notable selections in environmental
    studies, 2nd edition.
   Student Atlas of Environmental Issues
   You can make a difference: be environmentally

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Chap. 1 Introduction: What is Ecology?
   Overview of Ecology
       The Ecology of Forest birds: using field studies
        to test theory
       The Ecology bumblebees: contribution of field
        and laboratory studies
       Forest nutrient budgets: inventories and large-
        scale experiments
       Vegetation changes: information from pollen
        records and modeling
 The Nature and scope of Ecology
 On the Net
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Overview of Ecology
   Ecology: Study of relationships between
    organisms and the environment.
       Simple definition does not convey the extreme
        breadth of this discipline.
   Ecosystem: Includes all organisms living in
    an area, and the physical environment with
    which these organisms interact.
       Biosphere: Highest level of ecological

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What is Ecology?
 Ecology 的字首是來自希臘的oikos,意指
 1870年德國動物學者 Ernst Haeckel的定義:
  the study of the natural environment and
  of the relations of organisms to one
  another and to their surroundings.
 Ecology is the science by which we study
  how organisms interact in and with the
  natural world.

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  This text, The Economy of Nature, presents
   the basic principles of the scientific
   discipline of ecology.
  These principles have been defined through
   more than a century of observation,
   experimentation, and theoretical
   exploration of natural systems.
  Ecological principles offer guidelines for the
   preservation of biodiversity and
   management of the environment for
   sustained use.
Robert E. Ricklefs and Gary L. Miller (2000) Ecology. 4th ed. W.
H. Freeman and Company.
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 生態經濟學、復原生態學(+工程學)、保育生
 生態學是一門整合科學,它有強大潛力作為科

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Ecology is an interdisciplinary science.
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Four broad areas
  Behavioral ecology (行為生態學)
  Population ecology (族群生態學)
  Community ecology (群區生態學)
  Ecosystems ecology (生態體系生態學)

 Ecology is to environmental Science as
 physics is to engineering.
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       Solar      Scale
L     system
G     Earth

H                 Community ecology
Y   Communities
O   Populations
G   Organisms
O    Tissues          C
C                     L
H                     L
E     Cells
M                     B
I                     I
S   Molecules         L
T                     O
R                     G
Y     Atoms           Y
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                  Fig.1.3 The organizational levels of ecology
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 Emergent 特質(transcending processes)

簡單                                  複雜
分 胞 細 組 器 系 個 族 群 生 生物
子 器 胞 織 官 統 體 群 落 態系 界
           生理學                生態學
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Ecology of Forest Birds
 MacArthur studied ecology of five
 species of warblers in spruce forests
 in N.A.
     Theory predicted two species with
      identical ecological requirements could
      not coexist indefinitely.
       Studies  found warblers coexisted by feeding
        in different zones of the same tree.

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Warbler Feeding Zones

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Ecology of Bumblebees
 Bumblebees      live in many cool
  Heinrich  estimated energy budget
   of individuals foraging on different
   flowers and under different
    Energy Gain / Loss
       Energy Intake - Energy Expenditure.

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Ecology of Bumblebees
 Field   and Laboratory Results
   Amount of energy expended during
    flight was independent of air
   Bees elevated temperature of thorax to
    stay warm in cool climates.

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Ecology of Bumblebees

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Forest Nutrient Budgets
 Due to heavy rainfall, many
 rainforest soils are nutrient-poor.
  Nutrientstores in rainforest
   canopies are associated with
    Epiphyte mats contain significant
    quantities of nutrients.
         Trees send roots up to epiphyte mats to
          access nutrients.

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Forest Nutrient Budgets
   Likens and Bormann estimated 90% of
    nutrients in a New Hampshire forest were
    locked up in soil organic matter.
       Approximately 9.5 % was tied up in vegetation.
       Streamflow output amounted to < 1%.

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Vegetation Change: Pollen Records
 Many environmental changes occur over
  large spatial or temporal scales.
 Davis monitored plant pollen deposited in
  lake sediments in the Appalachian Mtns.
       Documented large temporal changes to nearby
        plant communities.

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Vegetation Change: Pollen Records
 Milnemodeled transitions between
 ecosystems (ecotones) as phase
     Searched for edges between critical
      densities of vegetation along ecotones.
       Suggested   areas of gradual change within a
        landscape are most likely to contain
        biological responses to environmental

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Vegetation History from Pollen Sediments

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Nature and Scope of Ecology
 Ecology: Study of relationships between
 organisms and the environment.
   Wide variety of approaches.
     Large temporal and spatial scales.
        Field
        Lab
        Observational
        Manipulative

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The Scientific method—
Questions and Hypotheses
   Scientist ask and attempt to find answers to
    questions about the natural world.
   Questions are the guiding lights of the scientific
   A hypothesis is a possible answer to a question.
   The next step is to determine its validity by
    testing predictions that follow from the
   Three fundamental ways to test hypotheses are
    through observation, experiments and modeling.

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What is the ``scientific method''?
1. Observe some aspect of the universe.
2. Invent a tentative description, called a
   hypothesis, that is consistent with what you
   have observed.
3. Use the hypothesis to make predictions.
4. Test those predictions by experiments or further
   observations and modify the hypothesis in the
   light of your results.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no
   discrepancies between theory and experiment
   and/or observation.

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 When consistency is obtained the
  hypothesis becomes a theory and provides
  a coherent set of propositions which
  explain a class of phenomena.
 A theory is then a framework within which
  observations are explained and predictions
  are made.

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Fig. 1 Graphic summary of the scientific method.
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Experimental Problems
   Logistic problems lead to low replication
   Which leads to a Type I error; declaring
    that a hypothesis is false when in fact it
    is true. (否定 null 假說,但事實上是「null 假
   Low replications lead to greater standard
    error (SE) values.

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two types of error in measurement
   type I error—the conclusion that there is
    an effect when in fact there is none, (否
    定 null 假說,但事實是「假說是成立的」)
   type II error—when an impact exists but
    is not detected. (接受 null 假說,但事實是

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two types of error
   自然現象的研究,盡量的下降 type I error。
       盡量避免否定 null 假說。
       如此可以避免研究方向的錯誤。
   然而,對於自然資源(災害)的研究,則需要選擇
    下降 type 2 error
       譬如:漁業資源的耗減

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 Overview of Ecology
 Ecology of Forest Birds
 Ecology of Bumblebees
 Forest Nutrient Budgets
 Vegetation Change: Pollen Records
 Nature and Scope of Ecology

                   Ecology 2005       45
Ecology 2005   46
On the net
   http://www.mhhe.com/ecology
       http://highered.mcgraw-
       Careers in Science
       Scientific method

   Ayo 靜宜站:http://www1.pu.edu.tw/~hycheng

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Careers in Biology
   Biology Careers for the Next Century
       http://www.mhhe.com/cgi-bin/links/jump.cgi?ID=56
   Careers in Biology.
       http://www.emporia.edu/biosci/carebiol.htm#jobs
   Environmental Jobs and Careers
       http://www.ejobs.org/
   Sources for Information on Careers in
    Biology, Conservation, & Oceanography –
       http://www.mhhe.com/cgi-bin/links/jump.cgi?ID=51

                            Ecology 2005                   48
Scientific Method
   Introduction to the Scientific method
       http://teacher.nsrl.rochester.edu/phy_labs/Ap

                          Ecology 2005                  49

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