Biology Review Packet
Final Exam, Fall 2009
This is a supplemental study guide sheet that is NOT required and will NOT be graded.
Feel free to enlarge the print, make copies and study!
Your final exam is worth 300 points and is made up of 100 multiple choice questions, all of
which come from previous exams for the following units this semester: Science of Biology,
Biochemistry, Cellular Anatomy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration, and DNA, RNA
and Protein Synthesis. This sheet is designed to focus your studying.
Science of Biology
1. What is Biology?
2. What are the steps of the scientific method?
3. What are the rules for significant figures?
How many significant figures are in the following numbers?
4. What are the eight characteristicsof life?
5. List and describe the main parts of a microscope that we learned.
6. Define and give the basic unit of the following:
7. Complete the following:
a. ____ cm are in 20 meters.
b. ____ liters are in 100 milliliters.
c. ____ grams are in 1 kilogram.
d. ____ meters are in 20 centimeters.
8. Define the following components of an experiment:
a. Independent variable
b. Dependent variable
9. Review graphing skills. X-axis is the ______variable, Y-axis is the ________variable.
10. Define the following:
a. Electron cloud
c. Chemical Bond
11. What is the difference between a covalent and ionic chemical bond?
12. How many electrons can an atom hold in its first three energy levels?
13. What are organic compounds?
14. Define carbohydrates. What are they composed of? What are two examples of
carbohydrates? Identify a monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide.
15. Draw the molecular structure of a carbohydrate.
16. Define lipids. What are they composed of? What are two examples of lipids?
17. Draw the molecular structure of a lipid.
18. Define proteins. What are they composed of? How are proteins used by our bodies?
19. Which group of organic compounds are enzymes made up of?
20. Define amino acids. What are they composed of?
21. Draw and label the molecule structure of an amino acid.
22. Define nucleic acids. What are two examples of nucleic acids?
23. What are the three components of a nucleotide?
24. Distinguish between monomers and polymers.
25. For each of the four groups of organic compounds, list a monomer and polymer for each.
26. Differentiate between condensation reaction and hydrolysis.
27. Draw a picture of the molecular structure of an ATP molecule. What does ATP stand
for? How do our cells get energy from ATP
28. What are organic compounds? Describe the three subatomic particles of an atom. What
are their charges? Where are they located within an atom?
29. What is a cell?
30. List the three components of the cell theory.
31. Define organelles.
32. Describe the location and function of the following:
d. Cell membrane
g. Endoplasmic Reticulum
h. Golgi Apparatus
m. Nuclear Matrix
n. Nuclear Envelope
p. Nuclear Pores
r. Cell Wall
33. What is the difference between active and passive transport?
34. Define diffusion.
35. Define concentration gradient.
36. What is equilibrium in terms of a solution?
37. Define osmosis.
38. Contrast hypotonic and hypertonic.
39. What is facilitated diffusion?
40. Define carrier proteins.
41. Describe the sodium-potassium pump.
42. List the five levels of organization in a multicellular organism, from simplest to most
Photosynthesis and Respiration
43. What is the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
44. Define adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
45. Define photosynthesis.
46. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
47. Define the following:
b. Chlorophyll a
c. Chlorophyll b
d. Accessory pigment
48. How are thylakoids used during photosynthesis?
49. Where are grana and the stroma located in plant cells?
50. Photosynthesis can be broken down into what two main processes?
51. What are the three components of light-dependent photosynthesis?
52. Summarize light-dependent photosynthesis.
53. What are the products of the light-dependent portion of photosynthesis?
54. The light-independent part of photosynthesis is otherwise known as what?
55. Summarize the steps of the Calvin Cycle.
56. What are the main products of the Calvin Cycle?
57. Define cellular respiration.
58. Write the chemical formula for cellular respiration.
59. What is the first step of cellular respiration?
60. Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of _________ is broken in half,
producing two molecules of ___________, a 3-carbon compound.
61. If oxygen is present, what process follows glycolysis?
62. If oxygen is not present, what two processes could follow glycolysis?
63. Contrast aerobic and anaerobic.
64. Write the chemical formula for alcoholic fermentation.
65. Describe the relationship between lactic acid fermentation and sore muscles in humans.
66. What are the two major stages of cellular, aerobic respiration?
67. Define the Krebs Cycle.
68. Summarize the two steps of the Krebs Cycle.
69. A DNA nucleotide is made up of what three parts?
70. What are the four nitrogen bases in a DNA molecule?
71. Draw a DNA molecule. Label a nucleotide.
72. What makes up the upright sides of a DNA molecule?
73. Who first suggested a model for the structure of DNA that looked like a spiral staircase?
74. What is the name of the structure of DNA?
75. Summarize the two steps of DNA replication.
76. Where in the cell are proteins assembled?
77. Describe the three main differences between a DNA and RNA molecule.
78. List and describe (the function) of the three types of RNA.
79. What is accomplished during transcription?
80. Describe the four steps of transcription.
81. Define protein synthesis.
82. What is a genetic code?
83. How many codons are there in the genetic code?
84. Describe the four steps of translation.
85. In DNA, what is the complementary strand for : ATT-TCG-GGA-AAC
86. How is a tRNA molecule structurally different from mRNA or rRNA?