Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast by zhouwenjuan

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									               Strengthening Local Practice and
                   Sharing Lessons Learned:

Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast




A report on Phase I of the N-ACT Community Tourism Network

Prepared December, 2008 by:
Bodhi Garrett, Lead Consultant
120/27 Sukapiban 3, Moo 1
Kura, Kuraburi
Phang-Nga, 82150 Thailand




Supported by:
IUCN Landscapes and Livelihoods Strategy, Thailand Component
      Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast



 Table of Contents

Executive summary                                        1
Acknowledgements                                         2
Project Duration and Implementation Arrangements         2
Background                                               2
Objectives and Key Results                               3
Project Activities                                       4
Lessons Learned and Constraints                          5
  Choosing the Right Partners                            5
  Setting Up a Successful Network                        6
  Making a Difference                                    8
Project Beneficiaries and Sustainability of Initiative   12
Appendix 1 - List of Reference Documents                 14
Appendix 2 - Financial Summary, Community Income,        15
             and Leveraged Funds




 Executive Summary

As part of the LLS Strategy’s Thailand Component, the North Andaman Community Tourism Network
(N-ACT) has increased the contribution of tourism to sustainable livelihoods and sound ecosystem
management by providing communities with access to the best available knowledge and practices.
Recognizing the outstanding natural and cultural resources of the North Andaman area, N-ACT focused
its community-level efforts in Kuraburi district of Phang Nga province and the adjacent districts of
Kapoe and Suksamran in Ranong Province.
In its first phase, N-ACT generated tangible benefit through cooperative engagement with stakeholders
including community members, tour operators, media, and government officers. From April to
December of 2008, the network provided:
   Initial engagement with community tourism stakeholders and synthesis of baseline information
   Relationship-building between stakeholders leading to mutual benefit, and ongoing cooperation
   Increased promotion capacity for community tourism groups and local businesses
This paper summarizes the first phase of N-ACT’s work and identifies features that may be useful in
setting up community tourism networks elsewhere. Through careful selection of core partners and a
network structure that built capacity while being locally appropriate, N-ACT generated tangible benefits
for stakeholders, policy influence, and support for conservation.




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                  Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast

Acknowledgements
The North Andaman Community Tourism Network is made possible by the support of the Livelihoods and Landscapes Strategy (LLS),
Thailand Component of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). IUCN is the world’s oldest
and largest global environmental network. N-ACT has further benefited from the kind assistance and hard work of Janaka de Silva and the
community members whose vision and determination have led towards sustainable tourism on the Andaman Coast


Project Duration and Implementation Arrangements
Project activities took place from March to December of 2008. Implementation and management of the project on a day-to-day basis was
performed by consultants Bodhi Garrett and Nattaya Sektheera. An office was set up in Kuraburi (within 100km of all target communities),
and ground-level efforts were assisted and advised by field staff from IUCN, Mangrove Action Project, and Andaman Discoveries. At the
national level, the project was administered and supervised by the IUCN Thailand Programme Manager.




Background
The North Andaman is an ecologically and culturally unique area. It remains
relatively undeveloped and many communities still survive by their traditional
livelihoods of fishing and farming. Muslim, Buddhist and Moken villages live side
by side in harmony. Coral reefs and tropical rainforests are just minutes away
from each other.

As an active participant in conservation and natural resource management along
the North Andaman Coast, IUCN recognizes tourism’s potential as an
ecologically sustainable livelihood. Thus, the Landscapes and Livelihoods
Strategy (LLS) aims to "support collaboration among community-based
organizations to increase the effectiveness of nature based tourism for poverty
reduction and conservation."

Over the past three years, sustainable tourism has been targeted for
development in the North Andaman Coast of Thailand by the private sector,
NGOs, and through government policy. Concurrently, a number of communities
have developed activities for tourists based on the area’s cultural and natural
heritage. Set against the challenges of the tsunami, and responsible tourism in
general, many elements of community tourism are developing successfully
including group: group management and new leaders; positive guest experience;
links to conservation and social welfare; and, most importantly, consistent
supplemental income.

In the long run, sustainable community tourism requires revenue generation,
which, in turn, requires providing a competitive product. Currently, community
tourism groups in the area require partners capable of providing marketing,
booking, and ground services such as on-site translation for guests. One such
organization, a grassroots sustainable tour operator known as Andaman
Discoveries, has identified key facets of local community tourism that need to be
developed by supporting organizations:
    Community-wide understanding and benefit to ensure that tourism contributes to the village as a whole.
    Ongoing product development to help individuals within a community build skill and confidence over time
    Investment in marketing and promotion by supporting organizations

The North Andaman Community Tourism Network was formed to serve as an evolving platform for ongoing support to local
communities engaged in sustainable tourism.
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                  Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast


Objectives and Key Results


Objective 1: Initial engagement with community tourism stakeholders and synthesis of baseline information.
Baseline:   No comprehensive information on sustainable tourism or its stakeholders. Available data was widely scattered on internet and
            with some NGOs.
Outputs and Means of Verification:

    Synthesized information on 12 communities through                          Report - Community Profiles; Phase 1 Summary for
    52 meetings with 85 tourism group members                                  Communities (Thai)
    Assessment and data gathering meetings with 41 NGOs
                                                                               Report - Initial Situation Analysis
    and 23 government officers.
    Outreach to 31 tourism businesses and formal
                                                                               Table - Local Tourism Business Assessment
    surveys of 21 businesses to assess interest in sustainable tourism.
    Presentations to 2 international tourism seminars, and hosting of
                                                                               Reports - Bangkok Roundtable, MTCO Meeting
    Bangkok roundtable with 24 national-level stakeholders.


Objective 2: Relationship-building between stakeholders leading to mutual benefit, and ongoing cooperation
Baseline:   Lack of communication among community tourism groups, and an absence of established relationships to the private sector.
Outputs and Means of Verification:

    Study tour for 39 villagers from 4 communities interested
                                                                               Report - “Intro to Community Tourism” Study Tour
    in sustainable tourism development.
    Village-to-village exchange between 27 tourism group
                                                                               Report - Community Group Exchange Tour
    members from 6 communities.
    96,000 baht to community members generated through                         Appendix 2 - Community Income
    direct income from handicraft sales and study tours
    2 network meetings leading to the creation of village-specific             Report – Network Meeting; Table - Community
    tourism development plans for 4 communities.                               Tourism Development Plan
    30,000 baht leveraged from 6 local NGOs and businesses and               Appendix 2 - Leveraged Funds
    successful application for over 1.4 million baht funding to partner NGOs


Objective 3: Increased promotion capacity for community tourism groups and local businesses
Baseline:   Low levels of independent marketing, often dependent on outside assistance, and lack of promotional materials (except for a
            brochure in Ban Talae Nok).
Outputs and Means of Verification:

    Production of marketing/communication materials including a                Photos for Promotion; Introduction to N-ACT Video;
    32-page full color booklet in Thai and English                             and North Andaman Adventure Handbook
    Promotional trip leading to direct cooperation
                                                                               Report - Business & Government Inspection Tour
    between 5 communities and 9 tour operators
    Increased exposure to promoting organizations, including
                                                                               Media Coverage – TV Shows; Article
    22 media outlets, 6 universities, and 2 tourism associations
    Coordination of a successful $25,000 SEED Award application for
                                                                               Media Coverage - Press release
    community tourism development through Andaman Discoveries

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                  Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast

Project Activities
Monitoring                                                                     Timeline
Initial engagement took place through informal meetings with                                       Apr      May        June      July     Aug       Sep
communities, NGOs, businesses and local government. This generated              Monitoring
summary reports of stakeholders and issues in the form of Community             Networking
Profiles, Business Assessment, and an Initial Situation Analysis.               Development
                                                                                Promotion
Staff considered over 25 sites for inclusion in the project. An extensive
“community assessment checklist” for was compiled from national sources
                                                                               Example Activities
and tailored to local needs. In April, six communities were chosen to
participate as “active” communities for Phase I: Muang Kluang in Kapoe          Event                  Participants Summary
district; Laem Naew, Nakha, Ban Talae Nok in Suksamran district; Pak                                                    Bangkok-based discussion of
Triam and Tung Nang Dam in Kuraburi district. In addition, N-ACT profiled                                               cooperation among national
12 “interested” villages with groups interested, but not yet active, in         National
                                                                                                                        groups working in sustainable
community tourism (two in Kapoe District, two in Suksamran, five in                                         24          tourism, including business
                                                                                Sustainable
Kuraburi, and two on Koh Kor Khao).                                                                       groups        and NGOs. Outputs
                                                                                Tourism Roundtable
                                                                                                                        contributed to use of best
                                                                                                                        practices for ground level
Networking                                                                                                              action.
                                                                                                                        Survey to determine products
Relationship-building between stakeholders was seen as a necessary                                                      offered, current practices, and
prerequisite to cooperation. In May, N-ACT facilitated a series of              Local Tourism
                                                                                                             21         interest in sustainable tourism.
introductory meetings between “active” communities and one-on-one               Business
                                                                                                         businesses     Outputs used to determine
                                                                                Assessment
consultations with local members of government. Network meetings took                                                   partners for Inspection Tour
place in July and August with all six “active” community tourism groups to                                              and promotional materials.
discuss ongoing cooperation and development needs.                                                                      All six N-ACT community
                                                                                                                        tourism groups shared their
Outreach to “interested” communities was ongoing, in order to determine if                                              tour and conservation
community tourism development was appropriate and/or likely to succeed.         Community Group              27         programs, resulting in
Simultaneously, N-ACT hosted a national-level forum on sustainable              Exchange Tour              people       cooperative product
tourism development, and presented at two others (see table for details).                                               development, and detailed
                                                                                                                        discussion of prices and
                                                                                                                        marketing.
Development                                                                                                             Participants from four villages
After bilateral links were created in May, “active” communities took part in                                            visited N-ACT member
a “Community Group Exchange Tour” to each others’ villages in June (see         “Intro to Community                     communities, along with five
                                                                                                             39
table for details). In August, “active” communities hosted “interested”         Tourism” Study                          field staff from Raks Thai. The
                                                                                                           people
villages for a study tour that included mangrove exploration, homestay          Tour                                    trip provided direct experience
                                                                                                                        and discussion of homestays
inspections, and volunteer activities. Both tours allowed communities to                                                and tourism activities.
identify specific areas for capacity development, and learn from                                                        Three day tour for government
neighboring examples.                                                           Inspection Tour for                     and private sector. Outcomes
                                                                                                             24
Throughout August and September, N-ACT assisted “active” communities            Business and                            included direct income, media
                                                                                                           people
in preparing tourism development plans that also served as a foundation         Government                              coverage, and commitments
for Phase II planning. N-ACT staff also wrote a number of successful                                                    from tour operators.
funding applications for partner NGOs, resulting in over 1.4 million baht of                                            Sharing of lessons learned -
                                                                                                                        presentation to international
funding to support community tourism and conservation.                          MTCO Tourism
                                                                                                             52         policymakers and project
                                                                                and Biodiversity
                                                                                                           people       managers on the importance of
                                                                                Forum
Promotion                                                                                                               capacity building for multi-
                                                                                                                        stakeholder processes.
As participation from “active” communities grew in August, N-ACT hosted
an Inspection Tour for businesses, members of the press, and district
                                                                            Summary of Meetings
officers, most of whom had never experienced community tourism before
                                                                             Sector     Meetings Participants                 Examples
(see table for details).
                                                                                                                              Community development,
In September, N-ACT worked with community leaders to create a user- NGOs                  18          41
                                                                                                                              tourism, & conservation
friendly, bilingual handbook of local tourism attractions, that was sent to                                                   Chiefs of district, provincial
                                                                             Government   14          23
responsible tourism guides and select members of the media. A                                                                 departments, TAO members
photographer provided much needed promotional imagery. Unexpectedly, Business                                                 Local/regional businesses,
                                                                                          31          49
N-ACT was invited to assist Kuraburi municipality in setting up a tourism                                                     provincial tourism associations
information facility, and provided information, maps, and photos that were Community                                          Six active and eight interested
                                                                                          52          85
made into displays.                                                                                                           communities in five districts
                                                                                                                              Guidebooks, TV, newspapers,
                                                                                Promotion          8              22
                                                                                                                              magazines, and websites

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                  Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast

Lessons Learned and Constraints
This section identifies features of N-ACT that may be useful in setting up community tourism networks elsewhere. It provides some
insights to the questions of who to work with, how to set up a network, and what can be achieved by a community tourism network.
Lessons learned will be presented through analysis of how core partners were selected, key aspects of how the network was set up, and
strategic outcomes of network cooperation.


Lessons Learned – Choosing the Right Partners

An ever-increasing number of community groups on the North Andaman coast are interested or
active in tourism development, 25 of which were considered for inclusion in N-ACT. Initial
engagement took place through informal meetings with communities, NGOs, businesses and local
government. This generated ground-level assessment tools and summary reports of
stakeholders.

Given the potential for tourism to be co-opted by local elites, and the possible conflicts caused by
unsuccessful community tourism development, N-ACT only engaged with communities that could
answer yes to the following questions:
                                                                                                         “Learn extensively before you act,
Is there tourist access, activities, accommodation, and acceptance from the community?                   develop tourism slowly, and always
Is there a potential market?                                                                             remain open to new ideas.”
Is there a community group with interest and motivation?                                                 Chamni, Nakha Community
Is there a leader with understanding, vision, and willingness to forego personal benefit?

A number of checklists for CBT existed at the national and international levels, but were not tailored to local needs. N-ACT staff profiled
local CBT groups and businesses to determine which factors for success are most important in the target area. Community profiles
described local geography, demographics, livelihoods, history, along with aspects of tourism including current activities, income, and future
plans. This data informed the creation of an extensive checklist with 35 factors of success for community tourism (please see Table 3,
Reference Documents). Based on local data and regional observation, the following factors most strongly influence the success of CBT:
      skill of leadership and participation of members in a CBT group
      diversity and appeal of tourism activities offered
      external support for marketing & promotion
      community-wide benefit from tourism
      direct links between tourism and conservation

Careful selection of target communities has been crucial to N-ACT’s success. In one instance,
N-ACT considered partnering with a well known community development organization to provide
in-village CBT trainings. The target villages proposed by the partner organization, however, did not
meet the selection criterion described above, and, as such, N-ACT staff declined the offer for
cooperation. Wishing to still be of use, N-ACT staff introduced the organization to another NGO          “N-ACT has done a very good job in
capable of proving the necessary trainings. Reports from the third party, however, indicate that the     exposing us to community tourism.”
trainings were unsuccessful due to a lack of participation. As such, N-ACT’s insistence on               Chadathip, Educational Travel Center
selection criteria was reaffirmed.

Similarly, it is important to set standards for private sector involvement to ensure community benefit and to maintain the “added value”
that genuine CBT has over mass tourism. Tourism is essentially a private sector industry, and local communities require business partners
to succeed. Yet, there is a danger that the label of “community-based” tourism could be adopted by the private sector without attention to
the needs of communities (much like “eco” tourism has been adopted without regard to conservation). N-ACT has initiated an ongoing
survey of local and regional tourism businesses to determine products, involvement/interest in eco and community tourism, and
commitment to principles of sustainable tourism. Businesses with a favorable score are included in N-ACT inspection tours and
promotional materials such as the Adventure Handbook. The core elements of the business survey were:
      Natural component of products offered
      Awareness of sustainable tourism
      Active involvement in sustainable tourism
      Customer demand for eco/nature tourism
      Contribution to local community
      Awareness of local community tourism
      Customer demand for community tourism
      Annual volume of tourists


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                   Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast
Lessons Learned – Setting Up a Successful Network
                                                                                                            “There are too many examples
N-ACT was formed with the recognition that CBT is the right form of tourism for both for the current       throughout the developing world
tourism market and for field conditions in the target area. The network setup incorporated local           where tourism development has lead
ownership and locally appropriate methodology.                                                             to an intensive exploitation of land and
                                                                                                           resources, leaving landscapes
                                                                                                           degraded and communities unhinged
Sustainable tourism has the potential to grow to 25% of the world’s travel market within six years,        after just several years of unmanaged
taking the value of the sector to £250 billion (US$473.6 billion) a year (Travel Weekly, 14-07-2006).      tourism and whereby the local tourism
Even with an economic downturn, sales at ResposibleTourism.com increased by 37% in 2007.                   market is often monopolized by the
Despite the growing popularity of sustainable tourism, evidence from numerous failed interventions         outside private sector”.
across Asia suggests that CBT is not always a successful tool for livelihoods development.
                                                                                                           Dirk Steebergen , Natural Resource &
                                                                                                           Environmental Management Centre
On the North Andaman coast, however, an analysis of prevailing socio-economic factors
reveals an opportunity for CBT to succeed. The main incomes in the area are small-scale fishing
and farming, but coastal fisheries are in decline, and large-scale plantations are replacing mixed-
agriculture orchards. As a supplementary livelihood, CBT is a potentially sustainable source of
income that is compatible with the local lifestyle, and depends on the same natural resources that
keep communities healthy. Local evidence indicates that income from CBT is more consistent and
resilient than mass tourism, as it is less seasonal and tends to experience fewer cancellations in
times of uncertainty.

Professor N. Shimizu, an expert in rural tourism development at Hagoromo University in Japan,
interviewed villagers, CBT group members, and government officials in September, 2008 and
identified favorable local conditions for CBT development. Shimizu found that elsewhere in
Asia, income is typically the primary driver of local interest in tourism, leading to contacts with mass
tour operators. In Suksamran and Kuraburi districts, however, locals are less motivated by income,
and interested in smaller scale tourism development. All sources said they expect incremental
development of tourism, and clearly see Phuket and Khao Lak and negative examples. Of Ban                   “Realistically, if you want the local
Talae Nok, Professor Shimizu observed "the coordination balance – tourism management,                      operators and the communities to be
                                                                                                           involved, the network needs to be
community participation, and the contribution to the whole society – is excellent."
                                                                                                           organized on a local level.”

Given the local interest in CBT, N-ACT ensured its successful adoption by utilizing locally                William Tuffin, Laos Ecotourism
appropriate methodology. Knowledge products such as training manuals and self-assessments                  Operators Forum
were tailored for use by a local audience – rural adults with a low level of formal education. Initial
meetings were informal, and without the presence of Western field staff, in order to avoid
expectations of financial benefit. Next, communities were introduced to each other bilaterally, then
visited each other as a group, and finally came together as a network. The informal atmosphere
generated a learning environment based on meaningful interaction instead of academic pursuit.
External facilitation of group meetings was kept to a minimum, and community members managed
95%of the discussion. N-ACT staff skillfully guided the group through quiet and/or confusing
moments with clarifying questions. This style of group learning also contributed greatly to local
ownership of the network – participants recognized form the onset that their level of learning and
benefit depended on their input.

No two communities are the same, and this maxim is especially true when considering the complex
factors of community development. N-ACT provided targeted forms of support to communities
at different stages in development. For example, in Laem Naew, N-ACT focused heavily on
lobbying village leadership in order to build support for the CBT group. In Muang Kluang, on the           “United like this, I believe we can
other hand, most activities were aimed at increasing the participation of group members.                   overcome many obstacles in our
                                                                                                           communities”
Instead of relying on high paid outside trainers, who often lack local perspective, N-ACT leveraged        Anan, Hat Praphat Community
successful local examples of CBT to build capacity in neighboring communities. For example, in
August of 2008, participants from the four interested communities took part in mangrove and forest
tours, homestay, volunteer activities and lively discussions with their hosts. A total of 39 community
members participated, including 17 from communities interested in developing tourism, and 22
residents from the hosting villages of Muang Kluang, Nakha, and Ban Talae Nok. These villages
represented the full spectrum of traditional livelihoods, from upland farmers to coastal fisherman.
Each host community was asked to present an overview of tourism in their village, including
history, activities, management, strengths, and weaknesses. The study tour generated increased
understanding of the process by which CBT develops, and stimulated discussion of its positive and
negative impacts. Raks Thai field staff from 5 nearby communities also took part, and expressed
motivation to apply what they had learned in their own work.

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                   Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast
Lessons Learned – Constraints to Setting Up a Successful Network


                                   Systemic Challenges
                                   Whereas most forms of tourism are based in the private sector, community tourism receives significant
                                   support from NGOs, academia, and government. Generally, the stated goal of these supporting
                                   organizations is to create ongoing, independently-run operations. This requires a transfer of capacity
                                   from organization to community that rarely occurs. Communities are often economically motivated, but
                                   supporting organizations tend to place more importance on social and environmental outcomes. This
                                   fundamental difference in priorities is particularly relevant in poor communities.
While dialogue is occurring among the stakeholders, it is mainly between business and government, and communities typically face
barriers to meaningful participation in tourism planning. Assessments carried out by Thai Research Fund, Thai Environment Institute,
and the Ecumenical Coalition on Tourism, found high community-level interest and numerous possible activities in communities, but also
identified the following challenges:
    Widely scattered information on sustainable tourism and its stakeholders, and a lack of promotional materials
    Low levels of independent marketing, often dependent on outside assistance
    Lack of communication among community tourism groups, and an absence of established relationships to the private sector
Sustainable tourism policy and ecotourism development are emphasized in the official development plans for both Ranong and Phang Nga
provinces. Meeting and feedback from government officials in the N-ACT target area indicate a strong enthusiasm at the TAO level for
CBT, but a poor government-level understanding of sustainable tourism development. As witnessed in Kuraburi district, local
businesses often wait for government support as a pre-condition for success, but the local/regional government usually tends to support
those initiatives that are already successful. This also exacerbates the relationship between government and CBT groups, as community
members perceive that official assistance is only available once a project is successful, after which government claims all the credit.
It is sometimes difficult to network within the private sector, as operators can view each other as competitors, which can make
exchange and cooperation challenging. Moreover, the private sector is often not interested by the challenges of long-term value. Many tour
companies have operated for years without having to address the consequences of unsustainable practices. This trend may be
accelerating due to the number of new companies, and the lack of standards for tour operators in Thailand. Yet, tourism businesses often
rely on nature and culture that they have free access to. The risk of tourism overdevelopment is that these assets may be lost.

                                   Community-level Challenges
                                   Overall, there is insufficient participation in CBT management and product development from
                                   community members. All six active community tourism programs are dependent on a small group of
                                   motivated leaders. Most communities receive a high degree of external support, leading to an
                                   expectation that solutions will be provided by outside agents (i.e. NGO saturation after the tsunami).
                                   Community members are also quite busy with traditional livelihoods and responsibilities. Tourism is,
                                   however, a new activity for residents, and locals do not yet understand the tourism industry, which is
                                   reasonable for a population that has until very recently been exclusively engaged in traditional
                                   livelihoods.
The Pak Triam tourism group, for example, suffers from a high dependency on external support. In 2006, villagers were approached by
L’oreal Cosmetics, who wanted to sponsor a community-run “floating bungalow” as part of their larger tsunami relief campaign. L‘oreal
then hired Momentum, a public relations firm, to implement project. After hurried community consultations, and very little capacity building,
Momentum completed the construction process in early 2007. The result, “Ban Krachang,” is a floating fish farm modified into a rustic
guesthouse with 10 rooms, yet the actual fish pens are too large for aquaculture – rendering of little value if tourism operations cease.
Operating costs are also quite high, as electricity is supplied by diesel generator, and roughly 1,000 baht of water is required per every four
guests. Furthermore, the absence of capacity building has led to deep divisions in the village, and income accruing to only a few families.
Existing politics or conflicts in a village can hinder CBT development. In Ban Talae Nok, the increasing clout of the “village
coordinators” has led to tension between the original leaders of the tourism group, and those now putting the work into community tourism.
This tension arises from a combination of factors including old family disagreements, personal styles, and the fact that tourism income is
elevating the socio-economic position of poorer villagers. In particular, village tourism coordinators point to solid evidence that the chief
and his “people” are unwilling to share government resources and expect a disproportional amount of benefit from tourism. Thus, the
village tourism coordinators may be subtly withholding some benefits from this group.
CBT development can also engender conflicts between communities. For example, Muang Kluang initially agreed to provide referrals
through their information center to nearby communities. Due to unrealistic expectations, however, visitor volume has not been high
enough to send guests to surrounding communities, which has resulted in disappointment and a lack of interest in future cooperation.
An inter-provincial network is unlikely to function in the N-ACT target area. The distance between communities is too far, requiring
untenable time and transportation costs; supporting agencies such as TAT, Dept. of Sport and Tourism and Tourism Associations are all
provincial; and the main source of guests is for CBT operations is different, depending on their proximity to Ranong or Khao Lak.
                                                                                                                                             7
                   Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast
Lessons Learned – Making a Difference

Conservation
Altruistic motivation for conservation is high throughout the N-ACT target area, as
evidenced by the large number of local community groups and NGOs involved in
environmental protection. It is likely that this altruism arises from a relatively sustainable
lifestyle in which local culture and the natural world are fundamentally intertwined. The low
population density and relatively prosperity allow for a conservation ethic that is often
untenable in areas with high levels of poverty or resource degradation.
The interconnections of tourism and conservation in the N-ACT project area have
evolved organically. By recognizing and supporting these linkages, N-ACT has been able
to leverage significant conservation benefits. Community-based tourism can be used to
support conservation on three levels:
      Income from non-extractive utilization of natural resources (passive)
      Using conservation activities as a tourism product with saleable value (active)
      Using tourism as strategic tool to support existing conservation efforts (direct)
As detailed in Appendix 2, the direct income and increased marketing capacity generated
by N-ACT provide tangible benefits from sustainable resource use. The six “active”
communities depend on the natural environment for tourism. All villages offer jungle hikes
and island/snorkel tours, except for Nakha where the sole tourism activity is river rafting.
Guiding, handicrafts, homestays and cultural activities provide income for villagers who
otherwise rely on fishing and forest resource extraction including logging, NTFP collection,
and hunting.
In Ban Talae Nok, the Ecotourism Club has adopted an environmental code that includes
restrictions on cutting trees and trapping wildlife. Considering that 48% of homes in the
village are members of Ecotourism Club, this code has influenced behavioral norms and
created a locally-enforced conservation standard. This code is also discouraging
unsustainable activity by villagers outside of the Ecotourism Club. For example, in July of
2008, a study tour found a number of birds trapped in a mist net, causing distress to the
visiting students. The leaders of the Ecotourism Club spoke with the owner of the mist net,
and he agreed to discontinue the practice, agreeing that mist netting had the potential to
offend and upset visitors. Similar tactics were used earlier in the year to discourage over-
harvesting of mangrove saplings.                                                                   Success Stories
Discouragingly, recent tourism development in Khao Soke, Phang Nga Bay and Koh Surin               In Ban Talae Nok, tourists can join with the
indicate that “eco” tourism is leading to accelerated resource degradation. There is common        youth group to plant mangroves or gather
consensus that, despite good policy, this is occurring due to a lack of ground-level               litter. The waste management program has
protection mechanisms. As such, developing “eco” tourism is not enough – to be truly               generated over 16,000 baht income for the
sustainable, direct links between tourism and conservation must be established.                    youth group in 2008, and its success led to
                                                                                                   adoption of village-wide collection and
The tourism groups in four of N-ACT’s “active” villages also function as conservation clubs,       recycling system.
and support projects including orchid protection, waste management and conservation of
                                                                                                   The Tourism and Conservation group of Tung
an endemic water lily. N-ACT is increasing demand for local conservation activities by
                                                                                                   Nang Dam protects fragile local habitat
linking community tourism groups to the private sector and developing promotional                  including sea grass beds and swampland.
materials, such as the N-ACT Adventure Handbook, that highlight the natural and cultural           Working at a village nursery, tourists can help
resources of the area.                                                                             local guides protect and replant threatened
                                                                                                   native orchids.
For groups already engaged in conservation, N-ACT provides a platform to engage local
stakeholders and educate a wider audience through tourism. For example, the Klong
Nakha Ecotourism Club was formed to conserve the endangered Nakha water lily, which is
found only in Klong Nakha and surrounding rivers. This unusual fresh-water plant has long
leaves that drift gracefully in the river, and delicate white flowers that bloom from October to
December. The Klong Nakha Ecotourism Club is motivated more by a conservation ethic
than income, and any profit is used to sponsor rafting trips for local school children. The
club also sponsors a nursery for the water lilies that is used by youth groups for restoration
activities. Groups of government officials are among the most common visitors, offering
ample opportunities for policy influence, but the Ecotourism group lacks printed education
materials. N-ACT is helping the group to develop promotional and interpretive materials in
Thai and English. To date, N-ACT has facilitated national TV coverage of water lily
conservation, and an interactive study tour from the University of California at Los Angeles.


                                                                                                                                                  8
                  Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast
In addition to encouraging conservation within communities, tourism networks such as N-ACT
can provide conservation solutions and resources. During an August study tour, the
residents of Ton Kloy came to understand Ban Talae Nok’s waste management system, and
are now implementing their own waste program. Working with Mangrove Action project, N-
ACT secured a 620,000 baht grant for the Ban Talae Nok youth group that will allow the
existing mangrove restoration efforts to adopt a multi-species approach.

Conflicts between local communities and protected area managers are common in the N-ACT
area, but tourism can be an area of cooperation. The community of Laem Naew, for example,
has been in conflict with nearby Laem Son National Park for over a decade in regards to
illegal land use and fishing practices. Tourism, however, presented a point of common
interest. N-ACT sponsored discussions between Laem Naew and the park on tourism
development that led to a thawing in relations, and further cooperation on fisheries protection.
High potential exists for future cooperation and information sharing in the area of
conservation. For example, community members from Tung Nang Dam, which is home to a
number of uncommon plant species, were greatly inspired by the success of Nakha’s
conservation efforts. Youth-led conservation in Ban Talae Nok can also serve as a model for
Muang Kluang, where a number of conservation programs are active, but are not yet
developing youth leadership.

Promotion and Knowledge Sharing
In areas with little or no exiting tourism development, it is important to focus on building
market awareness.          With advice from CBT-I and Andaman Discoveries, N-ACT has
identified the following target markets: tour operators, study and volunteer groups, families,
and adventure/eco tourists. Promotional tool and efforts are tailored to reach these targets.
Normally, tourist destinations are presented independently of the communities that surround
them, allowing tour operators to bypass local involvement. By creating a common marketing
identity for the North Andaman coast, N-ACT provides access to a wider array of services
than member communities could provide individually. This collective identity contributes both
to marketing and member empowerment. The bilingual North Andaman Adventure
Handbook, for example, details the natural and cultural splendor of the area. The handbook
presents local communities as the gateway to specific activities, thereby creating a valuable
self-promotion tool. The handbook will also be widely circulated to responsible tourism
promoters and serve as the foundation for a website.
There are, however, inherent dangers that promotion could attract attention from mass
tourism. In order to grow the market in a sustainable direction, N-ACT has engaged in
selective outreach to media partners capable of reaching the target audiences mentioned
above. The network generated media attention in international outlets, including Responsible
Travel Magazine, Travel+Leisure Magazine (New York), CNN.com, and the Sunday Times
(London). National coverage included Capitol TV, Channel 5, NBT TV, the TAT website, and
regional newspapers. Additionally, N-ACT provided information on community tourism to
guidebooks including Lonely Planet, National Geographic, Frommers, the Rough Guide,
Natural Guide, Ethical Travel and the Good Tourist.
Beyond simple promotion, there is much to be learned from the experience of community
tourism on the North Andaman coast. Through knowledge sharing and policy influence N-
ACT is making outputs and lessons learned accessible to all levels of decision makers.
Locally, N-ACT sponsored a study tour for government officers, as many of them had not yet
visited the community tourism programs – resulting in increased government understanding
and commitments to ongoing support. In Kuraburi, government officers asked N-ACT staff to
join the Kuraburi Information Centre advisory committee, with an allocated budget of three
million baht. N-ACT provided extensive informational materials on local responsible tourism
activities. N-ACT also lobbied 23 government officials individually, including the assistant
governor of Phang Nga, the tourism council of Thailand, district chiefs and council members,
protected area managers, and three provincial departments.
N-ACT engaged with the next generation of doers and thinkers by cooperating with a number
of academic institutions including the University of California at Los Angeles, the University
of Birmingham, the University of Hawaii School of Tourism Industry Management, and
Hagoromo University, Japan. For UCLA, N-ACT facilitated cooperative conservation activities
with youth groups from Nakha, Hat Praphat, and Ban Talae Nok.

                                                                                                   9
                  Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast

N-ACT was also able to share lessons learned and influence policy at the national and international levels. A history of post-tsunami
CBT development in the N-ACT target area was featured in Development Asia magazine, an official publication of the Asian Development
Bank (ADB). N-ACT also supplied case study information to the Secretariat of the Convention on Biodiversity for the Global Biodiversity
Outlook-3 that will be published in 2010. In addition to publications, N-ACT presented at a number of meetings, the highlight of which was
a conversation with the Honorable Hilary Ben, Secretary of State for the UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (Defra).
Other presentations:
Topic                                                 Meeting                                     Host Organization
CBT Marketing on the North Andaman Coast              National Forum on CBT Marketing             Community Based Tourism Institute
Capacity Building for Multi-stakeholder Engagement    Tourism and Biodiversity Seminar            Mekong Tourism Coordination Office
Tourism & Mangrove Ecosystems (with study tour)       Scientific and Technical Symposium          Mangroves for the Future
Relief to Self-reliance – CBT after the Tsunami       2008 Responsible Tourism Conference         ICRT India and Leeds University


Facilitating Partnerships

Networks can serve as a valuable tool for group action and coordination. In the N-ACT target
area, however, stakeholders have mostly engaged in direct cooperation, as facilitated by N-
ACT staff. This has generated direct benefit and a platform for ongoing cooperation. As a
result of the “CBT Group Exchange Tour” in August of 2008, community members are now
co-developing CBT products. Muang Kluang agreed to create a “bay tour and picnic lunch”
program that included a visit to Laem Naew. Ban Talae Nok agreed to add rafting at Nakha
River to their list of guest activities, and requested that the group at Nakha recommend them
as the closest accommodation.

N-ACT is generating demand for sustainable tourism products offered by local
communities from regional and national tour operators. Contract rates and product details
were exchanged between five communities and nine tour operators including Exotissimo,
ETC, Greenview, Jansom Resort, Tinidee Resort, North by North East Tours, and Khao Lak
Land Discovery. Andaman Discoveries, for example, is now actively marketing rafting at
Nakha. Koh Ra Ecolodge has agreed to offer hiking and orchid restoration tours to Tung
Nang Dam and kayak trips that will stop at Baan Krachang. N-ACT also promoted local
handicrafts, and secured an order for the Moken boat collective worth 25,000 baht from
Mangroves for the Future.

N-ACT is further facilitating business/community partnerships by developing new CBT
products for local tour operators and ecotourism resorts. At the request of Greenview Tour,
N-ACT has designed a walking tour of the Moken village at Surin Islands National Park and
accompanying information materials in English and German. The tour is designed to provide
an improved customer experience for Greenview while increasing income opportunities for
Moken through handicraft sales. N-ACT is also cooperating with the Koh Ra Ecolodge to
design a guided community tour that will provide income to a village guide and contributions to
a community fund. On nearby Koh Phratong, N-ACT is facilitating the design of a village tour
in Tung Dap that will highlight the island’s traditional fishing lifestyle. Golden Buddha Beach
resort has agreed to supply customers.

N-ACT has also been directly responsible for generating funding resources of 1,475,000
baht. This money will support conservation and CBT development projects that will be
implemented by partner organizations in N-ACT communities. N-ACT helped link Mangrove
Action Project to a number of local projects, including a series of CBT trainings funded by
Raks Thai and the Ecumenical Coalition on Tourism. These trainings focused on CBT as a
tool for natural resource management and included a number of communities in the N-ACT
target area. N-ACT was also responsible for a procuring year-long, EU-funded grant for
environmental education awarded to Mangrove Action Project and Andaman Discoveries.
Working with Andaman Discoveries, N-ACT co-authored the funding application and
implementation plan for the 2009 SEED Awards for Entrepreneurship in Sustainable
Development. SEED will provide $25,000USD to Andaman Discoveries to “expand
employment opportunities, strengthen local economic and cultural activity and promote
sustainable resource management through community based tourism.” Some of this money
will be used to co-fund N-ACT’s Phase II activities, including a website for community
promotion and development of study tours.

                                                                                                                                       10
                   Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast
Beyond providing benefit to local communities, private sectors interventions are creating
business-to-business cooperation in responsible tourism. As a result of the SEED Award,
N-ACT staff accompanied Andaman Discoveries to the World Travel Mart in London in
November 2008. While in London, N-ACT staff engaged in extensive outreach to responsible
tour operators, and secured commitments to send guests to N-ACT communities from Grace
Travel, Billetkontoret Tour, GAP Adventures, and Meet the People Tours. In Thailand, the N-
ACT inspection tour led to cooperation between Exotissimo (a major national tour operator)
and threelocal businesses – Koh Ra Ecolodge, Greenview Travel, and Andaman Discoveries.

Case Study – Ban Talae Nok Ecotourism Club
With assistance from N-ACT, the Ecotourism Club has successfully partnered with
government, businesses, and NGOs. The highlight of this cooperation was successful
application for the Tourism Authority of Thailand’s Best Ecotourism Destination Award for
2008, accompanied by a year of free marketing and promotion. N-ACT encouragement led to
the group’s membership in the provincial Tourism Association – resulting in sponsorship for a
booth at the Thailand Travel Mart, the nation’s biggest tourism industry event.
Other achievements made possible by N-ACT include:
   a study trip for guides and homestay hosts to Koh Yao Noi
   an inspection tour resulting in sales agreements with four tour operators
   editing of a funding proposal for the Department of Sport and Tourism
   conflict resolution in regards to theft from the tourism center
   membership in the Ranong Tourism Business Development Network
   registration as an official community enterprise

Example Activity - Inspection Tour August 22-24, 2008
Select members of government and the private sector visited six villages with tourism
programs. Participants took part in homestays, handicraft workshops, and village-led projects
to conserve mangrove forests and an endemic water lily. The inspection tour was only a three
day event, yet produced a number of positive results beyond sustainable income for
community members. The extensive consultation process beforehand ensured that                       Inspection tours like this motivate me to
participants were informed and ready to engage. Members of the private sector were chosen           develop tourism that will benefit my
through Bangkok meetings and an in-depth survey of businesses in the Kuraburi area. In              community, despite the challenges.”
village, the tour was hosted by chiefs, district council, and the village tourism groups.           - Gasom Laem Naew Village
In brief, the tour produced the following outcomes:
     Commitment from tour operators – agreements to sell community tourism products
      including day tours, cultural tours, homestay, and conservation activities.
     Government recognition – an announcement from Department of Sport and Tourism in
      Ranong that a host village has now been included in provincial development plans.
     Promotion – regional television and newspaper coverage and future support from
      provincial Tourism Associations
     Material contributions – assistance from local tourism businesses for 20% of inspection
      tour costs.

An Evolving Platform – the future of N-ACT
In Phase I, N-ACT’s main focus was on assessment and networking. A great deal of time was
spent engaging with all possible stakeholders. This sorting process generated a repository of
local CBT knowledge, and, more importantly, allowed for identification of potential allies from a
large group of actors. Institutional and community functions (including those in CBT
development) are not always filled by individuals who are genuinely committed to doing a
good job. In order to affect real change, N-ACT has carefully selected partners that have
demonstrated effectiveness and dedication.
Unlike a traditional network that emphasizes collective action, N-ACT also creates individual
linkages under a set of guiding principles. The lessons learned and best practices generated
from these linkages are shared with the network, allowing for collective capacity building
based on direct relationships. The structure of the network during Phase II will be accordingly
flexible, and able to evolve as needed by its beneficiaries. Outputs will include a website for
marketing and promotion, expanded bilateral cooperation, and continued capacity building.
In the long-run, N-ACT will create cooperation mechanisms based on local interest and ability,
thereby not requiring external support.


                                                                                                                                          11
                   Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast

Project Beneficiaries and Sustainability of Initiative
Beneficiaries
Tourism is a cross-cutting sector that when well planned can bring about substantial social, environmental and local economic benefits that
reach the poorer and more vulnerable elements of society including women. Overall benefits to stakeholders are detailed in the table
below. Additionally, N-ACT generated direct income and funding resources worth 1,576,000 baht, as detailed in Appendix 2.




Gender
                                                         Participant                                Benefits
N-ACT recognizes that community tourism                                                             improved capacity in developing and
generates a high degree of benefit for women.            Communities Engaged or Interested          providing sustainable tourism,
Specifically, the network has addressed gender           in Sustainable Tourism Activities          strengthened inter-group relationships,
issues by providing more benefit to women than                                                      and promotion of activities
men, providing in-village income that is compatible                                                 tools for community capacity
                                                         Practitioners of Sustainable Tourism
with women’s traditional roles, and developing                                                      development, sharing of lessons learned,
leadership and self-confidence in women.                 Development (NGO and other)
                                                                                                    cross-NGO cooperation
                                                                                                    access to information about local tourism
The nature of community tourism work leads to a          Government Agencies
                                                                                                    development, understanding of needs in
division of duties along gender lines, with men          (involved in tourism development)
                                                                                                    sustainable tourism dev.
occupying roles as guides and boat drivers, while                                                   understanding of and access to local
women are responsible for food, homestay, and            Sustainable Tourism Businesses
                                                                                                    community tourism activities, ability to
handicrafts. Data from the table below clearly           (operators and promoters)
                                                                                                    provide ongoing outreach and promotion
indicates that the women’s groups in Ban Talae Nok
received significantly higher income than the men’s
groups. In summary, women made 178,745 baht                                  Income for Groups (2008)
                                                         2008 Income to Occupational Groups of the Ban Talae Nok Ecotourism Club
from February through August of 2008, while men
made only 47,370 baht.                                                         45,000
                                                          Income (Thai Baht)




                                                                               40,000                                         home stay+food
                                                                               35,000                                         batik
The lack of village-based income opportunities in                              30,000
Southern Thailand is well documented. Often,                                   25,000                                         soap group
                                                                               20,000
women seeking employment are forced to take                                    15,000
                                                                                                                              local guide
work in nearby towns such as Ranong and Phuket                                 10,000                                         small boat
– disrupting the traditional patterns of village life.                          5,000                                         big boat
                                                                                  -
Handicraft production, homestay hosting, and food
preparation, however, do not conflict with cultural
                                                                                          08
                                                                                           8
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or the elderly. As women are typically the primary                                          Month
household caregivers, income from tourism can
directly affect household income and quality of life.

Recognizing that not all traditional patterns of         Profile: Darunee “Cha” Pakdee, Ban Talae Nok village
village life are positive, N-ACT also builds women’s     Income in 2007: 48,000 baht
leadership capacity. The role of “tourism                Income in 2008: 125,000 baht
coordinator” is filled by women in all six “active”      Duties:
communities. Women also occupy most of the               Homestay Host
leadership positions in the Laem Naew, Ban Talae         Ecotourism Group Coordinator
Nok, and Tung Nang Dam.             Study tours and      Community Center Manager
discussion forums are more commonly attended by
women. For example, women constituted well over          2008 Promotion and Awards:
50% of participants on the “Intro to Community           Winner of TAT’s Annual Tourism Awards
Tourism” and “Community Group Exchange” study            Thai Travel Mart at Queen Sirikit Center
                                                         Study Tour to Satun Province
tours.
                                                         Marketing with Andaman Discoveries


                                                                                                                                            12
                  Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast
Poverty
Tourism is currently a supplementary livelihood in target villages, and as such is only pursued by
                                                                                                          “Tourism, when developed sensitively,
individuals in need of additional income. In this context, N-ACT is focusing on reducing relative         has the potential to have a positive
poverty with respect to basic needs and access to benefits.                                               impact on poverty alleviation.
As mentioned in the previous section on gender, community tourism activities take place in situ           Community-based tourism is often
leaving time for traditional income streams such as small-scale agriculture, animal husbandry, and        more effective in combating poverty
fishing. Community tourism does not require significant re-investment of time or resources, as            than large scale developments as it
families have most of the equipment and knowledge they need to participate. A fisherman’s boat            requires less investment, fewer
and sense of the sea, for instance, prepare him for work as a guide.                                      business skills, and less imported
                                                                                                          goods than large-scale tourism
Tourism-related conservation projects also contribute to poverty alleviation through preservation of      projects.
basic environmental services. Mangrove reforestation, as practiced in Muang Kluang and Ban
                                                                                                          Furthermore, poor communities in
Talae Nok, is critical in restoring mud crab habitat. Mud crabs, in turn, are a key source of             isolated rural locations often have a
sustenance for villagers that cannot afford a long-tail boat or fishing equipment.                        comparative advantage in tourism
Examples of Tourism-related poverty alleviation in Ban Talae Nok:                                         development as they tend to have a
                                                                                                          rich natural and cultural heritage.”
   In 2007, community-based tourism generated 198,755 baht in direct income to members of
    the Ecotourism Club, and another 39,800 baht for the community fund. The Ecotourism Club              From A Toolkit for Monitoring and
    consists of 42 members from 32 households, representing 48% of homes in the village.                  Managing Community-Based Tourism
   In early 2008, a number of villagers wanted to join the Ecotourism Group, but did not have the
    necessary household standards to provide homestay services. In response, the Ecotourism
    group provided loans to three families for beds, mosquito nets, and bathroom improvement.             “Once you start using tourism a
    These families now have an income generating mechanism, and have already paid back the                poverty reduction tool, you have to
    loans.                                                                                                face up to the fact that it can only be
   Waste management in Ban Talae Nok began as a tourist activity supported by the local youth            used as such if focused on sales as
    group. The initial success of the waste management program, and the financial returns of              well as sustainable practices.”
    recycling, motivated all households in the village to participate. This led to Ecotourism Group       Trine Willumsen, Travel to Care
    leaders successfully lobbying the local government to resume garbage collection.


Sustainability
General issues of sustainability will be addressed in N-ACT’s final report. This section focuses on how participatory Monitoring and
Evaluation (M&E) will ensure the sustainability of N-ACT interventions. N-ACT is engaging in a “sustainable performance approach” to
monitoring, that will examine progress in the context of sustainable community development. Over time, these indicators will be used to
determine a response surface for the dimensions of CBT development that best explain a positive outcome, including starting inputs and
their downstream effects.
The M&E process will allow N-ACT and CBT groups to monitor internal operations, diversity and quality of tourism activities, and
stakeholder relationships. Furthermore, the M&E process will help community groups define their vision for the next 2-3 years, make an
action plan, and measure internally whether or not these interventions worked. In this way, M&E will show the evolution of community
capacity for CBT management. Simultaneously, N-ACT will monitor the ongoing development needs of partners and assist with sourcing of
support.
The M&E process will be articulated through periodic data collection and through summary reports, generating discussion at local level and
with regional stakeholders. Data will be gathered on an ongoing basis by N-ACT staff and community members according to a simple
reporting format will show quality, quantity, and cost of outputs. In early 2009, N-ACT will invite local CBT leaders to join an “Advisory
Council” that will meet every 4-6 months to participate in the M&E cycle of action, reflection, and adaptation. Data will be synthesized every
4 months, including major reports at the end of 2008, 2009, and the project’s conclusion. Close attention will be paid to dynamics of social
equality with regards to gender and economic status.




                                                                                                                                               13
              Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast

Appendix 1
 List of Reference Documents


 Table 1   Local Tourism Business Assessment
 Table 2   Contacts Database with Meetings Summary
 Table 3   Community Capacity Checklist
 Table 4   Community Tourism Development Plans


 Report 1 Bangkok NGO Roundtable Meeting
 Report 2 Initial Situation Analysis
 Report 3 Phase 1 Summary for Communities (Thai)
 Report 4 Intro to Community Tourism Study Tour
 Report 5 Community Group Exchange Tour
 Report 6 Business and Government Inspection Tour
 Report 7 MTCO Tourism and Biodiversity Meeting
 Report 8 Network Meeting
 Report 9 Summary Presentation of Phase I (Powerpoint)


 Folder A North Andaman Adventure Handbook
 Folder B Community Profiles
 Folder C Media Coverage (Articles, Press Releases, TV)
 Folder D Manual - Introduction to Marketing Training


 CD 1      Introduction to N-ACT Video
 CD 2      Photos for Promotion




                                                                        14
                  Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast

Appendix 2 - Financial Summary, Community Income, and Leveraged Funds
Total Budget, Phase 1: 630,000 Baht ($20,000 USD at exchange rate of 31.5 baht/USD at time of contract signing)

Spending
Spending Summary (baht)                                         Spending by Category (baht)
   Spending from 17 April to 4 May               39,644             Meetings                                    29,066
   Spending from 5 May to 4 June                 40,727             Study and Inspection Tours                  24,206
   Spending from 5 June to 5 Aug                121,024             Transport                                   42,657
   Spending from 6 Aug to 2 Sep                  17,082             Staff                                      162,284
   Spending from 3 Sep to 23 Sep                 96,523             Communications & Materials                  56,787

Additional Spending (Outside of budget)
   Business & Government Inspection Tour         56,562
   Community Group Exchange Tour                 23,012
   N-ACT Summary Video                            4,195

Leveraged Funds – In-kind Contributions from Local Businesses and NGOs
   Partner                       Contribution    Area of Cooperation
   Koh Ra EcoLodge                     2,800     Transport for Inspection Tour
   Andaman Discoveries                 6,000     Translators for Inspection Tour
   Greenview                           2,000     Guide for Inspection Tour
   CBT-I                               2,000     Transport for Bangkok Meeting
   Andaman Discoveries                12,000     Rent and Internet (4 months)
   Raks Thai                           2,030     Tourism Marketing Presentation
   Raks Thai                           2,800     Transport for Study Tour
   Total                              29,630

Leveraged Funds – Funding Secured for Local Businesses and NGOs
   Partner                       Contribution    Source and Purpose of Funding
   Mangrove Action Project          620,000      EU Grant for Env Education in Ban Talae Nok
   Mangrove Action Project          105,000      Raks Thai funding for CBT Training
   Andaman Discoveries              750,000      SEED Award for CBT Development
   Andaman Discoveries                 5,000     Business from Tour Operators
   Total                          1,480,000
  Note - N-ACT was directly responsible for this funding, for details on other partnerships, please see "Lessons Learnt" section

Community Income
   Partner                                Contribution    Area of Cooperation
   Muang Kluang Tourism Group                  20,050     direct income from study tours
   Ban Talae Nok Tourism Group                 28,200     direct income from study tours
   Nakha Tourism Group                          3,800     direct income from study tours
   Laem Naew Tourism Group                      4,000     direct income from study tours
   Tung Nang Dam Tourism Group                  1,850     direct income from study tours
   Ban Krachang Tourism Group                   7,200     direct income from study tours
   Nakha Youth Club                             3,100     contribution for help with study tours
   Muang Kluang Youth Club                        800     contribution for help with study tours
   Ban Talae Nok Youth Club                       800     contribution for help with study tours
   Moken Boat Handicraft Group                 24,000     order for MFF Symposium
   Ban Talae Nok Tourism Group                  2,000     MFF Symposium study tour
   Total                                       95,800

                                                                                                                                   15
                 Developing Community Tourism on the North Andaman Coast
Detailed Budget
Meetings and Staff                                                  Communications, Materials, and Study Trips
    Date    Amount    Item                                              Date    Amount    Item
    28-Apr   1,330    gas                                               17-Apr   1,500    logo design - Erik Rogers
    29-Apr     700    car rental – NATR Co., Ltd.                       30-Apr   1,200    business cards
    29-Apr     360    dinner for hosts (in lieu of hotel room)           1-May     104    Copies of materials at Refcoftc library
    29-Apr   1,650    gas                                              05-May      380    Name cards
    30-Apr     700    car rental – NATR Co., Ltd.                        7-May   1,150    bird books for Nakha Ecotourism Club
    30-Apr   2,189    travel to/from meeting (for Jim Enright)           7-May      30    transfer fee for bird books
    30-Apr   1,950    ticket for S. Malee (Bangkok Meeting)              7-May      80    stationery
    1-May      700    car rental – NATR Co., Ltd.                        7-May     120    paper
    1-May       40    expressway toll                                  08-May       50    letters to Ranong Tourism Association
    1-May    1,600    gas                                                9-May   1,000    Ink for printer
    1-May      360    lunch for hosts (in lieu of hotel room)           21-Jun     159    computer cords
   20-May    1,808    reimbursement to CBT-I for travel expenses        21-Jun     970    phone
   20-May       30    transfer fee to CBT-I                             30-Jun     600    phone expense June (N. Sektheera)
     01-Jul    600    meeting transport (gas for Nakha)                 30-Jun   3,000    AD Rent and Internet
     10-Jul  1,050    copies for meeting (CBT Handbook)                  02-Jul    125    Paper (1 Ream)
     11-Jul    330    food for community meetings                        15-Jul  3,100    binoculars for Nakha Youth Group
     24-Jul    600    meeting transport (gas for Muang Kluang)           30-Jul    450    phone expense July (N. SekTheera)
     24-Jul    200    meeting transport (gas for Ban Talae Nok)        01-Aug       50    copies
     24-Jul    300    Community Center fee for meeting (Nakha)         04-Aug    4,600    ink cartridges and computer repair
     24-Jul    500    meeting transport (gas for Laem Naew)            05-Aug       35    envelopes
     24-Jul  2,000    food & coffee for meeting (25 pax)                 8-Aug   2,000    graphic design - Nathaniel Needham
   30-Aug      199    lunch enroute to BKK                             27-Aug       37    EMS Fees
   31-Aug      249    lunch in BKK                                     27-Aug      200    blank CDs for Fam trip photos
   10-Sep    3,771    flight HKT-BKK rountrip                          29-Aug       45    CD envelopes
   13-Sep      600    boat to Tung Dap for village meeting             29-Aug      450    phone (Nattaya Sektheera)
   19-Sep    3,300    Per Diem - Food, Accom, Transport (3 days)       29-Aug    1,050    books from Andaman Discoveries
    28-Apr   6,000    field research - Sunthorn Thongprasert           10-Sep       72    mailing letters
    1-May    7,284    April stipend – Piyawich Budhagesorn             13-Sep    5,980    ink for printer
   05-May    5,500    April stipend – Nataya Sektheera                 16-Sep    1,000    video production fee
     3-Jun 10,000     Mai - May salary (8000 adv, 2000 owed)           22-Sep    1,750    AD ink and paper
     3-Jun 22,000     Nat - May salary                                 23-Sep      300    phone - Nattaya Sektheera
    23-Jun   3,000    contract labor (S. Thongprasert)                 23-Sep 25,200      contract labor - Bodhi Garrett (9 days)
    30-Jun   4,000    contract labor (P. Budhagesorn)                  01-Aug    2,010    copies for meeting (CBT Handbook)
    30-Jun 44,000     salary June and July (N. Sektheera)              02-Aug      500    coffee and snacks (Nakha)
   29-Aug 16,500      salary (Nattaya Sektheera, 75% time)             02-Aug    3,000    lunch and snacks (Muang Kluang)
   15-Sep 11,000      salary, 2 weeks - Nattaya Sektheera              02-Aug      500    guide - Muang Kluang
   15-Sep 25,000      bonus, 5 months - Nattaya Sektheera              02-Aug    1,600    meeting transport (gas for Tom Kloy)
   23-Sep    5,000    contract labor - Nattaya Sektheera (4 days)      03-Aug    4,250    van for study tour
   11-Nov 315,000     contract labor – Bodhi Garrett (6 months)        03-Aug 12,346      homestay, activities, food (Ban Talae Nok)



Transportation
      Date   Amount   Item                                               Date    Amount    Item
     8-Apr      700   gas                                              29-Jun     2,000    gas for interested study tour
     9-Apr    1,016   bus tickets                                       02-Jul      650    gas
    11-Apr      700   car rental – NATR Co., Ltd.                       20-Jul       90    bus to Ranong
    11-Apr     1000   gas                                               21-Jul      400    gas
    14-Apr      300   gas                                               25-Jul      300    tractor for Tung Dap meetings
    21-Apr      700   car rental – NATR Co., Ltd.                       25-Jul      600    Boat to Tung Dap for meetings
    23-Apr      700   car rental – NATR Co., Ltd.                       26-Jul      400    ferry to/from Koh Kho Khao
    23-Apr    1,405   gas                                               30-Jul    3,500    car rental July (N. SekTheera)
   03-May     1,310   gas                                               31-Jul       40    taxi highway fee
   04-May       700   car rental – NATR Co., Ltd.                      01-Aug       175    bus to Kuraburi
   05-May     1,000   gas                                              11-Aug       800    gas
    9-May       350   car rental - half day                            19-Aug     1,290    gas
    9-May       300   gas                                              21-Aug     1,020    gas
   18-May       160   bus and taxis in Ranong                          23-Aug       800    gas
   18-May       105   bus to Kuraburi                                  26-Aug     1,310    gas
   21-May       350   car rental - half day                            28-Aug     1,830    gas
   21-May       700   gas                                              29-Aug     1,050    car rental - Nattaya Sektheera
   25-May       700   car rental                                       30-Aug     6,666    flight HKT-BKK roundtrip
   30-May       310   bus and motorcycle taxis - Ranong                 3-Sep       530    gas
    04-Jun      500   boat to Laem Naew                                23-Sep     1,500    gas - Nattaya Sektheera
    04-Jun    1,200   gas                                              23-Sep     2,100    car rental - Nattaya Sektheera




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