l3_05_organizing_ideas by wangnianwu

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									         Prewriting: Organizing Ideas

Introduction
Planning your organization
   Chronological order
   Spatial order
   Logical order
   Order of importance
Creating an outline

Your Turn 1: Choose an order
Your Turn 2: Arrange ideas
                     Introduction

              Have you ever baked a cake?




It’s not hard, but for the best results it helps if you plan
ahead. The same holds true for writing.
                    Introduction

You may wonder how you can turn the ideas and
information you’ve collected for your topic from a
disorganized mess into a coherent composition.



Organizing your
ideas makes order
out of chaos.
           Planning your organization

Writing the first draft of your paper will be much easier
if you first plan the organization your work will
follow.

                         Here is one way to plan your
                         organization: Copy the ideas
                         and information you’ve
                         gathered onto note cards.
                         Then, move the cards around,
                         placing them in different
                         positions, until you find an
                         organization that works.
           Planning your organization

Most writing uses one or a combination of the
following organizational patterns:
 •   Chronological order
 •   Spatial order
 •   Logical order
 •   Order of importance
            Planning your organization
                        Chronological order

Use chronological order to tell a story or explain a
process. Present actions and events in the order in
which they take place—first to last, earliest to latest,
and so on.
               Growing Sweet Peas



    Protect seedlings            Soak seeds in water
    from birds and               overnight; plant an
    slugs                        inch deep

                                  Dig trenches in full
   Keep seeds damp
                                  sun; fill with good
   until they sprout
                                  soil
              Planning your organization
                       Chronological order

Another strategy for arranging ideas in chronological
order is to use a sequence chart or time line.
       sequence chart

                          Dig trenches;         Soak seeds in
       Buy
                          fill with good       water overnight
      seeds
                                soil



                            Keep seeds       Plant seeds an inch
   Protect seedlings
                            damp until        deep; cover with
    from birds and
                            they sprout           good soil
   slugs; enjoy the
       flowers!
    Planning your organization
             Chronological order



time line




   Stage 1    Stage 2   Stage 3    Stage 4
            Planning your organization
                       Spatial order

Use spatial order to describe a place, a person, or an
object. Arrange your details or ideas according to their
location in space:               Layers of Skin
• top to bottom,
  bottom to top
                                           outside to inside
• near to far,
  far to near          Epidermis: outer     Dermis: contains
• left to right,       layer; new skin      blood vessels and
                       cells formed here    sweat glands
  right to left
• inside to outside,
  outside to inside    Hypodermis: the
                       deepest layer;
                       helps insulate
           Planning your organization
                        Spatial order

In addition to using note cards, you can use a circle
diagram or web diagram to show ideas in spatial
order.
       circle diagram
 Layers of               epidermis                  outside
 Skin                     dermis



                        hypodermis                  inside




   inside to outside                    outside to inside
     Planning your organization
              Spatial order

web diagram
                 Top
               suitcases
              decorations


  Left                        Right
  tools         garage        mower
workbench                     pruner



               Bottom
                  car
                 bikes
           Planning your organization
                     Logical order

You’ll use logical order when you want to explain or
classify. Group related details or ideas together to show
their relationship.
• defining
                            Skates have      Form is
• dividing a topic                           important
  into parts               longer blades
                                         Skates have
• comparing and           Hockey stick, shorter blades
  contrasting            helmet, skates       Speed is
                                              important
                             No equipment
                             besides skates
           Planning your organization
                      Logical order

You’ll use logical order when you want to explain or
classify. Group related details or ideas together to show
their relationship.
                             Figure           Hockey
• defining
                             Skating
                             Skates have     Form is
• dividing a topic                           important
  into parts                longer blades
                            Skates have      Skates have
                           longer blades Skates have
                                            shorter blades
• comparing and           Hockey stick, shorter blades
  contrasting            helmet, skates
                             Form is          Speed is
                                             Speed is
                           important        important
                                             important
                              No equipment
                             besides skates
                         No equipment      Hockey stick,
                         besides skates   helmet, skates
          Planning your organization
                   Logical order

Charts or Venn diagrams are also good ways to
organize ideas and details in logical order.
      chart
                    Figure
                                      Hockey
                    Skating

      Skates      longer blades    shorter blades

                                    hockey stick,
    Equipment        skates
                                   helmet, skates
      Form or
                      form             speed
      Speed?
    Planning your organization
                  Logical order


Venn diagram


    Figure Skating               Hockey
• skates have                     • skates have
  longer blades      Skate in       shorter blade
                     a rink or
• form is           on a pond     • speed is
  important                         important
                       Wear
• no equipment        skates      • hockey stick,
  besides skates                    helmet, skates
            Planning your organization
                    Order of importance

Use order of importance when you want to inform or
persuade readers. Arrange your ideas from least to
most important or least to most powerful (or vice
versa).
                      most important      least important
                                          Arrive at the
  Dress              Turn off your cell
                                          interview 10
  appropriately 1       phone 3
                                          minutes early 4

   Before, think      Be courteous to
                                            Shake hands
  about possible       everyone you
                                            firmly 6
   questions 2          encounter 5
          Planning your organization
                 Order of importance

Another way to arrange your ideas in order of
importance is to use a pyramid diagram.

                 dress appropriately
                                                    most
            think about possible questions
                                                  important
                  turn off cell phone
                     arrive early

                    be courteous
                   firm handshake       least important
                Creating an outline

With some types of      Thesis: Preparing for a job interview is
writing, such as        not difficult when you follow a few
fact-based              basic steps.
informative writing,    I. Prepare for possible questions.
an outline can be          A. Consider the kind of job you
helpful in organizing         are interviewing for.
both broad ideas                 1. research the company
                                 2. think about why you want
and specific details.               to work there
                                 3. how are you a good fit?
                           B. Don’t memorize your answers.
                                 1. know your main points
                                 2. be ready to explain your
                                    answers
         Your Turn 1: Choose an order


What kind of organization—spatial, logical,
chronological, order of importance—would you use in
writing about each of the topics below? Be prepared to
discuss your answers.

1. a description of your favorite outdoor place
2. the events of a typical summer day
3. what you would do with one million dollars
4. comparing and contrasting two favorite animals
           Your Turn 2: Arrange ideas


Choose one of the topics below and brainstorm some
ideas for writing about that topic. Come up with 10–12
ideas. Then, use one of the graphic organizers
presented in this lesson to arrange your ideas.

1. a description of your favorite outdoor place
2. the events of a typical summer day
3. what you would do with one million dollars
4. comparing and contrasting two favorite animals
The End

								
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