John Hattie Confident Students 2011 by 0K3gdl


									RADII National Professional Learning Series

        Effective Teaching Practices for

   Developing Confident Independent Learners

        Learning to Thrive and Survive in

          Challenging Circumstances
                                  University of Melbourne
How to know when it is 11.30

1.   Set the scene as to what works

2.   The major self attributes of learning

3.   The teaching practices that led to confident learners
            1. Set the scene as to what works


Decreased                     Zero              Enhanced
        Reducing class size on achievement?

  What is the effect of reducing class size?

  Hundreds of evaluations of reducing class size …

Decreased                        Zero                Enhanced
            Effect on achievement over time?

                                                         reducing class size

                                                        0.2                               1.0

Decreased                                    Zero                                 Enhanced

              An effect-size of                                           .20       1.0
              advancing achievement                                      9 mths    3 yrs
              % improving rate of learning                                10%       45%
              r variable & achievement                                    .10       .45
              % of students with treatment exceeding those not treated     8        34
    The typical influence on achievement

So what is the typical effect across

       800+ meta-analysis

       50,000 studies, and

       200+ million students?
            Effect on achievement over time?

                                                typical effect size

                                       0.2     0.4                    1.0

Decreased                       Zero                           Enhanced
                     Distribution of effects


        No. of Effects




Personality & Dispositions
The effects of attitudes & dispositions






       The Big Five







       extraversion   neuroticism   openness to   agreeableness conscientiousness
                 The disasters ...

Rank              Influence               Studies   Effects   ES
120               Mentoring                 74        74      .15
121           Teacher education             85       391      .12
122            Ability grouping            500      1369      .12
123                Gender                  2926     6051      .12
124                  Diet                   23       125      .12
125    Teacher subject matter knowledge     92       424      .09

132      Student control over learning      65        38      .04
133          Open vs. Traditional          315       333      .01
134           Summer vacation               39        62      -.09
136               Retention                207      2675      -.16
137               Television                37       540      -.18
138                Mobility                181       540      -.34
             Low to middlin’
70             Time on Task             100    136    .38
71     Computer assisted instruction    4899   8914   .37
75    Attitude to Mathematics/Science   288    664    .36

90    Exercise/Relaxation programs      227    1971   .28
99           Summer school              105    600    .23
106              Class size             96     785    .21
107           Charter Schools           18      18    .20
108   Aptitude/treatment interactions   61     340    .19
109             Personality             234    1481   .19

116        Within class grouping        129     181   .16

51         Motivation         327    979    .48
52     Early Intervention     1704   9369   .47
53        Questioning         211    271    .46
54    Pre school programs     358    1822   .45
55     Quality of Teaching    141    195    .44
57    Teacher expectations    674    784    .43
59        Self-concept        324    2113   .43
60   Mathematics programs     706    2404   .43
63    Cooperative learning    306    829    .41
65   Social skills programs   540    2278   .40
66     Reducing anxiety       121    1097   .40
Exciting ...

30              Worked examples         62     151    .57
31             Home environment         35     109    .57
32             Socioeconomic status     499    957    .57
33              Concept mapping         287    332    .57
34              Challenging Goals       604    820    .56
36                Peer tutoring         767    1200   .55
          Cooperative vs. competitive
37                 learning             1024   933    .54
39             Classroom cohesion       88     841    .53

41               Peer influences        12     122    .53
43       Outdoor/ Adventure Programs    187    429    .52
49              Engagement              146    587    .48
Among the winners ...

11   Teacher-Student relationships      229   1450   .72
     Self-verbalization & Self-
18   questioning                        113   1150   .64
21   Not labeling students              79    79     .61
      Cooperative vs. individualistic
23   learning                           774   284    .59
25   Direct Instruction                 304   597    .59
27   Phonics instruction                447   5990   .58
The winners ...

Rank              Influence              Studies   Effects   ES

 1          Student expectations          209       305      1.44
 3      Providing formative evaluation     30        78      .90
 5              Acceleration               37        24      .88
 6          Classroom behavioral          160       942      .80
 8             Teacher clarity             na        na      .75
 9           Reciprocal teaching           38        53      .74
 10               Feedback                1287     2050      .73
               Identifying what matters

               Percentage of Achievement Variance


               Schools   Principal
     Visible Teaching – Visible Learning

When teachers SEE learning through the eyes of the student

 and when students SEE themselves as their own teachers.
2.   The major self attributes of learning
The ROPE model
Students are ...

•   Choosers
•   Reputation enhancement
•   Want a sense of predictability
•   Open to experience (or not)

Leading to the processes of self
1 of 9. Self-efficacy
the confidence or strength of belief that we have in
 ourselves that we can make our learning happen

                    • see hard tasks as challenges rather than
      High            trying to avoid them,
                    • see failures as a chance to learn and to
  self-efficacy       make a greater effort or look for new
                      information next time.

                    • more likely to avoid difficult tasks, which
                      they view as personal threats
      Low           • have low or weak commitment to goals
                    • See failures as chance to dwell on personal
  self-efficacy       deficiencies, obstacles encountered, or deny
                      personal agency,
                    • are slow to recover their sense of confidence
2 of 9: Self- handicapping
         when students choose impediments or obstacles to
        performance that enable them to deflect the cause of
       failure away from their competence on to the acquired
      Examples include
      the choice of performance-debilitating circumstances
      engaging in little or no practice for upcoming tasks
      choosing low-challenge goals
      exaggerating obstacles to success
      strategically reducing effort.
      We can reduce by
      providing more success in learning
      reducing the uncertainty about learning outcomes
      teaching students to become better monitors of their own learning
 3 of 9: Self-motivation
Self-motivation can be towards intrinsic or extrinsic attributions—is the
 learning itself the source of satisfaction or are perceived rewards the
                          sources of satisfaction

                      - the greater the investment in learning which
                     then leads to greater learning gains
                     •How do I reinvest in learning more
                     •How do I move to the next more challenging task
                     •Now I understand

                       - greater shallow learning of the surface features,
                      completion of work regardless of the standard,
                      and completing work for the sake of praise or
                      similar rewards
                      •Is this on the test
                      •Do I get a sticker
                      •Is this enough to pass”
4 of 9: Goals

              • students aim to develop their competence,
 Mastery        and consider ability as something that can
                be developed by increasing effort

              • students aim to demonstrate their
                competence particularly by outperforming
Performance     peers, and consider ability to be fixed and
                not malleable or able to be changed

              • students are most concerned about how
   Social       they interact with, and relate to others in
                the class.
Goals – Approach or Avoidance

             • Mastery approach is striving to learn
               the skills
             • Performance approach is striving to
 Approach      outperform others
             • Social approach is striving to work with
               others in learning

             • Mastery avoidance is striving to avoid
               learning failures
             • Performance avoidance is striving to
 Avoidance     doing worse than others
             • Social avoidance is striving to work with
               others to avoid learning
5 of 9: Self-dependence

               • students become dependent on adult
  Occurs       • students can aim to do everything the
  when ...       teacher asks of them to the point that they
                 do not learn how to self-regulate, self-
                 monitor, and self-evaluate.

               • While they may gain esteem and success on
                 tasks by attending to these directives, their
                 longer term success is far from assured
Implications     when these directives are not present

               • Many students work for extrinsic reasons,
                 develop gifted self-dependent strategies,
                 and start to fail when they are expected to
                 regulate their own learning (especially
                 when they attend university).
6 of 9: Self-discounting & distortion
               • students “dismiss” information
                 such as praise, punishment, or
 WHEN            feedback as not valuable,
                 accurate, or worthwhile

               • a teacher tells a student that xx
                 is doing a great job, the
                 student’s discounts by claiming
                 • she always says that
 WHEN            • she’s only trying to make me
                    feel good
                 • it’s only because it is neat,
                    not correct
7 of 9: Self-perfectionism

    we can set such demanding standards for ourselves such that when they
                         are not met, we see it as failure

    we can demand the resources be perfect and blame absence of resources
                      (e.g., time) when we do not succeed

      we can procrastinate because conditions are not perfect for success

    we can attend to irrelevant details and over zealously invest time in tasks
                  that may not worth the increased investment

    we demand an ‘all or nothing” approach believing the task is not at all or
                          very much worth completing
8 of 9: Hopelessness
   refers to the student expecting that achievement gains will not
  occur for them and that they are helpless to change the situation

student avoids and does not engage in achievement tasks,
protects their sense of self by gaining reputation or success
from other activities (e.g., naughty behaviour)
does not see that achievement gains are due to their actions
or in their control
considers beliefs are not readily changeable
learns to not value school learning
often results from contexts which are harsh, overly
demanding, or punitive
 9 of 9: Social comparison
  Students often monitor others’ behaviour for
   cues and attributions to explain or enhance
          their own conceptions of self
              • successful students have a high math self-concept in an
Big Pond        average class
              • but after being sent to a gifted class, self-concept could
Little Fish     plummet as they now compare themselves with this new
              • ... teach such students that they can have multiple sources
                of comparison
              • Students compare to those less fortunate than
                themselves, & present themselves as more
 Public         confident to impress others and maybe even
boasting      • Public boasting can create an impression of
                competence and engender dislike of the student by
                peers, particularly when they become aware of that
                student’s poor performance.
Positive dispositions leading to +ve learning gains

                 • invoke learning rather than performance
                 • accept rather than discount feedback

                 • set benchmarks for difficult rather than
                   easy goals
                 • compare their achievement to subject
                   criteria rather than to other students

                 • develop high rather than low efficacy to
                 • effect self-regulation and personal control
                   rather than learned hopelessness
The three major messages for teachers
3.   The teaching practices that led to confident learners
     MINDFRAME 1 of 8 Teachers/leaders as

A disposition to asking …

How do I know this is working?
How can I compare ‘this’ with ‘that’?
What is the merit and worth of this influence on
What is the magnitude of the effect?
What evidence would convince you that you are
Where have you seen this practice installed so that it
produces effective results?
MINDFRAME 2 of 8 - it’s about the teacher’s/leader’s
                  mindset, not the kids

                                                     Don’t blame the kids
                Social class/ prior achievement is surmountable
                All students can be challenged
                Strategies not styles
                Develop high student expectations
                Enhance help seeking
                Develop assessment capable students
                The power of developing peer interactions
                The power of critique/error/feedback
                Self-regulations and seeing students as teachers
MINDFRAME 3 of 8 teachers/leaders as change agents

  Achievement can be changed &
   enhanced vs. it is immutable & fixed

  Teaching as an enabler not a barrier

  The power of learning intentions

  The power of success criteria
                      The contrasts

 An active teacher, passionate for their subject and for
  learning, a change agent


 A facilitative, inquiry or discovery based provider of
  engaging activities
                     Activator or Facilitator?

An activator                               A facilitator

Reciprocal teaching                        Simulations and gaming
Feedback                                   Inquiry base teaching
Teaching students self-verbalization       Smaller class sizes
Meta-cognition strategies                  Individualised instruction
Direct instruction                         Problem-based learning
Mastery learning                           Different teaching for boys and girls
Goals –challenging                         Web-based learning
Frequent / effects of testing              Whole Language Reading
Behavorial organizers                      Inductive Teaching
                      Activator or Facilitator?

An activator                       ES     A facilitator                       ES

Reciprocal teaching                .74    Simulations and gaming              .32

Feedback                           .72    Inquiry base teaching               .31

Teaching students self-verbalization.67   Smaller class sizes                 .21

Meta-cognition strategies          .67    Individualised instruction          .20

Direct instruction                 .59    Problem-based learning              .15

Mastery learning                   .57    Different teaching for boys and girls.12
Goals –challenging                 .56    Web-based learning                  .09

Frequent / effects of testing      .46    Whole Language Reading              .06

Behavorial organizers              .41    Inductive Teaching                  .06

                     .60                                   .17
    MINDFRAME 4 of 8
    Teachers/leaders gaining feedback about themselves

   Feedback is information provided by an agent (e.g., teacher, peer, book,
    parent, self/experience) regarding aspects of one’s performance or
     MINDFRAME 5 of 8
     AFT = Assessment as feedback to teachers

   Who did you teach well, who not so well
   What did you teach well, not so well
   Where are the gaps, strengths, achieved, to be achieved
   Levels and Progress
   Developing a common conception of progress
      MINDFRAME 6 of 8
     Challenge or “do your best”

   Maintain the challenge
   Power of learning intentions
   Power of success criteria
Dialogue not Monologue
It’s about “not knowing”/error: relationships in
                    Build trust and rapport
The importance of   Student more than teacher questioning
  error and not     Teacher clarity, support, and What’s next
   knowing …        Peer teaching, assessment, learning
                    It’s more about the learning than the teaching
     What some teachers/leaders do!

 Clear learning intentions
 Challenging success criteria
 Range of learning strategies
 Know when students are not progressing
 Providing feedback
 Visibly learns themselves
Such that students …

 Understand learning intentions

 Are challenged by success criteria

 Develop a range of learning strategies

 Know when they are not progressing

 Seek feedback

 Visibly teach themselves
That is how you build
 confident learners

                   Thank you

          Break out Session – Design the one page checklist

a.       A simple one-page checklist
         wash hands, introduce each other, timing expected ...

         Reduce complication 3%, reduce death 47%

b.Video of seniors talking about how hard first year, went backwards, but
kept going and now doing well – due to unstable causes that dissipated,
such as unfamiliarity

         compared no to presence of attribution

         Higher GPA and 80% reduction in drop outs

c.Given difficult problems and one group ability feedback, one effort
feedback, and neutral feedback.

     Effort 30% more problems, neutral 0%, and ability 30% fewer

WHAT IS YOUR ONE PAGE CHECKLIST re building confidence
What do you think challenge means?
You are asked to teach a unit on light
    and sound to Year 9 students

   What would be some learning
   intentions and success criteria
                  Learning Intentions                                 Success Criteria
SLO 1: Recognize that light and sound are types of energy which are detected by ears and eyes.
Uni/               Recognize that light/sound are       I can name one/or more
multistructural    forms of energy and they have        properties of light and sound
Relational         Know that sound/light can be         I can explain how light/sound is
                   transformed into other forms of      transformed into other types of
                   energy                               energy
Extended           Understand how light/sound           I can discuss how light/sound
Abstract           allows us to communicate             enables us to communicate

SLO 2: Be able to draw a normal, measure angles and define the Law of Reflection
Uni/               Be able to draw ray diagrams         I can draw a ray diagram with
multistructural    including the normal with            correctly measured angles
                   correctly drawn angles

Relational         Be able to define the Law of         I can define the ‘Law of Reflection’
                   Reflection linking the terms         linking the terms incidence and
                   incidence and reflected ray          reflected ray, normal and smooth
Extended           Can recognize that the Law of        I can predict what will happen if
abstract           Reflection is true for all plane     light is reflected off a rough
                   surfaces and can predict what will   surface and why it happens
                   happen if the surface is rough
       Which are you? Can you recognise the others?

Four major factors            Example             Teacher motivations or strivings
                     I learned something new
                      about myself, students’
mastery approach     questions made me think      to demonstrate superior teaching ability

                       My class scored higher
                       than other classes, my         to learn and acquire professional
ability approach      lesson plan was the best             understandings and skills

                       My students’ didn’t ask
                      hard questions, my class
                     did not do worse on exam,
work avoidance         my class is not furthest    to avoid the demonstration of inferior
approach                       behind                             ability

                      I didn’t need to prepare
                      lessons, I got by without
ability avoidance       working hard, I didn’t
approach               have any work to mark       to get through the day with little effort

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