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Harry Truman and the Cold War

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					Harry Truman and the Cold War
        Discussion Questions
 What was the fundamental cause of the Cold
  War? Would the Cold War have happened if
  Roosevelt instead of Truman had been
  president?
 Was the primary threat from the Soviet Union
  military or ideological-that is, was the danger
  that the Russian army would invade Western
  Europe or that more and more people in Europe
  and elsewhere would be attracted to Communist
  ideas?
    Key Concepts of the Cold War
 Conflicting U.S. and Soviet postwar
  objectives
 U.S. sought to contain communism in
  Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa
 Second Red Scare (McCarthyism) led the
  public to believe that there were
  communists seeking to undermine
  American institutions
    Key Concepts of the Cold War
 U.S. succeeded in containing communism
  in Europe.
 U.S. was unable to contain the spread of
  communism to China, but did so in South
  Korea.
    When did the Cold War Begin?
 Before WWII ended.
 Yalta Conference (February 1945)
    – Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt
    – Stalin pledged war on Japan
    – U.S., U.S.S.R., and Britain would divide Germany and
      jointly govern Berlin
    – Stalin promised to hold free elections in conquered
      territories
    – Soviets refused to remove troops from an oil-rich Iran
      Atlantic Charter (1941)
 Affirmation of the right of self-government
  for all
 Economic security
 Free access to trade
 Reaffirmation of Wilson’s vision of
  freedom of the seas, freedom from fear of
  aggression
 Establishment of a permanent system of
  general security
George Kennan: American Diplomat
 Warned Truman that the Soviets would
  spread influence if given the opportunity.
 Foundation for the containment policy
Cold War Alliances
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
              (NATO)
      Soviet and American postwar
        Objectives and Priorities
 Reconstruction of the economy: Soviets demanded $20
  billion from Germany in reparations
 Military competition: nuclear arms race
 Self-defense: Soviets created a buffer zone known as the
  Soviet-bloc
 U.S. needed cheap energy: U.S. helped to overthrow the
  government in Iran to insure a cheap oil supply
 Reconstruction of Europe: U.S. goal to help the
  economies of countries such as France, Britain, Norway,
  the Netherlands, Denmark, Greece, and Germany
    – Would be able to repay war debts
    – Eventually benefit trade with the U.S.
    – Containment of communism
    Responses to the Cold War
 Diplomatic battles over Poland and
  Germany
 Truman Doctrine
 Marshall Plan
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
 Formation and arming of West Germany
       Discussion Questions
 What was legitimate concern and what
  was hysterical “witch-hunting” in the
  postwar wave of domestic
  anticommunism?
 Why was the Korean War such a
  frustrating experience for Americans?

				
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