INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT by linxiaoqin

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									          INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP
                   AND
         COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

      (BACHELOR OF APPLIED HUMAN
              SERVICES)



Submission to the Ontario Postsecondary Education Quality
                   Assessment Board

                  Applied Degree Programs
     Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology




            Date of Submission: May 6th, 2002
Quality Assessment Panel Nomination Table

Name and Full Address   Contact Information       Academic      Professional        Nominee Accepted Arm’s Length
                                                  Credentials   Designations        Organization’s   from
                                                                                    Nomination       Organization for
                                                                                                     Past Seven
                                                                                                     Years

1. Naomi Adelson        Ph. 416-736-2100          Ph. D (1992) Associate                   Yes              Yes
   Department of        Ext. 22327                Anthropology Professor,
   Anthropology
   2054 Vari Hall       Fax                                     Chair (Designate)
   York University      416-736-5768                            July 1, 2002
   4700 Keele Street
   Toronto, Ontario     nadelson@yorku.ca
   M3J 1


2. Jim Albert           Ph. 613-259-2479          B. Sc. (Math) Adjunct Professor          Yes              Yes
   R.R. # 3, Lanark,                              MSW
   Ontario              Jalbert@ccs.carleton.ca   DSW
   K0G 1K0
Name and Full Address      Contact Information          Academic       Professional       Nominee Accepted Arm’s Length
                                                        Credentials    Designations       Organization’s   from
                                                                                          Nomination       Organization for
                                                                                                           Past Seven
                                                                                                           Years

3. William James           Ph.613-761-3687              M. Sc. Rural                             Yes              Yes
   Duggan                  Fax613-798-0990              Planning and
   1404 Scott Street                                    Development
   Ottawa, Ontario         william@wusc.ca
   K1Y 4M8                                              B. Ed.
                                                        Biology &
                                                        Chemistry

                                                        B. Sc.
                                                        Biology



4. Celia Haig-Brown        Ph.416-736-2100              B.A.,          Associate                 Yes              Yes
   Faculty of Education    Ext. 88786                                  Professor
   York University         Fax416-736-5913              M.A.
   4700 Keele Street       Email:haigbro@edu.yorku.ca                  Director of
   Toronto, Ontario        Email                        Ph.D           Graduate
   M3J 1P3                                                             Programme in
                                                                       Education

5. Leroy Little Bear       Ph.403-380-2843              B.A.         Visiting Professor          Yes              Yes
   372 Canyon Blvd. West   Fax403-380-273               (Lethbridge) (Lethbridge)
   Lethbridge, Alberta     Email:                       AA
   Y1K 6V2                 amethyst@telusplanet.net     (Wenatchee)
                                                        JD (Utah)
Name and Full Address      Contact Information            Academic        Professional       Nominee Accepted Arm’s Length
                                                          Credentials     Designations       Organization’s   from
                                                                                             Nomination       Organization for
                                                                                                              Past Seven
                                                                                                              Years

6. Don McCaskill           Ph.705-748-1011                B.A.            Professor,
   Department of Native    Ext. 1320                      University of   Former Chair              Yes              Yes
   Studies                 Home Phone: 705-745-1847       Winnipeg        Dept. of Native
   Trent University        Cell Phone:                    M.A. Carleton   Studies (9 yrs.)
   Peterborough, Ontario   705-750-5474                   University      Former Director,
   K9J 7B8                 Fax705-748-1416                Ph.D, York      Native Studies
                           Email:dmccaskill@trentu.ca     University      Ph.D Program (4
                                                                          yrs.)

7. Priscilla Settee        Ph.306-966-5556                 B.A.           Director,
   Director, Indigenous    Fax306-966-5567                 M.Ed           Indigenous                Yes              Yes
   Peoples Program,        Email:priscilla.settee@usask.ca Ph.D           Peoples
   Extension Divison,                                      Candidate      Program,
   Room 134 Kirk Hall,                                                    Extension
   University of                                                          Division,
   Saskatchewan,                                                          University of
   Saskatoon,                                                             Saskatchewan
   Saskatchewan S7N
   5C8
COLLEGE AND PROGRAM INFORMATION

1.0 Submission Cover

1.1 Submission Cover Page



Title of Program           Indigenous Leadership and Community Development


Date of Submission         May 6th, 2002


Persons Responsible for this Submission

Gail Higginson, Vice President                S. Brenda Small, Dean
Academic and Student Services                 Negahneewin College of Indigenous
Studies
1450 Nakina Drive, P.O. Box 398               1450 Nakina Drive, P.O. Box 398
Thunder Bay, ON       P7C 4W1                 Thunder Bay, ON      P7C 4W1
Phone:         (807) 475-6649                 Phone:        (807) 475-6278
Fax:           (807) 475-4876                 Fax:          (807) 626-9584
Email: ghiggins@confederationc.on.ca          Email: bsmall@confederationc.on.ca

www.confederationc.on.ca                      www.confederationc.on.ca/negahneewin
Table of Contents


Cover Page ........................................................................................................................ Page 1

          Submission Cover

          Table of Contents

          Appendix 1.2                     Program Abstract


Executive Summary.......................................................................................................... Page 6

          Appendix 2.1 ..................................................................................................................... 6


Program Synopsis .......................................................................................................... Page 13

          Appendix 3.1                     Synopsis Information .................................................................. 13


Program Structure Requirement ................................................................................... Page 17

          Appendix 4.1                     Table: Applied Degree Program Structure................................... 17


Standard One - Degree Level Standard ........................................................................ Page 18

          Appendix 5.1                     Applied Degree-Level Standard Summary ................................. 18


Standard Two - Program Content.................................................................................. Page 24


          Appendix 6.4.1                   Letters of Support from Professional/Accreditation
                                           Organizations............................................................................... 24

          Appendix 6.5                     Table: Program Level Learning Outcomes ................................. 29
         Appendix 6.6                Table: Academic Course Schedule.............................................. 37

         Appendix 6.8.1              Table: Admission Requirements .................................................. 42

         Appendix 6.8.2              Statement: Advanced Standing ................................................... 42

         Appendix 6.9                Table: Promotion/Graduation Requirements ............................... 43

         Appendix 6.10.1             Table: Work Experience Outcomes ............................................. 45

Standard Three - Program Delivery............................................................................... Page 48

         Appendix 7.1.1              College Policy: Student Feedback ............................................... 48

         Appendix 7.1.2              Student Feedback Criteria/Instruments ....................................... 52


Standard Four - Capacity to Deliver .............................................................................. Page 54

         Appendix 8.1.1              Table: College KPI Data .............................................................. 54

         Appendix 8.1.2              Table: Program KPI Data............................................................. 54

         Appendix 8.2                Program Appropriateness to College Mission and Goals ............ 57

         Appendix 8.6                Enrolment Projections and Staffing Implications.......................... 87

         Appendix 8.7.1              Table: Library Resources............................................................. 88

         Appendix 8.7.3.1            Table: Computer Access.............................................................. 89

         Appendix 8.7.3.2            Table: Computers Available -
                                     Breakdown by Campus and Type................................................ 90

         Appendix 8.7.4              Table: Classroom Space.............................................................. 91

         Appendix 8.7.5              Table: Labs/Equipment ................................................................ 92

         Appendix 8.7.6              Resource Renewal and Upgrade Plans....................................... 93

         Appendix 8.8                Support Services.......................................................................... 94

         Appendix 8.9                Spreadsheet: Financial Planning ................................................. 97


Standard Five - Economic Need .................................................................................... Page 99

         Appendix 9.1                Economic Need............................................................................ 99

         Appendix 9.3                Student Interest.......................................................................... 101
Standard Six - Non-Duplication of Program ............................................................... Page 107

         Appendix 10.1.1              Table and Statement: Similar/Related Diploma Programs ........ 107

         Appendix 10.1.2              Table and Statement: Similar/Related University Programs...... 110

         Appendix 10.2                Innovative Program Description................................................. 115


Standard Seven - Promotability/Recognition ............................................................. Page 117

         Appendix 11.1                Credential Recognition............................................................... 117

         Appendix 11.3                Student Notification of Articulation ............................................. 123

Standard Eight - Evaluation ......................................................................................... Page 125

         Appendix 12.1                Evaluation Plans and Schedule ................................................. 125


Other Relevant Information.......................................................................................... Page 127

         Appendix 13.1 Minutes/Motions of Internal College Bodies .......................................... 127

         Appendix 13.2 Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies ........................................ 135

         Appendix 13.3 Problem-Based Learning Method .......................................................... 144
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                       Page 5



1.2    Program Abstract



The Indigenous Leadership and Community Development program creates leaders who are

agents for change while respecting the uniqueness of communities. The program will engrain

leadership skills along with a firm understanding of the environmental, cultural, socio-political,

and economic factors informing community development. The range of potential employment

includes leadership opportunities in community-based organizations i.e. executive directors and

other positions in the areas of policy analysis, program administration and political or social

advocacy. Graduates will be able to pursue further undergraduate or graduate education in

such fields as management, Indigenous governance, public administration and political studies.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                     Page 6



2.0    Executive Summary

The proposed applied degree in Indigenous Leadership and Community Development is a joint

initiative of Confederation College, Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies, and the

diverse communities of Northwestern Ontario. It took shape in a community-driven process of

consultation and dialogue, and is founded on an expertise in community development found in

staff and faculty across Confederation. It is a response to the consultation process undertaken

by Negahneewin on behalf of the College as a whole, wherein it became very clear that this

applied degree program is a necessity for the region. All respondents agreed that there are

leadership challenges which must be addressed by a comprehensive and appropriate education

strategy; there is a consensus around the critical need for a program to foster identity-grounded,

vision-orientated leadership based upon cultural and creative imperatives.



For the past five years Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies has been tracking statistical

data concerning Indigenous and Northwestern Ontario communities. This data was obtained

from Statistics Canada and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs; it also included

needs assessments produced by Tribal Councils and Training Boards. These sources confirm

the need for a powerful education strategy to nurture community leadership. Negahneewin’s

community-based research consists of focus groups, key informant interviews, questionnaires,

and an analysis of employment advertisements found in local and regional newspapers. These

sources, combined with the letters of support attached to this submission, demonstrate the

significance of the proposed applied degree program in Northwestern Ontario, and also in a

larger national and international context.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                      Page 7



Opportunities for Recognition of Credentials - Academic



The Indigenous Leadership and Community Development Program is an original program in an

area of study in which Negahneewin College at Confederation College has already

demonstrated expertise. Although there are no confirmed articulation agreements relating to

the new program, Confederation has initiated discussion with Lakehead University in Thunder

Bay and Algoma University College affiliated with Laurentian University in Sudbury. The

discussions indicate a potential linkage to Lakehead’s political science department and to

Algoma’s Honours Bachelor Degree in Community Economic and Social Development. Letters

of support are attached.



Opportunities for Recognition of Credentials - Professional



There is no single professional organization which reflects the entire mandate or graduate

profile of the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development program. Nevertheless, the

program outcomes do demonstrate a correlation to the objectives of the Council for the

Advancement of Native Development Officers, a national organization of economic development

officers who work in Indigenous communities and organizations. CANDO will provide

certification to any post-secondary institution that meets its established competencies. An initial

matching of the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development program courses with

CANDO’s certification criteria indicates that graduates of this program who wish to pursue the

designation of Aboriginal Economic Developer will have fully met nine of sixteen competencies

and partially another four. A letter and document confirming this are attached.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                       Page 8



Originality of the Program



The information provided in Appendix 10.1.1 demonstrates that while there are programs in the

Ontario CAAT system which focus on community development in the Indigenous context there

are none which share the particular objectives of this program. In the survey of University

programs in Ontario (Appendix 10.1.2), there appear to be five other degree programs whose

educational goals overlap with those of the Indigenous Leadership and Community

Development program in some respect. However, the proposed applied degree program is

innovative in its alignment and its approach to the same or similar objectives. The program

design is based upon the holistic integration of multiple disciplines--business, economics,

political science, native studies, philosophy, and psychology. It is also unique in terms of the

program development process, which is community-driven, responsive and proactive in design.

Appendix 10.2 will speak to the innovative qualities of the program in greater detail.



Skills/Knowledge at the Degree Level Required for the Program



The core competencies of the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development program

establish knowledge, skills and values with application to a multitude of community

environments: urban, remote, rural, organizational, cultural and multi-cultural. Indigenous

paradigms of community, leadership and change are central to the program objectives.

Learners will acquire an essential knowledge base and critical understanding of fundamental

concepts related to political and social theory, psychology, history, development theory, process

skills, mediation, facilitation and negotiation, cultural diversity, human services and

management perspectives, and the current and evolving legal and political framework. During
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                        Page 9



the course of the four years learners will progress from introductory concepts to increased

theoretical sophistication, and integrate theory into the practice of leadership skills.

Simultaneously they will acquire the skills of self-reflection, interpersonal communication and

critical thinking which are necessary to apply theory in varied situations. Two mandatory co-op

placements are crucial to the process of consolidating applied leadership skills. In the final year

of the program learners will be practicing the skills of leadership; evaluation will be based upon

participation in community-driven projects involving community consultation, primary research,

project management and evaluation, group facilitation, and the effective application of

leadership strategies.



Employer Support



In consultation with local and regional employers representing the diverse communities of

Northwestern Ontario (Indigenous, Canadian, urban, rural, treaty-based, Metis, non-Status,

multicultural) it is evident that a comprehensive program in Indigenous Leadership and

Community Development has substantial support. This is expressed in a variety of ways,

including statements of commitment to offer a co-op placement or to hire graduates. There is

currently potential for 38-49 co-op placements in a variety of local, regional and national

organizations with a variety of development mandates.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                      Page 10



Enrolment Growth and Anticipated Faculty Growth



The program will be launched in September 2003. Our forecast for the first year enrolment is

thirty-five students. We have taken into account both retention factors and realistic enrolment

growth in estimating the cumulative enrolment over the next three years; cumulative full-time

enrolment for 2004 is estimated at 65; in 2005 approximately 94; and in 2006 approximately

125. These numbers do not include our forecast regarding part-time students (See Appendix

8.6), nor any community-based delivery. Our community consultation results suggest that this

program will be highly marketable as a community-based or distance delivery option.



Faculty Growth



In addition to our current faculty complement, Confederation College has one new full-time

faculty position which would be associated primarily with the delivery of this program; an

advertisement for this recruitment has been attached. A second full-time faculty position will be

created and filled in the near future. With this additional faculty, Confederation has sufficient

teaching resources to deliver the program based on our enrolment estimates. Confederation

has additional part-time faculty whose contribution will be a benefit to the program. To support

the delivery of this program, Confederation is committed to a college-wide strategy relating to

professional development to ensure that existing faculty will complete graduate studies. The

capacity of the College to implement a degree program has been factored into the professional

development planning process; the opportunity for faculty across Confederation to teach in the

applied degree program has been framed in this context. While the initiative for this program
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                       Page 11



originates in Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies, the support for its delivery is shared

by faculty and academic managers throughout the institution.



Financial Capacity



Based upon the attached enrolment estimates and expected costs, Confederation forecasts that

the program will operate at a loss for the first three years, until the provincial operating grant

begins to flow to Confederation (see Appendix 8.9). A significant expense will be that of

ensuring that faculty members can achieve and maintain the minimum qualifications to teach in

the program, and also that of ensuring that physical, computer and library resources remain

current and accessible. Also, the development of the co-op component of the program will be

addressed through the hiring of a co-op consultant, initially part-time and full-time by 2006-2007.



Mission and Strengths of Confederation College



The degree-level program in Indigenous Leadership and Community Development will have an

immediate and direct relevance to the strategic commitments and program strengths of

Confederation College and Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies. A review of the

programs offered by Confederation and Negahneewin over the years indicates that there is a

strong tradition and base of expertise for community development-related curriculum. At the

same time, recent demographic trends show that Indigenous communities are moving toward

the centre of the fabric of Northwestern Ontario. Global economic trends are transforming the

economic profile of the region, impacting both Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities. By

offering an applied degree in Indigenous Leadership and Community Development jointly with
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                       Page 12



Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies, Confederation is responding to these emerging

realities in a full and responsible way which is directly linked to a strong record in regional

community development.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                    Page 13




3.0     Synopsis of Proposed Program

Title                                 Indigenous Leadership and Community Development

Credential Nomenclature               Bachelor of Applied Human Services (B.A.H.S.)

Program Description

Program Learning Outcomes


The terminal objective of the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development applied
degree is to create globally-aware leaders whose competencies are grounded in a relationship
to land. The program outcomes establish knowledge, skills and values with application to a
multitude of community contexts: urban, remote, rural, organizational, cultural and multi-
cultural. Indigenous knowledge, awareness, and leadership as linked to community
development are central threads throughout. Concurrently, this thread is interwoven with non-
Indigenous and mainstream perspectives. Major areas of inquiry are: political and social
theory, psychology, history, development theory, process skills, mediation, facilitation and
negotiation, cultural diversity, and the current and evolving legal and political framework.

During the course of the four years learners will progress from introductory concepts to
increased theoretical sophistication, and continually integrate theory into the practice of
leadership skills. Simultaneously they will acquire the skills of self-reflection, interpersonal
communication and critical thinking which are necessary to apply theory in varied situations.
Two mandatory co-op placements are crucial to the process of consolidating applied leadership
skills. In the final year of the program learners will be practicing the skills of leadership;
evaluation will be based upon participation in community-driven projects involving community
consultation, primary research, project management and evaluation, group facilitation, and the
effective application of leadership strategies.

Linkage Between Outcomes and Curriculum Design

The program outcomes are linked to five principles which emerge from an Indigenous paradigm:
reflection, responsibility, relationship, reciprocity and realization. These strands are integrated
throughout the program and inform the central premises of many of the courses. However, as
the program outcomes are intended to speak not only to the development of Indigenous
communities but of communities, the presence of these five strands will not “brand” the program
as exclusively Indigenous. The program objectives are grouped into courses and the courses
ordered in a manner which consistently seeks affinity as opposed to difference, fusing the non-
Indigenous and the Indigenous wherever possible. Therefore the majority of courses
intentionally traverse histories, disciplines, and cultures.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                       Page 14



The “Negahneewin”1 courses are those which have been identified as essential to Indigenous
community leadership and amenable to the creation of a stand-alone certificate for community-
based delivery. These courses provide skills and discuss topics which are transferable to all
communities: an understanding of role-based leadership, the need for communities to tackle
difficult or “taboo” subjects, the importance of encouraging expression and self-exploration
within community, methods of accountability, mobilization and cross-cultural dialogue, and the
importance of follow-through.

Methods of Delivery

Initially the program delivery emphasizes lecture-style instruction, integrating more applied
modes of delivery as it moves from foundational knowledge and theory in the first year to the
practice of leadership and community development in the final year. Methods include seminars,
small and large group discussion, discussion, role-playing, workshops, case study, and the
gradual incorporation of Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The latter is an instructional
methodology characterized by the use of real world problems as a context for student learning
which results from the process of “working toward” the understanding of a problem or case.
Subject or discipline-based courses are replaced by a series of problems, situations or cases
that might be encountered in the relevant profession. (For a detailed description of PBL, please
see Appendix 13.1). Examples of courses which will rely on this method are: Public Interest
Education, Project Management and Evaluation, and Policy Analysis and Development.

It is intended that in addition to the modalities outlined here, Confederation College and
Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies will investigate options for on-line and community-
based delivery in the future. The use of alternate delivery methods is indeed an important facet
of Confederation’s strategic plan; however, the omission of on-line delivery from this proposal
reflects our intention to take adequate time to investigate and develop it for a future stage in the
program delivery.


Relationship to Regulatory/Licencing Bodies

There are no applicable regulatory or licencing bodies.




       1
        In Ojibwe, Negahneewin means “leading the way”. In this program it is intended to reference not
Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies as an entity, but the premise which informs the mission of
Negahneewin College, which is to lead by working within, among and throughout Confederation College.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                    Page 15



Relationship to Professional Bodies

There is no single professional body which reflects the entire mandate or graduate profile of the
Indigenous Leadership and Development program. However, the program outcomes do
demonstrate a degree of correlation with the objectives of the Council for the Advancement of
Native Development Officers, a national organization of economic development officers who
work in Indigenous communities and organizations. (For history and mandate of CANDO please
see www.edo.ca). CANDO provides certification based upon sixteen competencies that can be
earned through post-secondary education or prior learning assessment. An initial matching of
the Indigenous Leadership and Development program courses with CANDO’s certification
criteria indicates that graduates of this program who wish to pursue the designation of
Aboriginal Economic Developer will have fully met nine of the sixteen competencies and
partially met another four. See Appendix 6.4.1 for details.

Co-op Work Term Experiences

The program includes two mandatory fourteen-week co-op placements whose objective is to
consolidate the skills and knowledge they have acquired in their course of study and to infuse
this applied knowledge with the principles which underpin the program outcomes. Learners will
be employed in a wide variety of community-based organizations or directly in communities.
Learners may work for agencies involved in community advocacy, program design and delivery,
policy and strategic planning, political or legal research, governance initiatives and/or treaty
negotiations.

The first co-op placement will provide individuals with the opportunity to apply the knowledge
and skills that they have learned in the classroom setting, and participate in a self assessment
and reflection of their area of strengths, interests and needs necessary for effective leadership.
The focus will be on self-reflection, responsibility and relationship building.

In the second co-op placement learners will be expected to use their leadership and community
development skills to initiate a project within the agency or community. There will be a clear
expectation that learners will be able to actualize their theoretical learning and propose, develop
and implement a mutually agreed upon community based project that reflects the depth of their
understanding about community development in terms of responsibility, relationships,
reciprocity, realization and self-reflection.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                 Page 16



Admission Requirements

An Ontario secondary school diploma (OSSD) or equivalent with a minimum average of 65%.
Graduates of Ontario high schools must have a minimum of 6 OAC’s in the old curriculum, or 6
grade 12 university or university/college level courses including grade 12U English in the new
curriculum.

OR

Mature student 19 years of age and over whose education and/or work experience suggest a
strong possibility of success. Mature student applicants will be required to submit academic
transcripts and entrance essay to demonstrate English proficiency. An interview may also be
required.


Projected Cumulative Full-Time Enrolment Per Year for the Proposed Program

                Cumulative Full-Time Enrolment


 Year 1                         35


 Year 2                         65


 Year 3                         94


 Year 4                         125




Anticipated Start Date                September 2003
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                   Page 17



4.0    Program Structure

                         September                January                 April

                         Semester One             Semester Two            Semester Three

 Year One                On-campus studies        On-campus studies       Vacation/Work
                                                                          Experience

 Year Two                On-campus studies        On-campus studies       Paid Co-op


 Year Three              On-campus studies        On-campus studies       Paid Co-op


 Year Four               On-campus studies        On-campus studies       Graduation



Paid Full-Time Consecutive Co-op Work Experience: Minimum 28 weeks


Graduates in this program must complete two fourteen-week paid co-op placements as
indicated above. Confederation College will hire a full-time consultant in relation to the co-ops,
including arrangements for funding. Many of the organizations that have committed to a
placement rely on project-specific or annually-renewed funding and will apply for this funding
either independently or jointly with Confederation College once the applied degree program is
approved. Confederation College has significant experience in this type of student support and
advocacy, including a thorough knowledge of relevant funding sources regionally and nationally.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                      Page 18



ASSESSMENT AGAINST THE STANDARDS

5.0    STANDARD ONE

5.1    Applied Degree-Level Standard2



For this assessment it is useful to consider an interdisciplinary approach. Just as the graduates

of the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development (ILCD) program will not satisfy a

single definition of leadership, the program outcomes do not refer exclusively to any one

academic field or discipline unless it is interdisciplinary studies. Certain areas of study which

are represented in the program (native studies, development theory) are currently recognized

hybrids of several “traditional” disciplines. Other courses and segments in the program have

more diverse roots but not to the extent that the program is entirely untraceable to other

university degree offerings. That is to say that there exist certain parallels between the ILCD

program and other degree-level programs being offered by certain institutions in Canada and

the United States.



One example is the International Master’s Program in Practicing Management offered by McGill

University where the program objectives have been organized around management “mindsets”

rather than traditional disciplines, in an express attempt to avoid the conventional silos of

management education (i.e. marketing, finance and accounting). While the terminal objectives

       2
         This assessment of the applied degree-standard in the Indigenous Leadership and Community
Development (ILCD) program is framed by the criteria outlined in Appendix II of the Handbook for
Applicants: Applied Degree Programs.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                     Page 19



of the McGill program differ from the ILCD program, the approach is similar. Another

benchmark is available within Antioch College in Ohio, U.S.A.. Antioch’s listing of

interdisciplinary programs includes a major in Self, Society and Culture and another in Cultural

and Interdisciplinary Studies with available concentrations in African/African-America Studies,

Communications, Environmental Studies, Peace Studies and Women’s Studies. The specific

interdisciplinary blends offered by Antioch have a similar flavour to the content found in the

proposed ILCD program. At the same time the ILCD program offers its own “concentrations”

(i.e. areas of study) in Indigenous knowledge, development theory, leadership studies, cultural

studies, and communications.



Knowledge and Understanding of Areas of Study



The theoretical aspects of the ILCD program, although they may not come in their expected

packages, carefully layer introductory, intermediate and advanced concepts as would be

achieved in a university setting. For example, development theory is an amalgam of

economics, politics, and history; each of these founding disciplines has its established canons

and methodological frameworks. Accordingly, before learners take Introduction to Development

Theory, they will have a foundation of economics and political thought. At every stage in the

theoretical inquiry they will discuss the meanings of given concepts and their historical

environment. By Year Four, the learner will have studied the theory and practice of community

development in courses on political economies, globalization, remote and rural, Indigenous and

international development, and will have constructed a critical intellectual framework from which

to evaluate present and future applications of their knowledge. They will also have acquired

core competencies of an applied human services degree with a concentration in community
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                      Page 20



development: social and strategic planning, community dialogue and process, capacity-

building, resource utilization, assessment and evaluation models, and project management

skills.



The study of leadership, in turn, has different meanings contingent upon the focus of study.

Within the business world, leadership has a distinct literature, and this is indeed a part of the

ILCD program content. However, in the ILCD program the study of leadership encompasses

more than those courses which are specifically identified by the term “leadership”; it draws upon

native studies, political studies, legal studies, sociology, psychology, history, philosophy, ethics,

and communications. It is interwoven with the themes of Indigenous principles, community

process and interpersonal skills.



These latter areas of study can present some difficulties for demonstration of the degree-level

standard. They include competencies which by nature emphasize the performance or

demonstration of the skill and whose intellectual rigour may not be apparent. However, the

reality is that the principles of reciprocity, bridging, finding common ground, and many similar

leadership abilities, are appropriate to a degree-level program because they require degree-

level thinking to become an area of competency. Reciprocity is a problematic value in that it

encompasses holistic attributes of socio-political, economic and environmental areas of thought

and practice. It can easily appear simplistic to those unfamiliar with its requirements yet is

complicated in application. It depends upon the development of an analytical mind that

objectively evaluates itself, engages in critical comparison and completes a process of

reasoning to see the link between an apparently simple principle and the corresponding

appropriate action. Experience has shown that it is difficult to teach such subjects; describing,
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                    Page 21



defining and even debating them are insufficient. For this reason courses like Reciprocity in

Practice appear later in the program and are delivered through a format whereby learners are

asked to understand by applying all the knowledge, skills and experience they have acquired

over their previous semesters. In sum, the ability to negotiate between communities, to

generate consensus, to create a vision, to apply principles of responsibility and reciprocityBin

other words, to be an effective community leader--are assumed to be the culmination of a

process of intellectual development. The ILCD program is designed to foster this process.



Application to Other/Employment Contexts



As has already been argued above, the structure of the ILCD program integrates knowledge

and theory across courses and in various contexts. This is achieved through building complex

concepts upon introductory concepts followed by teaching learners to practice the application of

the concepts as new theories, initiatives and commitments. The co-op component along with a

range of hands-on evaluation methods will enable learners to apply the principles of the areas

of study outlined above in a practical and/or employment context. Throughout the program

there are great expectations that learners will gradually become independent self-directed

individuals who by the final semester are not so much studying community development as

participating in it and practicing it as internalized experience.



Further to this process, the program incorporates a series of electives to broaden the learner’s

educational experience. This aspect of the program acknowledges the fact that leaders

occasionally have to be generalists, particularly in smaller communities where there may be

relatively limited financial and human resources. This too can be understood as a quality of
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                      Page 22



Indigenous leadership based upon the historical context where traditional leaders were required

to perform a variety of roles. Similarly in the contemporary working environment leaders may

be called upon to be responsible for everything from chairing meetings, co-ordinating projects,

reviewing financial statements, liaising with community members and training staff to designing

promotional materials. Therefore all electives in the program have been identified as

“complementary studies”, while the general breadth component of the program is met through

the prescribed courses. For their electives, learners choose from a list of courses representing

skills or areas of knowledge which may later be an asset to their performance. Examples of this

are Ojibwe or other languages (both Indigenous and non-Indigenous), accounting, web design

or legal studies. All approved elective options will be of sufficient rigour to meet the degree-

level standard, whether they originate with a College or a University.



Knowledge of Methods of Inquiry



Throughout the ILCD program there are a number of courses which address research skills, as

an important component of both academic rigour and community development. In addition to

the course “Research Methods”, there are several courses which incorporate topics and

evaluation models relating to the appropriate methods for community-based research. Learners

will be aware of the connection between power and knowledge and of how to obtain information

in a manner which is respectful and based upon ethical processes. Discussion about research

methods will at all times be framed by a critique of the methods by which information has been

collected in the past, and of the present global trends around the use of Indigenous knowledge.

 Infused in the methodological inquiry will be the discussion that information from within the

community belongs to the community. Indigenous knowledge is being identified by as
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                     Page 23



intellectual property in a global context and the applied degree program recognizes and affirms

this position in terms of research among Indigenous communities.



The Limits of Knowledge



An understanding of one’s limits is the result of intellectual maturity, which emerges in turn from

the combination of academic study with personal growth. It has been demonstrated above that

the outcomes of the ILCD program establish intellectual breadth in a variety of ways, but to

these must be added the component of critical self-reflection as is found in the courses

Negahneewin: Leadership, Self and Identity, Media, Literature and Representation, and Re-

Thinking Leadership. Critical self-reflection is also required through the presentation of oral and

writing skills in Expression and Voice, and Negahneewin: Writing Power. As is suggested by

the content and format of McGill’s International Master’s Program in Practicing Management,

self-reflection is absolutely pivotal to the development of sound leadership ability, and more

generally, to become a fully-developed thinker. Similarly in most business leadership texts, self-

reflection is perceived as essential to leadership growth. Therefore the theme of personal

growth through self-knowledge, an awareness of healing strategies and the fostering of

individual and community identity is as integral to the program as the study of economics.

However, its purpose is directly linked to the objective of creating a well-rounded, integrated

leader.
6.0      STANDARD TWO - PROGRAM CONTENT
6.4      Professional/Accreditation or other Organization Support

6.4.1    Current Requirements – Council for the Advancement of Native Development Officers

Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies has established a dialogue with the Council for the Advancement of Native
Development Officers (CANDO), and will continue this dialogue around recognition of courses in the Indigenous Leadership and
Community Development Program. The initial match as outlined below was performed at a recent stage in the program development
process. It will be noted that a number of the course names referred to below are different than those indicated in the Academic
Course Schedule. This reflects the fact that some of the course names were amended at a subsequent stage in the process,
although the substance of the program was not altered. Negahneewin’s ongoing relationship with CANDO will provide an opportunity
to clarify further the correlation between the applied degree program outcomes and CANDO’s requirements.

Institution: Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies
Program: Indigenous Leadership & Development Program (delivery commencing Sept. 2003 subject to approval)
Date: April 12, 2002
                                            Suggested Academic
 #      CANDO REQUIREMENT                                            STATUS            Course # & Title          NOTES
                                                     Equivalent
        Nature, structure,                                                         Introduction to Economics
        functioning and          An introductory economics course
1.                                                                     FULL       Globalization: International
        development of           (micro & macro)
                                                                                      Political Economy
        economies
        Community economic       An introductory course addressing
                                                                                  Introduction to Development
2.      development philosophy   community development                 FULL
                                                                                             Theory
        and theory               philosophy and theory
        Community economic       An upper year course addressing                    Community Networking,
3.                                                                     FULL
        development practices    community development practices                     Liaison & Consultation
                                                                                    Community Resourcing
                                                                                  Social & Strategic Planning
                                                                                    Community Consensus
                                                                                            Building
                                                                                  Implementation & Capacity
                                                                                            Building
                                                                                   Interest-Based Mediation
                                              Suggested Academic
 #    CANDO REQUIREMENT                                                STATUS          Course # & Title           NOTES
                                                       Equivalent
                                                                                   Community Advocacy &
                                                                                         Mobilization
                                                                                  International Sustainable
                                                                                   Development Practices
                                                                                    Reciprocity in Practice
                                                                                    Bridging Communities
                                                                                Social & Political Ideas I & II
                                                                                     Political Economies
                                                                                   Canadian Law, Policy &
                                  An introductory political science
     Community and political                                                                 Politics
4.                                course or a course in Aboriginal      FULL
     processes                                                                     Community Advocacy &
                                  public administration
                                                                                         Mobilization
                                                                                 Globalization: International
                                                                                       Political Economy
                                                                                 Accountability Frameworks
     The nature, structure, and   An introduction to business course
                                                                                   Indigenous Leadership
5.   functioning of               or an introductory organizational     FULL
                                                                                   Project Management &
     organizations                behaviour course
                                                                                         Assessment
     The context of Aboriginal    An introductory Indian/Native                                                      Aboriginal
6.                                                                      FULL      A History of Social Change
     economic development         studies course                                                                     content?
7.   Contemporary Aboriginal      An upper year course addressing       FULL       Indigenous Development
     development approaches       Aboriginal development issues
     and issues                   and approaches                                Rural & Northern Development
                                                                                            Issues
                                                                                   Bridging Communities
                                                                                Negahneewin: Healing & Self-
                                                                                           Reliance
                                                                                   Media, Literature and
                                                                                      Representation
                                                                                      Virtual Advocacy
                                                                                                                  Subject to review
                                                                                     De-Liberate Thought
                                                                                                                  of course content
                                              Suggested Academic
 #     CANDO REQUIREMENT                                               STATUS         Course # & Title         NOTES
                                                       Equivalent
                                                                                 Transformational Leadership

      Financial Accounting,
      including bookkeeping,      An introductory financial                                                    Subject to review
8.                                                                     PARTIAL     Financial Accountability
      accounting principles and   accounting course                                                            of course content
      financial statement
      preparation
      Managerial Accounting,
                                  An introductory managerial                                                   Subject to review
9.    including budgeting and                                          PARTIAL     Financial Accountability
                                  accounting or finance course                                                 of course content
      financial planning
                                  An upper year course addressing
      Community impact            community impact analysis and
10.
      analysis and assessment     assessment issues and
                                  approaches
11.   Marketing                   An introductory marketing course
                                  An upper year course addressing
      New enterprise
12.                               new venture development issues
      development
                                  and approaches
                                  An upper year course in                                                      Expand beyond
      Community based                                                            Communication Techniques:
13.                               Indian/Native community-based        PARTIAL                                 ‘communication
      research methods                                                              Research Methods
                                  research issues and approaches                                               techniques’
                                  A course in business law with                                                Require
      Aboriginal business law     particular emphasis on the unique                Canadian Law, Policy &      ‘Aboriginal’ and
14.                                                                    PARTIAL
      and policies                circumstances of Aboriginal                             Politics             ‘Business’
                                  people                                                                       emphasis
      Written and oral            A course- in effective written and             Communication Techniques:
15.                                                                     FULL
      communications              oral communication                                 Expression & Voice
                                                                                 Communication Techniques:
                                                                                     Research Methods
                                                                                        Negahneewin:
                                                                                         Real Writing
                                                                                  Interest-Based Mediation
                                          Suggested Academic
 #     CANDO REQUIREMENT                                            STATUS        Course # & Title        NOTES
                                                   Equivalent
                                                                               Community Networking,
                                                                               Liaison & Consultation
                                                                             Common Ground: Diversity &
                                                                                 Cultural Discourse
                                                                                Dialogue & Process
                                                                               Community Consensus
                                                                                      Building
                                                                                  Negotiation Skills
                              An introductory course in
                              computer applications, particularly
16.   Computer applications                                          FULL       Computer Applications
                              word processing and
                              spreadsheets
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development   Page 28

6.4.2   Letter of Support - CANDO
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                         Page 29

6.5    Proposed Applied Degree Program

 Program Level Learning Outcomes                   Course(s) or Course Segments that
                                                   Contribute to this Outcome

 1.     Demonstrate knowledge of sustainable
                                                   Introduction to Development Theory
        development in diverse communities,
        drawing on critical analysis of local,
                                                   Indigenous Development
        national, and international development
        practices;
                                                   Rural and Remote Development

                                                   Rural and Remote Development: Case
                                                   Studies in Indigenous Communities

                                                   Case Studies in International
                                                   Sustainable Development

 2.     Create growth opportunities for            Introduction to Development Theory
        communities based on local resources,
        interests and priorities;                  Indigenous Development

                                                   Rural and Remote Development

                                                   Rural and Remote Development:
                                                   Case Studies in Indigenous
                                                   Communities

                                                   Case Studies in International
                                                   Sustainable Development

                                                   Political Economies

                                                   Globalization: International Political
                                                   Economy

 3.     Outline the development of international   Introduction to Economics
        political economy and increase community
        awareness of globalization;                Political Economies

                                                   Globalization: International Political
                                                   Economy
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 30



 4.     Implement principles of sustainable           Community Resource Management
        resource management in the context of
        development projects;                         Introduction to Development Theory

                                                      Indigenous Development

                                                      Rural and Remote Development

                                                      Rural and Remote Development: Case
                                                      Studies in Indigenous Communities

                                                      Case Studies in International
                                                      Sustainable Development

 5.     Provide leadership to communities by          Community Relationships: Liaison and
        initiating and supporting inclusive           Consultation
        processes by facilitating cross-cultural or
        multicultural dialogue;                       Community Dialogue and Process

                                                      Interest-Based Mediation

                                                      Community Consensus Building

                                                      Negotiation Strategies

                                                      Negahneewin: Bridging Communities

                                                      Common Ground: Diversity and Cultural
                                                      Discourse

 6.     Analyze current Canadian legal and            Canadian Law, Policy and Politics
        political framework and critically evaluate
        or examine policies and protocols arising     Negahneewin: Accountability
        from that framework;                          Frameworks

                                                      Policy Analysis and Development

 7.     Devise ways to address socio-political and    Indigenous Development
        economic issues relevant to northern, rural
        and remote communities with emphasis on       Rural and Remote Development
        Indigenous contexts;
                                                      Rural and Remote Development: Case
                                                      Studies in Indigenous Communities

                                                      Case Studies in International
                                                      Sustainable Development
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 31




 8.     Provide strong leadership by creating an        Community Dialogue and Process
        environment of openness, inclusiveness
        and consensus-building;                         Interest-Based Mediation

                                                        Community Consensus Building

                                                        Community Relationships: Liaison and
                                                        Consultation


 9.     Compare and contrast various leadership         Negahneewin: Leadership in
        styles in a myriad of locations from multi-     Contemporary Communities
        disciplinary perspectives;
                                                        Transformational Leadership

                                                        Case Studies in Indigenous Leadership

                                                        Re-Thinking Leadership


 10.    Provide leadership while working in the         Community Relationships: Liaison and
        community by implementing processes             Consultation
        that reflect principles and values reflective
        of the people who live there;                   Community Resource Management

                                                        Building and Sustaining Community
                                                        Capacity

                                                        Bridging Communities

 11.    Demonstrate leadership skills that work to      Negahneewin: Leadership in
        transform environments and motivate             Contemporary Communities
        people towards change;
                                                        Transformational Leadership

                                                        Case Studies in Indigenous Leadership

                                                        Re-Thinking Leadership

 12.    Utilize leadership skills towards the           Project Management and Evaluation
        successful completion of projects and the
        creation of transferable skills and             Negahneewin: Reciprocity in Practice
        resources among communities;
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                       Page 32



 13.    Implement leadership strategies to create    Social and Strategic Planning
        participatory process towards social
        capital;                                     Building and Sustaining Community
                                                     Capacity

                                                     Negahneewin: Leadership, Self and
 14.    Synthesize multidisciplinary perspectives
                                                     Identity
        on dedication to social change through
        personal responsibility;
                                                     Negahneewin: Community Healing and
                                                     Self-Reliance

                                                     Re-Thinking Leadership

                                                     A History of Social Change

 15.    Identify Indigenous leadership skills with   Negahneewin: Leadership, Self and
        particular emphasis on Indigenous            Identity
        knowledge perspectives;
                                                     Negahneewin: Writing Power

                                                     Case Studies in Indigenous Leadership

 16.    Integrate leadership skills through an       Negahneewin: Community Healing and
        ethical framework of respect and             Self-Reliance
        reciprocity among community members;
                                                     Community Resource Management

                                                     Building and Sustaining Community
                                                     Capacity

                                                     Negahneewin: Community Advocacy
                                                     and Mobilization

                                                     Negahneewin: Reciprocity in Practice

 17.    Establish leadership processes that          Public-Interest Education
        empower individuals, families and
        communities to pursue the goals of self-     Negahneewin: Community Advocacy
        reliance;                                    and Mobilization

                                                     Negahneewin: Community Healing and
                                                     Self-Reliance

                                                     Community Relationships: Liaison and
                                                     Consultation
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                                Page 33



 18.    Assess and compare the range of                 Negahneewin: Leadership in
        organizational behaviours and modify            Contemporary Communities
        negative or destructive behaviours through
        reflection and action;                          Case Studies in Indigenous Leadership

                                                        Building and Sustaining Community
                                                        Capacity

 19.    Initiate, develop and establish new             Community Resource Management
        infrastructure in communities;
                                                        Building and Sustaining Community
                                                        Capacity

                                                        Negahneewin: Accountability
                                                        Frameworks

                                                        Negahneewin: Ethical Administration

 20.    Demonstrate procedures relating to              Negahneewin: Accountability
        financial accountability frameworks;            Frameworks

                                                        Negahneewin: Ethical Administration

                                                        Financial Accountability

 21.    Outline and critique social and political       Introduction to Social and Political
        ideas from various intellectual traditions;     Thought

                                                        Post-Colonial Discourse

                                                        A History of Social Change

 22.    Demonstrate and apply intellectual,             Re-Thinking Leadership
        analytical, and critical breadth in a variety
        of community development contexts;              Media, Literature and Representation

                                                        Negahneewin: Writing Power

                                                        Introduction to Social and Political
                                                        Thought

                                                        Post-Colonial Discourse

                                                        Directed Research Paper

 23.    Analyze and critique arguments and              Media, Literature and Representation
        concepts as presented in various forms of
        media;
                                                        Public Interest Education
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 34



 24.    Demonstrate responsibility for the           Negahneewin: Healing and Self-
        personal, organizational and collective      Reliance
        impacts of learned dependence,
        colonialism and internalized racism;         Negahneewin: Accountability
                                                     Frameworks

                                                     Case Studies in Indigenous Leadership


 25.    Respect integrity of communities through     Research Methods
        acknowledgment and appropriate use of
        different types of intellectual property;    Community Relationships: Liaison and
                                                     Consultation

                                                     Community Resource Management


 26.    Analyze social, business and development     Media, Literature and Representation
        trends based on an informed critical
        awareness;                                   Political Economies

                                                     Globalization: International Political
                                                     Economy

                                                     Case Studies in International
                                                     Sustainable Development

                                                     Rural and Remote Development

 27.    Practice effective mediation, facilitation   Interest-Based Mediation
        and negotiation skills;
                                                     Community Consensus Building

                                                     Negotiation Strategies

                                                     Community Dialogue and Process
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                      Page 35



 28.    Facilitate community-based dialogue,        Community Consensus Building
        networking and capacity-building;
                                                    Community Relationships: Liaison and
                                                    Consultation

                                                    Community Dialogue and Process

                                                    Community Resource Management

                                                    Building and Sustaining Community
                                                    Capacity

 29.    Facilitate a process whereby communities    Community Dialogue and Process
        can initiate dialogue and decision making
        both internally and externally;             Negahneewin: Bridging Communities

 30.    Apply strategic planning and                Social and Strategic Planning
        implementation skills;
                                                    Building and Sustaining Community
                                                    Capacity

                                                    Negahneewin: Reciprocity in Practice

 31.    Engage in community mobilization and        Negahneewin: Community Advocacy
        advocacy, drawing on necessary              and Mobilization
        research, writing, speaking, organizing
        and facilitation skills;                    Expression and Voice

                                                    Research Methods

                                                    Media, Literature and Representation

                                                    Negahneewin: Real Writing

 32.    Identify and access a wide variety of       Community Resource Management
        community-based and other resources,
        including existing leadership resources;    Building and Sustaining Community
                                                    Capacity

 33.    Research, develop and write proposals for   Expression and Voice
        a variety of projects;
                                                    Research Methods

                                                    Community Resource Management
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                  Page 36



 34.    Use software, internet and other resources   Computer Applications
        to develop and apply appropriate
        information strategies.                      Research Methods

                                                     Public Interest Education
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                         Page 37


6.6    Academic Course Schedule

P = Professional Courses
B = Breadth Courses (General)
C = Breadth Courses (Complementary Studies)

 Year &      Course Title                           Course   Course   Course
 Semester                                           Type     Hours    Prerequisites*

 Year One

 Semester
 One

             Negahneewin: Leadership, Self            P        48     None
             and Identity

             Media, Literature and                    P        48     None
             Representation

             Expression and Voice                     P        48     None

             Introduction to Economics                B        48     None

             Introduction to Social and Political     B        48     None
             Thought

             Computer Applications                    P        48     None

 Semester
 Two

             Negahneewin: Leadership in               P        48     Negahneewin:
             Contemporary Communities                                 Leadership, Self and
                                                                      Identity

             Introduction to Development              P        48     Introduction to
             Theory                                                   Economics

             Research Methods                         P        48     None

             Political Economies                      B        48     None

             Post-Colonial Discourse                  P        48     Introduction to Social
                                                                      and Political Thought

             A History of Social Change               B        48     None
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                            Page 38




 Year Two

 Semester
 One

             Negahneewin: Community               P   48   Negahneewin:
             Healing and Self Reliance                     Leadership in
                                                           Contemporary
                                                           Communities

             Indigenous Development               P   48   Introduction to
                                                           Development Theory

             Re-Thinking Leadership               P   48   Media, Literature and
                                                           Representation

             Common Ground: Diversity and         B   48   None
             Cultural Discourse

             Canadian Law, Policy and Politics    B   48   None

             Complementary Studies Elective       C   48

 Semester
 Two

             Negahneewin: Writing Power           P   48   Negahneewin:
                                                           Community Healing
                                                           and Self-Reliance

             Community Relationships: Liaison     P   48   Common Ground:
             and Consultation                              Diversity and Cultural
                                                           Discourse

             Transformational Leadership          P   48   Re-Thinking
                                                           Leadership

             Interest-Based Mediation             P   48

             Community Dialogue and Process       P   48   Research Methods

             Complementary Studies Elective       C   48
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                             Page 39




 Year Three

 Semester
 One

              Negahneewin: Accountability         P   48   Negahneewin:
              Frameworks                                   Writing Power

              Community Resource                  P   48   Community
              Management                                   Relationships:
                                                           Liaison and
                                                           Consultation

              Social and Strategic Planning       P   48   Community Dialogue
                                                           and Process

              Rural and Remote Development        P   48   Indigenous
                                                           Development

              Community Consensus Building        P   48   Interest-Based
                                                           Mediation

              Complementary Studies Elective      C   48

 Semester
 Two

              Negahneewin: Community              P   48   Negahneewin:
              Advocacy and Mobilization                    Accountability
                                                           Frameworks

              Financial Accountability            P   48   None

              Building Community Capacity         P   48   Community
                                                           Resource
                                                           Management

              Rural and Remote Development:       P   48   Rural and Remote
              Case Studies in Indigenous                   Development
              Communities

              Negotiation Strategies              P   48   Interest-Based
                                                           Mediation

              Complementary Studies Elective      C   48
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                             Page 40




 Year Four

 Semester
 One

             Negahneewin: Ethical                 P   48   Negahneewin:
             Administration                                Community
                                                           Advocacy and
                                                           Mobilization

             Directed Research Paper              P   48   None

             Public Interest Education            P   48   None

             Globalization: International         B   48   Rural and Remote
             Political Economy                             Development: Case
                                                           Studies in
                                                           Indigenous
                                                           Communities

             Policy Analysis and Development      P   48   Community Dialogue
                                                           and Process

             Complementary Studies Elective       C   48

 Semester
 Two

             Negahneewin: Reciprocity in          P   48   Negahneewin:
             Practice                                      Ethical
                                                           Administration

             Case Studies in Indigenous           P   48   Transformational
             Leadership                                    Leadership

             Project Management and               P   48   Policy Analysis and
             Evaluation                                    Development

             Case Studies in International        P   48   Globalization:
             Sustainable Development                       International Political
                                                           Economy

             Negahneewin: Bridging                P   48   Negahneewin:
             Communities                                   Ethical
                                                           Administration

             Complementary Studies Elective       C   48
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                               Page 41



 Sub-total Course Hours                               P = 35      P =1680
                                                      B=7         B = 336
                                                      C=6         C = 288

 TOTAL PROGRAM HOURS                                  2304

 Percentage of the program offered in General         15%
 Breadth (B) Courses

 Percentage of the program offered in                 13%
 Complementary Studies (C)

 Percentage of the program offered in                 72%
 Professional Courses

 Percentage of the program offered in                28%
 Breadth Courses (B + C)
*All courses in this column are pre-requisites; no co-requisites have been identified


Complementary Studies Electives

It is intended that learners have an opportunity to take additional courses in disciplines or
professional areas which are not already in the program but could enhance their skills and
abilities. Examples of this are Ojibwe or other languages (both Indigenous and non-
Indigenous), accounting, web design or legal studies. Learners will be required to choose from
electives from a list of courses to be identified by Confederation College. These will include
courses within current College programs which are considered to meet the degree standard,
and courses from Lakehead University within the framework of our developing articulation
relationship. Similarly learners may choose to take courses from Algoma University College by
distance education methods. The letters of support provided by Algoma and Lakehead
University allude to efforts in the near future to discuss this in greater detail. While a definitive
list of courses cannot be provided at this time, Confederation College will undertake to develop
the elective section of the program more fully by September 2003.

As an alternative, learners may propose to meet a Complementary Studies elective requirement
by taking a course through distance or on-line learning from another institution such as the
University of Athabasca, Trent University or Laurentian University.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                               Page 42


6.8.1   Admission Requirements

                                                    Program Admission Requirements

 Academic
 (course and GPA requirements)                      An Ontario secondary school diploma (OSSD)
                                                    or equivalent with a minimum average of 65%.
                                                     Graduates of Ontario high schools must have
                                                    a minimum of six OAC’s in the old curriculum,
                                                    or    six    Grade      12   University    or
                                                    University/College level courses including
                                                    grade 12U English in the new curriculum.

                                                    Or

                                                    Mature student 19 years of age and over
                                                    whose education and/or work experience
                                                    suggest a strong possibility of success.

 Related Work/Volunteer Experience                  N/A


 Other                                              Mature student applicants will be required to
 (e.g. portfolio, specialized testing,              submit academic transcripts and entrance
 interview, etc)                                    essay to demonstrate English proficiency

                                                    An interview with a committee consisting of
                                                    faculty and the Dean of Negahneewin
                                                    College of Indigenous Studies may also be
                                                    required.

6.8.2   Advanced Standing

Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies recognizes that many people presently working in
leadership and community development in Indigenous communities have acquired their knowledge,
skills and expertise through means other than formal education. We would like to encourage
individuals with this type of experience to consider the Indigenous Leadership and Community
Development program as a way of integrating their present life experience and formal education
into the completion of the Applied Degree.

Upon admission, advanced credit may be granted for informal learning, workplace and on the job
training experience. Assessment of prior learning will be carried out in accordance with the
College’s Prior Learning Assessment process. Several methods of evaluation can be used including
portfolio assessment, interview or equivalency testing. Applicants will be encouraged to prepare a
portfolio, which involves a file that illustrates to the assessors how informal learning, including on-
the-job training and skills based learning is directly related towards the credentials in the program.
A faculty team with expertise in the field of study will assess the portfolio.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                   Page 43


6.9    Promotion and Graduation Requirements

 Course Type                             Promotion   Graduation

 Professional Courses                     2.0 GPA    2.0 CGPA



 Courses Outside                          1.5 GPA    1.7 CGPA
 Professional Field of Study

 Overall                                  1.7 GPA    2.0 CGPA
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                            Page 44


6.10   Paid Co-Op Work Experience

During the co-op work terms, learners can be employed in a wide variety of human services and
community-based organizations or directly in communities. Learners may work for First Nations,
Tribal Councils, or in agencies involved in community advocacy, program design and delivery,
policy and strategic planning, political or legal research, and/or treaty negotiations.

The first co-op placement will provide individuals with the opportunity to apply the knowledge and
skills that they have learned in the classroom setting, and participate in a self assessment and
reflection of their area of strengths, interests and needs necessary for effective leadership. The
focus will be on self-reflection, responsibility and relationship building.

In the second co-op placement learners will be expected to use their leadership and community
development skills to initiate a project within the agency or community. There will be a clear
expectation that learners will be able to actualize their theoretical learning and propose, develop
and implement a mutually agreed upon community based project that reflects the depth of their
understanding about sustainable development, change and empowerment.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                               Page 45


6.10.1 Work Experience Outcomes

 Work Experience Outcomes                           Relationship between the work
                                                    experience and program learning
                                                    outcomes

 First Co-Op

 1.     Apply theory and skills learned in          The workplace will allow the learners to use
        class to workplace responsibilities         critical thinking skills and analysis of context
        using effective critical thinking skills;   and theory to apply knowledge and skills to
                                                    real life situations.


                                                    Outcomes: all

 2.     Demonstrate the ongoing pursuit of          Development of self and self-growth are a
        personal growth by participating in         key outcome of the program. The workplace
        active reflection, self-evaluation and      will provide the opportunity for learners to
        by taking action on feedback provided       actively reflect on their actions and decisions
        during the placement. Link this to the      and to demonstrate their ability to grow and
        principle of lifelong learning;             change.


                                                    Outcomes: 14, 15, 24


 3.     Demonstrate leadership and                  The behaviour actions and attitudes of the
        accountability on the job through           learner in the workplace will be consistent
        behaviours and attitudes that reflect a     with the expectations and discussions about
        participatory ethic, that shows             accountability and leadership.
        initiative and the assumption of
        responsibility for own decisions and
        actions;                                    Outcomes: 16,12

 4.     Assess and adapt personal                   Through working in different situations in the
        leadership styles in a way that             workplace, the learner will learn how to
        contributes to effective relationships      develop their own leadership skills, and will
        and goal attainment in the work and         explore ways to adapt their skills to meet the
        community;                                  needs of different groups.


                                                    Outcomes: 12, 13

 5.     Use knowledge of leadership theory          Active observation of formal and informal
        to identify qualities of good leadership    leadership in communities will provide
        in the workplace and in the                 learners with the ability to reflect on
        community;                                  leadership theory and strategies.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                            Page 46



 Work Experience Outcomes                         Relationship between the work
                                                  experience and program learning
                                                  outcomes


                                                  Outcomes: 8, 9, 11, 14, 32


 6.     Contribute to the team environment in     Working within an agency and community
        a manner that reflects the principles     requires the individual to take personal
        of respect, responsibility and            responsibility for learning, to develop respect
        reciprocity, and that assists the group   for difference, interpersonal skills and
        in meeting mutual goals;                  reflection concerning behaviours and
                                                  attitudes that contribute to both teambuilding
                                                  and task completion.


                                                  Outcomes: 5, 10,11, 15

 7.     Identify the social, political and        Learners will have the opportunity to identify
        economic issues that affect               the social, political or economic issues that
        development in the community;             their organization is addressing, and to
                                                  compare this to other communities studied.


                                                  Outcomes: 1,3,7,18,24

 8.     Identify and access a wide range of       Learners will be investigating community
        community resources that can assist       resources, assets and needs while working in
        in the development of community           the field.
        planning;
                                                  Outcomes: 2,5,7,19,28,30

 9.     Identify and analyze the                  Working with the organization the learner will
        organization’s ability to interact with   have the opportunity to do an analysis of
        the community through dialogue,           present practices and develop their own
        consultation and advocacy;                strategies for working effectively with the
                                                  community.


                                                  Outcomes: 5,8,11,12, 27,28

 10.    Select and use appropriate forms of       Assigned projects and tasks in the workplace
        communication and technology as           provides the learner with the opportunity to
        required by the situation and             demonstrate sound oral, research and writing
        communicate both orally and in            skills using a variety of techniques and
        written format in a clear concise and     technologies.
               t
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                              Page 47



 Work Experience Outcomes                         Relationship between the work
                                                  experience and program learning
                                                  outcomes
        accurate manner;
                                                  Outcomes: 29, 31,33,34

 11.    Demonstrate professionalism in            Outcomes: All
        respecting the existing values,
        protocol and ethics of the
        organization and community;


 Second Co- Op


 12.    Integrate the principles of interest      Daily problem solving, interactions with
        based negotiations and consensus          supervisors, co-workers and community will
        building in interactions and problem      provide the learner with the opportunity to
        solving within the organization and       apply interest based principles and to
        community;                                practice negotiation and consensus building.
                                                  Outcomes: 5,17,27

 13.    Apply the principles of sustainable       Having completed three years of study, it is
        development to the research and           expected that the learner can actively
        development of a proposal or project      participate in the development of a specific
        for a community-based project that        project or proposal in which they will address
        addresses self-reliance or economic       sustainability and self reliance.
        opportunities;
                                                  Outcomes: 1,2,3,4,16, 24,25,33

 15.    Demonstrate the ability to facilitate a   Working with the community will require a
        group or community process that is        demonstration of group facilitation skills and
        inclusive, collaborative and              provide an opportunity to practice the
        empowering;                               principles of inclusive and consultative
                                                  processes.


                                                  Outcomes: 17,28,29,31,34

 16.    Integrate financial and ethical           Writing a proposal requires attention to
        accountability frameworks within the      accountability frameworks.
        community based proposal or project;
                                                  Outcomes: 19,20,24
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                               Page 48


7.0     STANDARD THREE - PROGRAM DELIVERY

7.1     Student Feedback
7.1.1   College Policy Regarding Student Feedback

Students are identified in Confederation College’s current Faculty Evaluation Manual as one of the
stakeholder groups whose input is solicited on faculty evaluation. The following is an excerpt from
the manual outlining the applicable criteria.

                     QUALITIES OF EXCELLENT TEACHERS INVENTORY

Full time faculty and/or the academic manager may select additional behaviours from this inventory
to evaluate and receive feedback from students. When you want to improve your performance as a
teacher, it is important to know what you are striving toward, not in terms of “personality” (e.g.
enthusiastic, patient, accessible) but in terms of behaviours (e.g. actively listens, calls students by
name).

The inventory that follows identifies the quality of excellent teachers and the specific behaviours
which demonstrate each characteristic. The inventory can be used for self-evaluation by
prefacing each statement with the first person pronoun and verb form (i.e. AI use a variety of
instructional techniques and materials) or for student feedback by prefacing each statement with
the phrase “The professor in this subject ..”

Either way, the inventory helps to identify specific areas of excellence for professional growth and
instructional improvement.

1.0     COMPETENCE

1.01    Is qualified in the field by academic, practical and/or training experience.
1.02    Identifies students’ learning styles
1.03    Uses a variety teaching and evaluation techniques to compliment individual learning styles.
1.04    Informs students of learning objectives; reviews these objectives at appropriate intervals;
        has a “no surprises” approach.
1.05    Enjoys learning and keeps current
1.06    Uses texts which reflect the changing roles of First Nations people, racial minorities, people
        with disabilities, women and men.
1.07    Accepts students as a resource for learning.
1.08    Involves students in their own learning. Helps students towards discovery rather than
        feeding them information.
1.09    Sees relationship between his/her specialty and other course and helps students to see that
        relationship.
1.10    Demonstrates knowledge of College and professional resources.
1.11    Prepares tests and assignments that are clearly worded.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                            Page 49


2.0    PREPAREDNESS

2.01   Prepares current and comprehensive course outlines.
2.02   Indicates standards of performance in course outline.
2.03   Explains expectations clearly at beginning of semester and throughout.
2.04   Begins class with review of previous material.
2.05   Explains how each topic fits into overall subject outline.
2.06   Gives overview of what is going to take place at the beginning of the class so students know
       direction and purpose.
2.07   Uses headings and subheadings to organize material.
2.08   Periodically summarizes content to date.
2.09   Manages class time productively.
2.10   Stays on topic
2.11   Uses texts that are useful for learning the course content.

3.0    AVAILABILITY

3.1    Is accessible outside of class to all students.
3.2    Announces availability for consultation at the beginning of the semester and in the subject
       outline.
3.3    Posts office hours.
3.4    Provides counseling and guidance to students when they are experiencing failure or
       disappointment in a class/subject.
3.5    Refers to students, when necessary, to other sources of support inside and outside the
       college.
3.6    Talks with students before and after class as schedule permits.
3.7    Actively supports college projects, student clubs, etc.
3.8    Informs students of class cancellations.

4.0    POSITIVE SPIRIT

4.01   Uses enthusiasm, energy and optimism to motivate student to learn.
4.02   Moves about while speaking or demonstrating.
4.03   Speaks in an expressive manner.
4.04   Uses hand, head and body gestures naturally as part of expression.
4.05   Makes eye contact with students.
4.06   Demonstrates positive attitude.
4.07   Relates personal experiences to illustrate concepts/ideas.
4.08   Gives positive verbal and non-verbal feedback, rewarding desired behaviour.
4.09   Helps students to meet objectives and achieve success.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                              Page 50


5.0    GOAL ORIENTATION

5.01   Follows the course outline.
5.02   Provides learning objectives in writing.
5.03   Identifies, in writing, the standards used for evaluation, (i.e. attendance, assignments, tests
       projects, exams) and abides by them.
5.04   Follows the evaluation method stated at the beginning of the course.
5.05   Recognizes individual student needs and goals.
5.06   Sets professional goals and evaluates progress at intervals.
5.07   Challenges student to succeed.
5.08   Has high expectations which students can achieve.

6.0    HOLISTIC APPROACH

6.01   Takes the view of students in designing approach to teaching.
6.02   Understands student’s point of view.
6.03   Recognizes when students do not understand the material.
6.04   Effectively deals with disruptions in class/group activity.
6.05   Knows what is going on in all parts of the room; overlooks no one.
6.06   Sees students as whole persons with problems and strengths in and out of class.
6.07   Sees the classroom as one part of the student’s whole learning environment.
6.08   Views other courses as important as their own.
6.09   Relates current events in the field to other disciplines.
6.10   Relates subject content to situations in business/industry/community.
6.11   Stresses importance of reading and writing.
6.12   Stresses importance of mathematical skills.
6.13   Helps student link the knowledge gained in the classroom to careers, to other disciplines, to
       life in the total environment.
6.14   Discusses points of view other than one’s own.

7.0    RAPPORT

7.01   Displays courtesy and respect by doing such things as keeping appointments, arriving to
       class on time and ending class on time.
7.02   Knows student’s names and uses them.
7.03   Shows tolerance for other points of view.
7.04   Smiles, laughs, uses humour appropriately.
7.05   Listens actively and test out accuracy of own listening by repeating or paraphrasing student
       responses.
7.06   Pays attention to non-verbal cues of students, and checks out validity of these cues.
7.07   Notices individual students and comments on changes in appearance, attendance,
       behaviour, etc.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                              Page 51


7.08   Shares his/her own life experiences with students, where appropriate.
7.09   Shows sensitivity to student’s circumstances.
7.10   Is aware of own strengths and limitations in the area of interpersonal communications.
7.11   Invites feedback from students and accepts constructive criticism without becoming
       defensive.
7.12   Avoids gender biases or stereotyping of students both in and out of the classroom.

8.0    ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE

8.01   Uses a variety of instructional techniques and materials (i.e. discussion, lecture, role
       playing, group work)
8.02   Adjusts methods when students seem not to be learning/understanding.
8.03   Presents content at a level that students can understand.
8.04   Challenges the student to learn new information.
8.05   Presents new material using simple to complex progression.
8.06   Asks if students understand before proceeding.
8.07   Speaks at a pace which facilitates understanding.
8.08   Enunciates clearly.
8.09   Uses voice modulation to stress important points.
8.10   Avoids use of offensive language (i.e. swearing, racial slurs, gender biases, put-downs).
8.11   Uses a variety of teaching aides (i.e. videos, slide, chalkboard, transparencies, flip charts).
8.12   Uses audio visual materials which are readable and effective.
8.13   Operates various classroom equipment competently.
8.14   Rejects the use of sexually suggestive or discriminatory comments in the classroom.
8.15   Chooses handouts that are useful for learning the course content.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 52


7.1.2   Student Feedback Criteria

The following is a sample of the form that would be used to obtain student feedback. The choice of
questions asked is made pursuant to the Faculty Evaluation Manual, which is attached in Appendix
 8.5 (Faculty Evaluation/Renewal)

                                   Confederation College
                               Student Feedback Questionnaire

This course information must be transferred to your answer sheet.
   Division: 23
      Course: HO202                             Faculty:    Name
     Section: 02
                                                Date: February 2002

Read the following statements and mark your responses on the accompanying computer form
according to the scale. Please mark darkly with a pencil on the computer form.

               If you                                Mark
                  Strongly Agree                    A
                  Agree                             B
                  Disagree                          C
                  Strongly Disagree                 D
                  Statement not applicable          E



1.      Uses a variety of teaching and evaluation techniques to compliment individual
        learning styles.
2.      Explains expectations clearly at beginning of semester and throughout.
3.      Gives overview of what is going to take place at the beginning of the class so
        students know direction and purpose.
4.      Informs students of class cancellations.
5.      Uses enthusiasm, energy, and optimism to motivate students to learn.
6.      Demonstrates positive attitude.
7.      Follows the evaluation method stated at the beginning of the course.
8.      Recognizes when students do not understand the material.
9.      Effectively deals with disruptions in class/group activity.
10.     Displays courtesy and respect by doing such things as keeping appointments,
        arriving to class on time, and ending class on time.
11.     The tests, exams and/or projects reflected the key areas of the course, based on the
        course outline presented.
12.     The marks have been given in a clearly defined, impartial manner.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                     Page 53


13.    The teacher provided feedback in a timely manner on tests and assignments.
14.    The teacher adequately notified you of upcoming tests and assignments.
15.    The teacher demonstrated knowledge of course material.
16.    The teacher attended all scheduled classes.
17.    The teacher was prepared for every class.
18.    The teacher had the ability to convey the subject matter in a way that is understood.
19.    The teacher encouraged students to ask questions or to participate in discussions.
20.    The teacher was available for guidance.
21.    The teacher established a professional rapport with students.
22.    The teacher used current information relevant to the course.
23.    The teacher used innovative ideas relevant to the course.
24.    The teacher maintains a discrimination free environment on the basis of gender, race,
       disability and/or sexual orientation.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                             Page 54


8.0     STANDARD FOUR - CAPACITY TO DELIVER

8.1     Past Performance - Key Performance Indicators


 Year       Graduate            Graduate         Employer         Student           Graduation
            Employment          Satisfaction     Satisfaction     Satisfaction      Rate

 97- 98           86%                72%              86%               78%             52.5%

 98 - 99          89%                81%              94%               78%            60.33%

 99 - 00          89%                85%              90%               80%            70.49%

 00 - 01          87%                84%              87%               78%              N/A

8.1.2   Related Program Key Performance Indicators

NOTE: For some of the categories in the programs listed below, there was no information
available. Where this has occurred it is often due to the fact that Confederation College was unable
to contact a graduate or employer for the purposes of the survey. Although we exercise due
diligence in collecting data about our graduates, this is a frequent occurrence where graduates
have returned to a remote First Nation community upon graduation and left no contact information.
Where this is the case we have stated “NIA” i.e. No information available. In other cases we have
indicated that the category is not applicable (“NA”), such as where a program was not launched
until a subsequent year or was suspended in a given year.

Aboriginal Community Services Worker


 Year       Graduate           Graduate         Employer         Student            Graduation
            Employment         Satisfaction     Satisfaction     Satisfaction       Rate

 97- 98           N/A               N/A              N/A               N/A               N/A

 98 - 99         100%              100%             100%               NIA             56.25%

 99 - 00         100%              100%             100%               NIA               NIA

 00 - 01         100%              100%             100%               NIA               N/A
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                        Page 55




Aboriginal Law and Advocacy


 Year       Graduate          Graduate       Employer         Student           Graduation
            Employment        Satisfaction   Satisfaction     Satisfaction      Rate

 97- 98          NIA              NIA              NIA              NIA            19.35%

 98 - 99         NIA              NIA              NIA              NIA            31.03%

 99 - 00          0%              NIA              NIA             80%             47.06%

 00 - 01        100%              75%              NIA             84.1%             NIA

Business Management (Aboriginal Organizations)


 Year       Graduate          Graduate       Employer         Student          Graduation
            Employment        Satisfaction   Satisfaction     Satisfaction     Rate

 97- 98          NIA              NIA              NIA              NIA             NIA

 98 - 99        100%             100%             100%              NIA           23.68%

 99 - 00        100%             100%             100%             90%            29.17%

 00 - 01        100%              75%              NIA            91.7%             NIA

Indigenous Wellness and Addictions Prevention

Please note: This program was launched in 1999 and had its first graduating class in June 2001.


 Year       Graduate          Graduate       Employer         Student          Graduation
            Employment        Satisfaction   Satisfaction     Satisfaction     Rate

 97 - 98         N/A              N/A              N/A              N/A             N/A

 98 - 99         N/A              N/A              N/A              N/A             N/A

 99 - 00         NIA              NIA              NIA              NIA             NIA

 00 - 01         NIA              NIA              NIA              NIA             NIA
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                 Page 56


Native Child and Family Worker


 Year       Graduate         Graduate        Employer       Student        Graduation
            Employment       Satisfaction    Satisfaction   Satisfaction   Rate

 97- 98          NIA              NIA             NIA            NIA         38.74%

 98 - 99         50%              67%             100%           NIA         20.59%

 99 - 00        100%             66.70%           50%           89.7%        54.55%

 00 - 01        100%             100%             NIA           91.3%          NIA
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                               Page 57


8.2    Program Strengths and Appropriateness to College Mission and Goals


A degree-level program in Indigenous Leadership and Community Development has an
immediate and direct relevance to the strategic commitments and program strengths of
Confederation College and Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies. The geo-political
location of Confederation College is such that its mandate has always focused on the need to
address the development concerns of Northwestern Ontario communities as rural, remote and
Indigenous. Specifically, Confederation College is noted for its history of economic
development, small and medium enterprise-based business and entrepreneurship training, and
international projects. The program outcomes draw upon this foundation of community
development experience, resources and expertise.

In 1999, Confederation consolidated a twenty-two year history of Indigenous-specific
programming with the establishment of Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies, directed
by a community-based council whose long-standing participation in Confederation College
continues to be vital to the College’s regional mandate. The name “Negahneewin” is an Ojibwe
(Anishinabe) word that means “leading the way” and underscores the College’s mandate to
provide leadership in education for a diverse and dynamic Northwestern Ontario. As a college
within Confederation College, Negahneewin exemplifies the philosophy and content of the
program as both Indigenous-specific and cross-cultural. A review of the programs offered by
Confederation and Negahneewin over the years indicates that there is a strong tradition and
base of expertise for development-related curriculum. The programs currently offered3 by
Negahneewin reflect sectors of community development and by various approaches have
prepared graduates to contribute to community life. The development expertise of
Negahneewin is reflected in its full-time teaching faculty, and in a network of community
resources which will be essential to the full development of the applied degree program. This
includes an expansive base of potential part-time teachers who are community workers,
counsellors, lawyers, mediators, political and community leaders, university professors, nurses,
doctors and business owners. Our strength in community development is founded on these and
complementary relationships we have maintained--with First Nation (reserve-based) and urban
Indigenous communities, a broad range of organizations, Tribal Councils, Provincial Territorial
Organizations, service providers and funding authorities (i.e. Northern Nishnawbe Education
Council, Matawa First Nations Management, Seven Generations Education and Training
Institute, and others).



       3
         Aboriginal Community Services Worker, Aboriginal Transition, Aboriginal Financial and
Economic Planning, Aboriginal Law and Advocacy, Business Management (Aboriginal Organizations),
Indigenous Wellness and Addictions Prevention, Native Child and Family Worker. Detailed information
can be accessed at www.confederationc.on.ca/negahneewin.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                     Page 58


Appendix 9.0 elaborates on recent demographic trends and shows that Indigenous communities
are moving toward the centre of the fabric of Northwestern Ontario. Confederation College is
responding in a full and responsible way through the presence of Negahneewin College. A
program in Indigenous Leadership and Community Development, developed and delivered as
an integrated initiative of Confederation and the communities of Northwestern Ontario, will
complement the College’s ongoing efforts to strategize for our current and future regional
profile.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                              Page 59


8.5    Policies on Faculty Evaluation/Renewal

Faculty Credentials/Hiring Policy

Current full-time faculty must have a minimum of a Master’s degree or would be requested to be
enrolled into a Master’s Program which will be completed by 2008 and the appropriate professional
designations. Future full-time appointments must have a minimum of a Master’s degree, the
appropriate professional designation and the appropriate experience (see attached job
advertisement).

By clearly articulating the expected educational requirements for faculty who wish to teach in an
Applied Degree program, we expect the following:

• The development of a faculty base prepared at a minimum of a Master’s level
• The provision of a timeframe within which current faculty without a Master’s preparation will be
   able to upgrade their academic credentials.

The College will provide partial support (release time and financial assistance) to current full-time
faculty who are teaching in an Applied Degree program and who upgrade their academic
credentials to the Master’s and Doctoral levels.

The minimum requirement for adjunct faculty is an undergraduate degree, the appropriate
professional designation and extensive work experience in the relevant profession.

All relevant academic and professional credentials will be kept in the faculty member’s personnel
file. This includes any publications or research completed by an individual. An original copy of all
credentials will be asked for in order to comply with the regulations set out by the granting agency.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                               Page 60




                                                Number: 4-1-06                # of Pages: 5
                                                Originator:                   Human Resources
                                                Approved By:

                                                Effective Date:
                                                Replaces:
                                                                              91-04-01
 DRAFT OPERATING PRACTICE

 RECRUITMENT AND APPOINTMENT – ALL POSITIONS
 DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES ONLY

STATEMENT

       1.1. It is intended that these procedures provide equality of opportunity at the College
            and contribute to a positive image of the College in the community.

       1.2. The process of recruiting will be:
           • Open to those persons possessing the necessary qualifications both internally
              and where applicable, externally;
           • Fair and equitable for all applicants;
           • Transparent to all parties, both those directly involved in the process and those
              viewing the process; and
           • Confidential for the interviewee and interviewer.

       1.3. Hiring decisions should be based on group consensus. Where consensus is not
            reached the hiring supervisor will make the decision.

FULL-TIME POSITIONS – Administrative

   2.1 The supervisor obtains approval from the Vice President to fill a vacancy.

   2.2 The supervisor forwards a signed up-to-date position description form and written
       approval to fill a vacancy (e-mail or memo) to Human Resources Services. The
       supervisor also indicates in writing the extent of the posting: internally or externally,
       locally or nationally.

   2.3 The job evaluation committee, prior to posting, must evaluate new or substantially
       changed administrative positions.

   2.4 Human Resources will generate and distribute an advertisement based on information
       provided by the supervisor.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                              Page 61



   2.5 If the position must be posted externally HR will ensure it is:
            • Placed on the College Employment Opportunity Boards, the existence of which
               will be advertised in the community three times a year;
            • On the internet/intranet; and
            • At HRDC.

    2.6 Internal applicants will receive written acknowledgement of their application. External
    postings will state that only those applicants who are interviewed will be acknowledged.

    2.7 The supervisor establishes and chairs a Search Committee which will include as a
    minimum a:
              • Faculty representative;
              • Support representative;
              • Student representative;
              • An OCASA representative; and
              • Human Resources Services representative

       2.8 The Committee may include an external representative when the position has regular
           dealings with the outside community.

       2.9 Prior to the posting closing, the supervisor will:
           • Draft the Applicant Assessment criteria for the Applicant Assessment Form and
               forward it to HRS; and
           • Develop the interview questions. Interviewers cannot ask questions on the
               applicant's race, ancestry, place of origin, colour, ethnic origin, citizenship,
               religion, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status, family status or disability.
               Guidelines on exceptions to these prohibitions with respect to disability and
               adherence to the Nepotism Policy are found in the "Recruitment Procedures
               Guide" (attached).

   2.10       When the posting has closed, Human Resources Services forwards the
   applications to the supervisor with the following recruitment forms:
              • Applicant Assessment Form
              • Interview Worksheet
              • Candidate Rating Summary
              • Recruitment Summary Form
              • Reference Check Consent Form
              • Reference Verification Form

       2.11   The supervisor and two other search committee members will short list the
              applicants based on the criteria stated on the Application Assessment Form.

       2.12   The supervisor will prepare an interview schedule and contact all interviewees.

       2.13 At least three days before the interviews the supervisor will provide a package to
          the Search Committee members containing the following items:
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 62




              •   Applications/resumes of the short listed candidates;
              •   Schedule of interviews; and
              •   Interview Worksheets.

       2.14   All candidates who are interviewed are asked to sign a Reference Check
              Consent Form.

       2.12 The supervisor must complete three reference checks of the preferred candidate,
          one of which must be their current, immediate supervisor.

       2.13 The supervisor completes and records the reference inquiries of the preferred
          candidate. All reference responses are strictly confidential.

       2.14 Once the reference check process is completed, the supervisor reviews the
          process and hiring recommendation with the Vice-President.

       2.18 The Vice-President approves the recommendation by signing the Recruitment
       Summary Form.

       2.19 The supervisor contacts the successful candidate and negotiates a start date and
       salary.

       2.20   The supervisor provides the following documentation to Human Resources
Services:
                     •   Recruitment Summary Form
                     •   Original and all copies of the Applications
                     •   Application Assessment Forms
                     •   Interview Worksheets
                     •   Candidate Rating Summary
                     •   Reference Check Consent Form
                     •   Reference Verification Form(s)

       2.21   Human Resources Services prepares 3 originals of the employment contract for
              the President’s signature, and then forwards the signed contracts to the
              supervisor.

       2.22 The supervisor meets with the successful candidate and discusses the terms and
       conditions of the appointment, as well as reviewing the Position Description Form and
       Performance Management Form.

       2.23 The candidate signs the three copies of the contract and keeps one for their records.
        The supervisor keeps one copy of the contract for their records and forwards the third
       signed copy to Human Resources Services.

       2.24 Human Resources Services contacts new employees to finalize their payroll and
          benefits documentation.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                            Page 63



       2.25   The supervisor responds personally to all unsuccessful candidates interviewed.

       2.26   If requested, the supervisor will meet with internal applicants to provide an
              opportunity to review their interview performance.

NON-FULL-TIME ACADEMIC, SUPPORT AND ADMINISTRATIVE POSITIONS

       3.1    Definitions:

              Temporary Positions – Employment on a project of a non-recurring kind or for
              which specific time limits are known. Employment does not normally exceed
              twelve months.

              Sessional Teachers – Thirteen or more hours per week for up to 12 months of
              continuous or non-continuous employment in a 24 calendar month period

              Partial Load Teachers – Seven to twelve hours per week on a regular basis

              Part-Time Teachers – Up to six hours per week

              Part-Time Support – Up to 24 hours per week

       3.2    Renewal of contracts for present employees continues as per procedure TBA

       3.3    The supervisor, in consultation with Human Resources Services determines if a
              position is temporary, part-time, partial load or sessional.

       3.4    The supervisor obtains approval from the Vice President to fill a vacancy.

       3.5    The supervisor forwards a signed up-to-date position description form and written
              approval to fill a vacancy (e-mail or memo) to Human Resources Services. The
              supervisor also indicates in writing the extent of the posting: internally or
              externally, locally or nationally.

       3.6    New or substantially changed administration or support positions must be
              evaluated by the appropriate job evaluation committee.

       3.7    Human Resources Services will create and distribute an advertisement. All
              vacancies will be posted per the relevant collective agreement requirements, and
              in the case of administrative jobs that are posted externally:
              • on the Employment Opportunity Boards, the existence of which will be
                   advertised in the community three times a year;
              • on the internet/intranet; and
              • at HRDC.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                               Page 64


              Internal applicants will receive written acknowledgement of their application.
              External postings will state that only those applicants who are interviewed will be
              acknowledged.

       3.8    The supervisor establishes and chairs a Search Committee which for sessional
              teachers will include as a minimum a:
              • Faculty representative;
              • Support representative;
              • Student representative;
              • An OCASA representative; and
              • Human Resources Services representative

       3.9    The Committee may include an external representative when the position has
              regular dealings with the outside community.

       3.10   Prior to the posting closing, the supervisor will:
              • Draft Applicant Assessment criteria for the Applicant Assessment Form; and
              • Develop the interview questions. Interviewers cannot ask questions on the
                  applicant's race, ancestry, place of origin, colour, ethnic origin, citizenship,
                  religion, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status, family status or disability.
                   Guidelines on exceptions to these prohibitions with respect to disability and
                  adherence to the Nepotism Policy are found in the "Recruitment Procedures
                  Guide" (attached).

       3.11   When the posting has closed Human Resources Services forwards the
              applications to the supervisor with the following recruitment forms:
              • Applicant Assessment Form
              • Interview Worksheet
              • Candidate Rating Summary
              • Recruitment Summary Form
              • Reference Check Consent Form
              • Reference Verification Form

       3.12   The supervisor and two other search committee members will short list the
              applicants based on the criteria stated on the Application Assessment Form.

       3.13   The supervisor will prepare an interview schedule and contact all interviewees.

       3.14   At least three days before the interviews the supervisor will provide a package to
              the Search Committee members containing the following items:
              • Applications of the short listed candidates;
              • Schedule of interviews; and
              • Interview Worksheets.

       3.15   All candidates who are interviewed are asked to sign a Reference Check
              Consent Form.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 65


       3.16   The supervisor must complete three reference checks of the preferred candidate,
              one of which must be their current, immediate supervisor.

       3.17   The supervisor completes and records the reference inquiries of the preferred
              candidates. All reference responses are strictly confidential.

       3.18   Once the reference check process is completed, the supervisor reviews the
              process and hiring recommendation with the Vice-President.

       3.19   The Vice-President approves the recommendation by signing the Recruitment
              Summary Form and for academic positions only, a Salary Calculation Form.

       3.20   The supervisor contacts the successful candidate and negotiates a start date and
              for Administrative positions only, a salary.

       3.21   The supervisor provides the following documentation to Human Resources
Services:
              •   Recruitment Summary Form
              •   Original and all copies of the Applications
              •   Application Assessment Forms
              •   Interview Worksheets
              •   Candidate Rating Summary
              •   Reference Check Consent Form
              •   Reference Verification Form(s)
              •   Request to Hire
              •   Salary Calculation Form (for academic positions only)
              •   Copy of any advertising (from Regional Campuses only)

       3.22   Human Resources Services prepares three (3) originals of the employment
              contract for the President’s signature, and then forwards the signed contracts to
              the supervisor.

       3.23   The supervisor meets with the successful candidate and discusses the terms and
              conditions of the appointment as well as reviewing the Position Description Form
              and Performance Management Form.

       3.24   The candidate signs three copies of the contract and keeps one for their records.
              The supervisor keeps one copy of the contract for their records and forwards the
              third signed copy to Human Resources Services.

       3.25   Human Resources Services contacts new employees to finalize their payroll and
              benefits documentation.

       3.26   The supervisor responds personally to all unsuccessful candidates interviewed.

       3.27   If requested, the supervisor will meet with internal candidates who were
              interviewed to provide an opportunity to review their interview performance.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                              Page 66


                                   POSITION VACANCY
PROFESSOR
                                                                           Competition # AC-F-02-
Location:       Thunder Bay                       Status:          Full-Time

Department:     Negahneewin College of
                Indigenous Studies
                                                  Salary Range: $40,793 to $ 75,809
Classification: Academic
                                                  Effective Date: September 2002
Reports to:     Dean, Negahneewin College
                of Indigenous Studies
Posting Date:                                     Closing Date:

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:

   •   Classroom Teaching                            •      Program and course development
   •   Effective classroom management                •      Committee work at both the program
   •   Student evaluation                                   and college levels.
   •   Liaison and dialogue with Indigenous
       communities in the development of a
       co-op program


QUALIFICATIONS

   •   Must posses a graduate degree and             •      Keen analysis of international political
       have a record of academic publication.               economy as it impacts Indigenous
   •   Preferred areas of concentration                     Peoples.
       include Political Science, Law,               •      Extensive knowledge of alternatives to
       Economics or Liberal Arts.                           contemporary political discourse in
   •   Must have a minimum of five years                    Aboriginal-Canadian relations.
       experience in a leadership role and           •      Understanding of Indigenous
       have held a variety of positions with                community life, customs and practices
       responsibilities relating to community               is integral.
       development.                                  •      Effective communication, analytical,
   •   Strong background in community-                      organizational, advocacy, mediation
       based processes and management of                    and negotiation skills as demonstrated
       projects.                                            in specific community-based projects.
   •   Demonstrated experience in working            •      Ability to communicate in the Ojibwe
       with Indigenous communities in                       and/or Cree language would be an
       addressing development issues.                       asset.
   •   Thorough understanding of the
       worldviews held by Indigenous peoples
       is critical.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                                Page 67


Faculty Evaluation/Review

The following is excerpted directly from Confederation College's Faculty Evaluation Manual. This
criteria was adopted by Confederation College in 1996, and was reviewed by the Director, Human
Resources Services in April 2002.

PURPOSE

Confederation College is committed to the implementation of a consistent evaluation process for all
faculty, whether they are full time, part time, sessional or hourly teachers. At the most general level,
the purposes of evaluation of faculty performance include the improvement of teaching and
learning, professional growth and institutional improvement. More specifically the purposes are:

1.     to provide a forum for open discussion of a faculty member’s individual strengths and
       identification of areas where improvement is needed;

2.     to provide assistance to the faculty member for improvement of performance, and
       ongoing development and achievement of teacher excellence;

3.     to provide an opportunity for the faculty and his/her supervisor to set mutual objectives;

4.     to recognize the importance of the faculty member’s contribution to institutional success;

5.     to demonstrate to student a concern for the quality of their educational experience and to
       ensure that students are involved in the evaluation process;

6.     to ensure ongoing evaluation of course content and delivery with faculty, chair/supervisor
       and student involvement.

The Faculty Evaluation Process will be reviewed on a biannual basis.

SHAREHOLDERS IN FACULTY EVALUATION

The shareholders involved in the evaluation of teaching performance include:

1.     Faculty Member
2.     Academic Manager
3.     Students
4.     Human Resources Services

The responsibilities and accountabilities of each of these shareholders are outlined in the
descriptions that follow:
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 68


1.     FACULTY RESPONSIBILITIES AND ACCOUNTABLILITIES

1.1     All faculty should be aware that they will be evaluated on an annual basis. This includes
       input collected from a combination of:

       i)     academic manager who must observe a class of full time faculty member at least
              once every three years, but may observe a class at any other time.

       ii)    students during the fall semester, and again during the winter semester if requested
              by faculty and/or academic manager. The “Standard Student Evaluation
              Questionnaire” will be used with all faculty, with full time faculty and/or their
              academic manager having the option of selecting additional behaviours to assess.

       iii)   peers who may be invited by the faculty member to provide teaching performance

       iv)    self evaluation of teaching performance

1.2    Meet yearly with academic manager to discuss evaluation process to be used. This process
       must always include input from the students and the academic manager, and may also
       include input from peers and/or self evaluation

1.3    In collaboration with academic manager, may individualize the “Standard Student Feedback
       Questionnaire” by selecting additional behaviours from the “Qualities of Excellent Teachers
       Inventory”

1.4    Explain the purpose and process of performance evaluation to students.

1.5    Complete self-evaluation and/or peer evaluation section(s) on “Faculty Performance Review
       Form”.

1.6    Identify professional development needs and interests.

1.7    Review feedback from academic manager’s observations of teaching, students’ evaluation
       and/or peer review.

1.8    Identify areas that require performance improvements.

1.9    Review, add comments, sign and receive a copy of “Faculty Performance Review Form”.

1.10   Participate in biannual review and possible revision of the faculty evaluation process.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                            Page 69


2.     ACADEMIC MANAGER RESPONSIBILITIES AND ACCOUNTABILITIES

2.1    Academic managers will receive training in the faculty evaluation process and be aware
       that the process includes input collected from a combination of:

       i)      academic manager who must observe a class of a full time faculty member at least
               once every three years, but may observe a class at any other time. For part time,
               partial load and sessional employees in teaching positions, classroom visitations by
               the academic manager are required for new hires and thereafter on an “as needs”
               basis.

       ii)     students during the fall semester, and again during the winters semester if
               requested by faculty and/or academic manager. The “Standard Student Evaluation
               Questionnaire” will be used with all faculty, with full time faculty and/or their
               academic manager having the option of selecting additional behaviours to assess.

       iii)    Peers who may be invited by the faculty member to provide feedback on teaching
               performance

       iv)     Self evaluation of teaching performance

2.2    Set yearly appointments with faculty to:

       i)      develop faculty objectives for upcoming year, including collaborating with the
               selection of additional behaviours from the “Qualities of Excellent Teachers
               Inventory” to add to the “Standard Student Evaluation Questionnaire”.

       ii)     develop methods of evaluation to be used that year, for example, classroom
               visitation by academic manager, self and/or peer evaluation.

       iii)    Evaluate previous year’s objectives.

2.3    Observe faculty in the teaching environment and meet with the faculty immediately following
       the observation to review and discuss the observation. Observation of faculty by the
       academic manager must be conducted every three (3) years, and may be conducted every
       year in consultation with the faculty member.

For part time, partial load and sessional employees in teaching positions, classroom visitations by
the academic manager are required for new hires and thereafter on an “as needs” basis.


2.4    Print the AStandard Student Evaluation Questionnaire A with any additional behaviours to
       be assessed by student for each faculty (see 2.1 ii )
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                            Page 70


2.5     Arrange for the distribution and collection of student evaluation forms by someone other
       than the teacher. To maximize the validity of the process, the faculty member will not be
       present in the classroom during the completion of forms. The feedback from students will
       take place approximately 2/3 to conclusion of course (i.e. the first two weeks of December
       and first two weeks of April in most post secondary courses.)

2.6    Arrange for tabulation of student data by the computer centre. The computer centre will
       send the summary of results of the student evaluation to the academic manager.

2.7    Discuss results of student evaluation with the faculty in a timely fashion or once the final
       grades have been submitted. The faculty member will receive a copy of the results.

2.8    Complete the “Faculty Performance Review Form” and submit to Human Resources
       Services for all full time and sessional faculty by June 30 of each academic year; and for
       probationary employees at four-month intervals. For part time and partial load faculty, the
       summary of results of the student evaluation will be kept in the employee’s personnel file.

2.9    Provide a copy of completed “Faculty Performance Review Form” to faculty member.

2.10   Forward faculty professional development needs and interests to Staff Development
       department.

2.11   Participate in the biannual review and possible revision of the Faculty Evaluation Process.


3.     STUDENT RESPONSIBILITIES

3.1    The Student Union of Confederation College Inc. (S.U.C.C.I.) will be responsible for
       informing students of the importance of student involvement in faculty evaluation and their
       involvement in the process, i.e. during orientation, through the Student Handbook, and on
       other occasions.

3.2    Students will complete faculty evaluation forms which will be distributed in every teacher’s
       class.

3.3    Students will participate in the biannual review and possible revision of the Faculty
       Evaluation Process.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                              Page 71


4.     HUMAN RESOURCES SERVICES RESPONSIBILITIES AND ACCOUNTABILITIES

4.1    Introduce newly hired faculty to Confederation College Evaluation Process during employee
       induction.

4.2    Remind chairs when probationary evaluations are due at 4-month intervals to 12 or 24
       months.

4.3    Receive copy of faculty evaluation, signed by faculty and chair, at yearly-designated date.

4.4    Maintain evaluations in employee’s personnel file.

4.5    Notify deans, in August of each year, of faculty evaluations for previous years not
       received.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                            Page 72


Professional Development

Confederation College promotes curricular and instructional innovation in many ways. Annually,
an Employee Recognition Night is held to recognize outstanding staff contributions to the
College’s success. The criteria for the Faculty Award for Teaching and Learning Excellence
award are: knowledge of subject; delivery techniques; interpersonal skills; and professionalism.

The Collective Agreement allows for a Professional Development Leave (10 days) in order to
pursue growth in new teaching techniques and up to date information within a Faculty member’s
specific field of instruction. Encouraging this leave ensures that program delivery will be current
and up to date.

The Agreement also states that a Faculty member can request a Professional Development
Leave and receive a portion of the salary at the same time. Once a suitable substitute can be
found, a member may apply to the College to take a Professional Development Leave from one
(1) month up to twelve (12) months. Members can earn a percentage of the salary while away
on Professional Development Leave. If a member has six (6) or less years of employment with
the college, they will earn 55% of their base salary. Each year after, the percentage increases
by five (5) up to a maximum of 70% after nine (9) years. The member must apply, in writing, to
the Academic Director of their Department six (6) months in advance to commencement date.
The College President will then notify Faculty Member whether or not their leave is granted.

See attached policies and announcements for detail.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                                Page 73




                                     Number: 4-3-05               # of Pages: 6
                                     Originator:                       Human Resources Services
                                     Approved By:                 President
                                     Effective Date:              95 10 31
                                     Replaces:                    91-11-12



    COLLEGE PRACTICE

    PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE – ACADEMIC STAFF

1       STATEMENT

     The College recognizes that it is in the interest of employees, students and the College that
     employees are given the opportunity to pursue College-approved professional development
     activities outside the College through further academic or technical studies or in the
     workplace where such activities will enhance the ability of the employee, upon return to the
     College, to fulfil professional responsibilities.

        In recognition of the fact that it is the professional responsibility of individual faculty
        members to keep up to date with developments in their fields of discipline, faculty will
        assume an active role in identifying, selecting and planning their professional
        development leave.

2       CONDITIONS

        2.1    The professional development leaves granted each year will be distributed on the
        basis of the selection criteria outlined in 5.3. The minimum number of leaves to be
        awarded to faculty members, as stipulated in the Academic Collective Agreement, will be
        respected.

        2.2     The employee shall have completed not less than six (6) years of continuous
                employment at the College.

        2.3     A suitable substitute can be obtained.

        2.4     The leave will normally be for a period of one (1) to twelve (12) months.
                Typically, work leaves for faculty will be for a period of two to four months.

        2.5     The salary paid to the employee for educational leave will be based on the
                following scale: fifty-five percent (55%) of the employee's normal salary
                increasing by five percent (5%) per year after six (6) years of employment with
                the College to a maximum of seventy percent (70%) of the employee's normal
                salary after nine years. The salary paid to employees on work leave will be
                100%.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 74



       2.6      Payment of salary by the College is subject to reduction if the aggregate of the
                College's payment and compensation or payments from other sources during the
                period exceeds the amount of the employee's normal salary.

       2.7      Upon returning from a professional development leave, the employee is expected
                to work at the College for at least one (1) year unless otherwise agreed between
                the employee and the College, failing which the employee shall repay the
                College for all salaries and fringe benefits received while on leave.


3      OBJECTIVES OF THE LEAVE

       3.1    Activities pursued during the professional development leave should be directed
       towards the fulfilment of one or more of the following objectives:

                a)      enhance the staff member's knowledge and effectiveness within his/her
                        discipline, vocational or related fields;
                b)      enhance the teaching/learning resources of a particular department of the
                        College;
                c)      augment the College's ability to respond to the Community.

4      PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE COMMITTEE

       4.1      A Professional Development Leave Committee will be established to review
                applications for Professional Development leaves and make recommendations to
                the President.

       4.2       The Professional Development Leave Committee comprises seven members;
             three (3) faculty representing each Division, one (1) faculty appointed by the Local
             Union, one (1) appointed Academic Chair , one (1) representative from Human
             Resources Services and the Director, Human Resources Services (or designate
             responsible for Staff Development).


5      PROCEDURES

       5.1   Applications for professional development are submitted to the employee's
       immediate supervisor on the Professional Development Leave Application Form
       (Appendix A). The application must be submitted by November 15th for the next
       academic year.

       5.2      The supervisor will then forward the application form with recommendations to
                the Division Head for approval. The Division Head will forward all approved
                applications to the Professional Development Leave Committee for ranking.

       5.3      The Professional Development Leave Committee will establish a ranking of all
                requests, taking into consideration the following points:
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                               Page 75


                a)      Benefits of the leave to the College, individual and the community.

                b)      The appropriateness of the activity to the applicant's position and
                        background.

                c)      Chairs' and Division Heads' recommendations.

                d)      Number of years of service the employee worked without benefit of a
                        professional development leave;

                e)      Distribution of professional development leave among the various
                        departments in the past;

                f)      Number of employees requesting professional development leave.

       5.4      Based on this ranking, the Professional Development Leave Committee will
                forward recommendations to the Deans' Committee for review.

       5.5      After a meeting with the Deans' Committee, the Chair of the Professional
                Development Leave Committee will make recommendations to the President for
                approval of professional development leave requests by January 30th. All
                applicants will be informed by February 15th.

       5.6      If the requested leave is approved, Human Resources will then prepare an
                agreement detailing the terms and conditions of the approved leave. Human
                Resources will forward three (3) copies of the agreement to the supervisor for
                release. Two (2) signed agreements are returned to the supervisor who forwards
                one signed copy to Human Resources. Human Resources will advise Division
                Heads of all approved and non-approved requests.

       5.7      An applicant who is denied professional development leave shall be notified in
                writing by the Chair of the Professional Development Leave Committee, on
                behalf of the President, of the reasons for denial.

       5.8      Faculty who receive approval to participate in a work leave will also be required
                to submit a Work Leave Plan (Appendix B) to the Division Head to be forwarded
                to Human Resources at least one month prior to the commencement of the
                leave.

       5.9      A Work Experience Placement Agreement (Appendix C) along with a letter
                (Appendix D) to the participating employer will be prepared by Human
                Resources. The participant is to ensure the agreement is completed and
                returned to Human Resources prior to commencement of the leave.

       5.10       Upon return from the professional development leave, an employee shall submit
                 (within 60 days) to his/her Chair/Manager a written report that clearly identifies
             the      activities undertaken and how the objectives were achieved.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                         Page 76




       5.11   Copies of the report will be forwarded by the Chair/Manager to the Division Head.

       5.12   All financial remuneration from outside sources will be summarized and a full
              account must be submitted to Human Resources (within two months).
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 77


                                      APPENDIX B
                                    WORK LEAVE PLAN

External Contact Information

1.     Name of Employer Sponsor:

2.     Contact Person:

3.     Address:


Internal Contact Information

4.     Name of College Participant: _____________________            Ext.______________


5.     Coordinating Supervisor: ______________________                Ext. ______________


6.     Proposed Dates for Work Experience:

7.     Previous Work Experience? Yes        No     Date(s)

Work Experience Details

8.     Identified objectives of the work experience opportunity as arranged between the
       Participant and the Sponsor:

       (a) ____________________________________________________________

       (b) ____________________________________________________________

       (c) ____________________________________________________________

       (d) ____________________________________________________________


Applicant's Signature                                            Date

Chair's/Manager's Comments:


RECOMMENDED BY:
Chair/Manager                                                    Date

APPROVED BY:
     Dean/Director                                               Date
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                             Page 78


                                          APPENDIX C

                       WORK EXPERIENCE PLACEMENT AGREEMENT
                                             between

                                 CONFEDERATION COLLEGE
                                          and

                                          [EMPLOYER]

                                               and

                                          [EMPLOYEE]

TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF WORK

[The employee] will:

1.     enter into the services of [the employer].

2.     arrive at the placement at the times specified and be in attendance for the hours agreed
       upon each day.

3.     call [the employer] and Confederation College if unable to work for any reason (i.e.
       illness).

4.     inform [the employer] and Confederation College immediately if involved in an accident
       or injury during working hours.

Confederation College will:

1.     maintain the employee's normal salary and benefits.

2.     be responsible for processing all Workers' Compensation Claims within 48 hours of any
       accident or injury involving the employee while on the work placement.

3.     be able to terminate this agreement by giving written notice stating the effective date and
       reason.

[The employer] will:

1.     provide the employee with effective and direct employment experience as [       ].

2.     comply with the Occupational Health and Safety Act.

3.     inform Confederation College immediately if employee is involved in an accident or injury
       during working hours.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 79


4.     be able to terminate this agreement by giving written notice stating the effective date and
       reason.

This agreement will be effective from [           ] to [            ].



__________________             ______________               _______________

[Chair/Manager]               [The Employer]                [The Employee]
Confederation College


___________                    ___________                  ___________
                Date                           Date                          Date
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                            Page 80


                                          APPENDIX D




Dear :

On behalf of Confederation College, I would like to thank you for your participation in the
Professional Development Leave - Work Leave Plan for academic staff. This work leave will
assist { } to keep up to date with the developments in {her/his} field of discipline.

Attached is an agreement which outlines the terms and conditions of the Work Experience
Placement. If your firm is in agreement with these terms, please sign and return one copy.

At any time should you have any questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to call me at
(807) [    ].

Once again, thank you for your participation and interest in our faculty and their Professional
Development.

Sincerely,



[Chair/Manager]

/sg
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                             Page 81




                                     Number: 4-3-02              # of Pages: 1
                                     Originator:                           Human Resources Services
                                     Approved By:                Executive Committee
                                     Effective Date:             86 03 06
                                     Replaces:


    COLLEGE PRACTICE

    COLLEGE SUPPORT FOR EMPLOYEES TAKING EDUCATIONAL SUBJECT OR COURSES

1       STATEMENT

     1.1 Employees must maintain and develop knowledge and skills necessary to carry out their
     duties. The staff and the college share this responsibility.

        1.2     The college will facilitate staff development that enables employees to enhance
                their job performance.

        1.3     The college may reimburse an employer for a portion or all of the costs involved
                in taking a course or subject.

2       PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING SUPPORT

     2.1 Any individual desiring college support in order to take a course or subject must apply in
     writing to the employee's immediate supervisor prior to enrolling.

        2.2     The application will include the following information:

                a)     registration date
                b)     duration of course or subject
                c)     fee and related costs
                d)     course content
                e)     applicability towards job responsibilities or career development
                f)     any requirement to be absent from normal workplace
                g)     a copy of the professional development action plan established by the
                       employee and the employee's supervisor

        2.3     The supervisor will forward the application with comments and recommendations
                to the Division Head for approval.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                            Page 82


                   Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching and Learning

Criteria:
This award is designed to honour teachers who demonstrate excellence in teaching and
learning, which has contributed to student success, to their own professional development, to
the goals of their Division, and to the Mission of the College. Teachers nominated for the award
should demonstrate excellence in the following areas:

Knowledge of Subject:

The teacher
• discusses current developments in their field.
• demonstrates a broad depth of knowledge and experience in the field.
• demonstrates divergent points of view.
• relates topics to other disciplines.
• directs students to useful information in the field.
• understands learning.

Delivery Techniques:

The teacher demonstrates excellence in content delivery through a variety of methods including:
• use of innovative teaching/learning strategies.
• creation or use of creative learning materials.
• using strategies to encourage class participation.
• facilitation of achievement of course learning outcomes.
• stimulation of interest in the topic and arouses learner curiosity.
• clear expectations of course expectations, including student learning outcomes and
evaluation.

Interpersonal Skills:

The teacher demonstrates excellence in interpersonal skills by providing the class with:
• enthusiasm for teaching/learning/subject areas.
• concern for and the priority given to student learning.
• an open environment that encourages a free exchange of ideas.
• a safe, non-threatening, harassment free environment.
• respect for students and sensitivity to others.
• objectivity, feedback and positive reinforcement.
• ability to recognize own limitations and takes responsibility.

Professionalism:
The teacher demonstrates professionalism by:
• involvement in professional organizations.
• active involvement in college activities (committees, union, student activities).
• involvement with community organizations on behalf of the college.
• constantly upgrading their knowledge base.
• demonstrating that they are a life-long learner.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 83



                The Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching and Learning

                                2002 Recipient – RICK JASON


The Vice President of Academic and Student Services is pleased to announce the 2002
recipient of the Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching and Learning. This year’s recipient is
Rick Jason, Coordinator of the Human Resource Management program and the Human
Resource Management Post Diploma program.

The submission on behalf of Rick Jason clearly demonstrated his excellence in the following
areas: knowledge of subject, delivery techniques, interpersonal skills, and professionalism.

Rick’s knowledge of his subject matter was described as current, expansive, holistic and
unmatched. Rick uses a combination of his practical experience with book knowledge to deliver
his content and gives his students simulations to apply their knowledge. He challenges his
students to expand their knowledge base through projects, discussion and debate. His classes
are described as comfortable and open. He is described as flexible, enthusiastic, genuine,
energetic, patient, and concerned for the success of his students. Rick demonstrates his
professionalism through example as well as through his connection with his professional
associations. He involves his students with the professional associations through meetings and
workshops and he maintains a professional standard in his contacts with his students. The
students’ earnestness and their respect for Mr. Jason were clearly evidenced in the submission.

Confederation College commends Rick Jason on a job well done.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                             Page 84


                                                                                             5/6/02
Contact:
Community & Media Relations
(807) 475 6202

OUTSTANDING COLLEGE PROFESSOR OF THE YEAR

Confederation College is pleased to announce that Rob McCormack, Professor of Multimedia has
been awarded Outstanding College Professor of the Year.

 Rob’s dedication as a College professor has contributed to the well-being and success of his
students. “There is a great pleasure in making a small difference in the quality of people’s lives”,
states Rob, who designed a text-to-speech software program. ReadPlease 2000 gives access to
people who are visually impaired, mute, physically impaired and the learning disabled. This
program vocally delivers web pages, email or any text on the computer screen in natural-sounding
human voices.

Administered by the Canadian Council for the Advancement of Education (CCAE) and the
Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE), “the goal of the Canadian
Professors of the Year Program is to increase awareness of the importance of
postsecondary instruction at all types of higher education institutions by honoring
individuals who bring respect and admiration to pedagogy. By recognizing faculty
members for their achievements as teachers, the award gives campuses an opportunity
to demonstrate to their community, alumni, students, parents, elected and appointed
officials, donors and others, the outstanding instruction offered by their institutions. The
award is an ideal way to celebrate excellence on campus and provide role models for
faculty and students”.

Mr. McCormack will receive his award at a ceremony on February 22, 2002 in Montreal.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                      Page 85


                                                                            February 5, 2002
Contact:
Community & Media Relations
(807) 475 6202


COLLEGE PROFESSOR RECEIVES PROVINCIAL AWARD FOR INNOVATION

Professor of Multimedia Rob McCormack, is one of the first recipients of the ACAATO Awards
for Leadership, Innovation and Partnership, as announced by the Association of Colleges of
Applied Arts & Technology of Ontario. Rob is the only recipient in the Innovation category.
These awards recognize individuals, organizations and volunteers who have made an
outstanding contribution to the advancement of Ontario’s colleges.

Rob was instrumental in creating the college’s Faculty Innovation Centre, which
advances innovation in curriculum through the use of technology. As a faculty member,
he is described as an excellent role model and educator who goes the extra mile. Rob
has developed QuizPlease, a software program to help faculty produce on-line tests; and
ReadPlease, a program that vocally delivers text on the computer screen to people who
are visually impaired, mute and the learning disabled. Rob was recently awarded the
Outstanding College Professor of the Year, a national award from the Canadian
Professors of the Year Program.

The Awards for Leadership, Innovation and Partnership will be presented at the annual
ACAATO conference in London, Ontario on February 18, 2002.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                                 Page 86


                                                                                               02/04/02
Contact:
Community & Media Relations
(807) 475 6202

COLLEGE LIBRARY DIRECTOR, LARAINE TAPAK
RECOGNIZED FOR OUTSTANDING ACADEMIC LIBRARIANSHIP

Confederation College is proud to announce that Laraine Tapak, Director, Learning and Resource
Centres has been awarded the provincial 2002 Award of Merit for college and university librarians.

This annual award from the Ontario College and University Library Association (OCULA) recognizes
outstanding achievement in the field of college and university libraries and learning centres
throughout Ontario. It signifies that this person has made a difference both within his or her
institution and beyond in the wider world Ontario’s libraries. This is the first time since its inception
in 1986 that the OCULA Award of Merit has been presented to a northern college or university.

Laraine is a persistent and devoted champion of college libraries. Her tireless advocacy has raised
the profile of the Learning and Resource Centres both within, and outside of the college system.
She is a mentor to new librarians and strongly encourages them to get involved with the greater
library community through regional networks and professional associations. During her years at the
Thunder Bay Public Library, Laraine launched Northern Ontario’s first on-line reference service in a
public library and developed a major Local History Archive on Northwestern Ontario.

While at the College, Laraine was awarded a library automation grant from Geac, Inc., in an
international competition that dispensed only 20 grants worldwide.

Laraine has also chaired the Canadian Association of College & Technical Libraries for 3 years.
She is the current Chair of the Ontario College Librarian’s Advisory Group and has just been
elected Vice-Chair of the Thunder Bay Public Library.

The OCULA Award of Merit was presented to Laraine Tapak at a special reception at the Crowne
Plaza Hotel in Toronto on January 31, 2002.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                             Page 87


8.6    Enrolment Projections and Staffing Implications


                               Staffing Requirements - Projected

                Cumulative     Cumulative       Cumulative          Cumulative        Ratio of Full-
                Enrolment      Full-time        Part-time           Technical Staff   Time
                               Faculty          faculty             Assigned to       Students/
                               Equivalents      equivalents         Program           Full Time
                                                                                      Faculty

                 Full-Time
                Equivalents*

Year One              35               1               .33               N/A              35:1

Year Two              65               2               .66               N/A              33:1

Year Three            94               3                1                N/A              31:1

Year Four            125               3                2                N/A              42:1

Year Five            133               3                2                N/A              44:1
* Full-Time Equivalents include full-time and part-time students.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 88


8.7     Resources

8.7.1   Library Resources


Library Resources # of Holdings (Print) relevant           # of Holdings (Electronic)
Relevant to Applied to the field of study                  (including Program Specific
Degree Program                                             Databases)
Area
(For Students/      Current            If Program          Current            If Program
Faculty)                               Approved                               Approved

Challis Resource    Books = 2040   Books = 4000 Four electronic               Four electronic
Centre (Thunder Bay Magazines and Magazines and databases                     databases plus
Campus)             Journals = 150 Journals = 200 provide full text of        subscriptions to
                                                  journal and                 additional
                                                  magazine articles           electronic
                                                                              journals in the
                                                                              field of
                                                                              development,
                                                                              politics and
                                                                              economics

Students at Confederation College Regional Campuses (Sioux Lookout, Kenora, Fort Frances,
Dryden, Geraldton and Marathon) can access the Challis Resource Centre resources through
on-line searching and booking.

Students also have access to resources through Interlibrary Loan from other college libraries at
no additional cost. As well, Lakehead University makes its library available to all community
members who wish to obtain a library card.

8.7.2   On-line Delivery Resources - Not Applicable
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                    Page 89




8.7.3.1         Computer Access

Year      Number of       Number of      Number of       Location of Computers
          Students        Computers      Computers
          (Cumulative)    Available to   with Internet
                          Applied        Access          One       Multi-        Off
                          Degree         Available to    Campus    campuses      Site
                          Students       Applied
                                         Degree
                                         Students
One       35              330            330

Two       65              330            330

Three     94              330            330

Four      125             330            330

Five      133             330            330
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                              Page 90




8.7.3.2         Computers Available - Breakdown by Campus and Type of Computer
                Access


 Campus Location                      Lab Computers         Open Booking Stations

 Thunder Bay                                 217                     50

 Dryden                                      16

 Fort Frances                                28                       4

 Geraldton                                   12

 Kenora                                      31                       6

 Marathon                                    12

 Sioux Lookout                               14
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                 Page 91




8.7.4    Classroom Space


 Year       Number of       Number of       Location of Classrooms
            Students        Classrooms
            (Cumulative)                    One         Multi        Off site   Other
                                            campus      Campuses
 One        35                    1

 Two        65                    2

 Three      94                    3

 Four       125                   4

 Five       133                   4
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                      Page 92




8.7.5    Laboratories/Equipment


 Year       Number of       Number of       Location of All Laboratories/Equipment
            Students        Labs*
            (Cumulative)                    One          Multi         Off site      Other
                                            campus       Campuses
 One        35                    1

 Two        65                    1

 Three      94                    1

 Four       125                   1

 Five       133                   1

* Relates to the Computer Applications course
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 93


8.7.6     Resource Renewal and Up-Grading

Library

In the event that the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development Program is approved,
current funds in the amount of ($7000) have been identified to supplement the Challis Centre
Holdings. Further financial resources will be allocated in subsequent years from both the
College’s core funding, and possibly from the financial assistance Negahneewin College
receives from the Aboriginal Education and Training Strategy. The latter is renewed on a yearly
basis and cannot be committed in advance; however, Negahneewin College of Indigenous
Studies has consistently used a part of its AETS allocation to purchase books and other
resources, and will continue to do this annually.

Computers

Computers are renewed/upgraded on a four-year cycle. Confederation College replaces or
upgrades approximately 100 computers per year.

Classrooms

Classroom maintenance is based upon an annual audit of facilities (20% per year). The
findings of the audit are included in the Capital Plan and Investment Report which is submitted
to the MTCU yearly. From the audit and College priorities Facilities Services prepares a list of
Facilities Renewal projects to MTCU for approval. The College gets approval for approximately
 $400,000 per year for Facilities Renewal. The majority of this money is used for building
renewal (i.e. lighting, flooring, ceiling, roofing and HVAC upgrades).

Construction is currently in progress for the Aviation Centre of Excellence to be located at
Thunder Bay International Airport. Partial funding for this project was based upon an
application to the Superbuild Fund. Currently, Confederation College has no need to augment
classroom space at any of its buildings or campuses.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 94


8.8    Support Services


 Support Service             Available to Applied Degree Students

 Tutoring                    Learning Centre staff have the capacity to arrange peer tutors
                             for college courses.
 Academic Advising           The Learning Centre offers support to students requiring
                             academic assistance. In addition to tutoring services, the
                             Learning Centre provides guidance on time/stress management,
                             taking notes, reading textbooks, scheduling time, studying,
                             writing essays, preparing for and writing tests and exams,
                             memorizing techniques, and writing multiple choice exams.

                             Counselling Services also assists with academic advising
                             relating to career or vocational assessment, selecting a career,
                             difficulties in studies, and program or course transfers.

                             In addition to the above, faculty provide academic advice as
                             needed.

 Career Counselling          The Career Services office provides assistance to students and
                             graduates interested in obtaining full-time, summer and part-time
                             employment. A variety of employment and placement services
                             are also available to employers.

                             Student and employer services include: resume service, job
                             preparation seminars, graduate employment statistics and
                             report, advertising job opportunities/job board, on-line job bank,
                             employer listings, promotion of student/graduate hiring,
                             graduate employment registration, career fairs, employer
                             recruitment services, employer liaison, and occupational and
                             career information.


 Personal Counselling        In addition to academic advising, Counselling Services
                             provides personal assistance in areas such as college
                             orientation, stress management, personal problems,
                             relationships, and establishing goals.


 Placement                   One of the functions of Career Services is to develop and
                             monitor co-op placements and field placements.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 95




 Support Service              Available to Applied Degree Students

 Services for Students with   The Learning Centre provides specialized support for eligible
 Disabilities                 students with disabilities in the areas of academic, personal and
                              career advisement, needs assessments and recommendations
                              for accommodations, learning strategies, information and
                              resources on disabilities and technological aids and adaptive
                              devices. Faculty are regularly advised on the necessity of
                              providing these supports;

 Negahneewin Support          An Aboriginal Student Counsellor is available to provide or
 Services                     arrange personal and grief counselling, academic counselling,
                              liaison with First Nation Education Authorities regarding funding
                              and sponsorship, career information and referrals to support
                              agencies in the community if required.

                              An Aboriginal Community Liaison Officer assists students in
                              identifying special needs, provides individualized support in time
                              management, study skills, life skills, and student success
                              strategies, liaises with the Indigenous student community
                              including the Oshki-Anishnawbeg Student Association, Student
                              Union of Confederation College and college-wide community,
                              performs recruitment and liaison with Indigenous communities,
                              education authorities and agencies, and arranges for guest
                              speakers on educational issues.

                              The Northern Nishnawbe Education Council Liaison provides
                              personal and academic support and assistance for those
                              students sponsored by NNEC. The Liaison works with
                              Negahneewin College to promote a sense of community among
                              all students. The NNEC and Negahneewin partnership thus
                              enables students sponsored by NNEC to receive day to day
                              support in a dynamic environment in which flexibility and
                              proactive strategies are applied to maximize opportunities for
                              student success.

                              A pilot project designed to promote the development of the
                              Oshki-Anishnawbeg Student Association (OASA) provides for a
                              Student Community Facilitator who works directly with the
                              OASA on a daily basis.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 96



 Support Service             Available to Applied Degree Students
                             The Aboriginal Regional Liaison (Kenora) works directly with
                             both Negahneewin College and the regional communities to
                             provide support, receive requests for education and training, and
                             to assist Confederation College in meeting its mandate to
                             regional communities.


 Student Community           Through pro-active leadership and representation, the Student
 Organizations               Union Of Confederation College Inc. (SUCCI) advocates for
                             the best interests of the student body and provides student
                             services which compliment student life, foster personal growth
                             and development, and enhance the formal education process.

                             The goal of the Oshki-Anishnawbeg Student Association
                             (OASA) is to create an Indigenous student community on and off
                             campus. The Executive represents the Indigenous students at
                             Confederation and increases awareness of Indigenous culture
                             and perspectives in the community. OASA hosts Pow Wows,
                             socials and organized athletic events for students.

 Chaplaincy Service          Working as a team member and provider of pastoral care, the
                             Chaplain offers counselling and support for life issues,
                             relationships, spiritual/religious growth, multi-faith or multi-
                             cultural concerns, stresses, ethical concerns, homesickness,
                             loneliness, illness, grief, etc.


In addition to the services offered above, Confederation and Negahneewin College have
fostered specific partnership agreements with Northern Nishnawbe Education Council,
Nishnawbe-Aski Nation, Ontario Metis and Aboriginal Association, and the Ontario Native
Women’s Association. Each of these partnerships is founded on the mandate to create
innovative programs, to nurture the student community, and to provide support and
encouragement for Indigenous students at Confederation College. Confederation and
Negahneewin have also established a scholarship agreement with the Metis Nation of Ontario
to promote education opportunities for Metis students.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                        Page 97


8.9.   Financial Planning

CONFEDERATION COLLEGE
INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT APPLIED DEGREE
BUSINESS PLAN - 2002 TO 2007

                                                  2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07

ENROLMENT                                             35       65       94      125       133

REVENUE
Tuition Fee (+2% less set aside)                    4,000   4,056   4,113   4,170   4,229
Total Tuition                                     140,000 263,640 386,602 521,295 562,423

Coop Fees                                  250      8,750   16,250   23,500   31,250   33,250

Grant Revenue Attributed (formula)       3,772         0        0    44,007 125,733 243,923
(2 yr slip, 3 yr ave, 1WFU)
TOTAL                                             148,750 279,890 454,108 678,279 839,596
REVENUE
Allocated to College Overhead              30%     44,625   83,967 136,233 203,484 251,879

REVENUE ATTRIBUTED TO PROGRAM                     104,125 195,923 317,876 474,795 587,717

STAFFING
Full-time Faculty                       79,000          1       2       3       3       3
                                           4%      79,000 164,320 255,960 265,440 274,920
Part-time Faculty - FTE                 40,320       0.33    0.67    1.00    2.00    2.00
                                           2%      13,306 27,555 41,933 85,478 87,091
PROGRAM DELIVERY COSTS
Faculty                                            92,306 191,875 297,893 350,918 362,011
Academic                                            8,000 12,000 15,000 17,000 18,000
Advisor
Coop Consultant                                    25,000   30,000   35,000   38,000   39,000
Support Staff                                       5,000    7,000   10,000   12,000   12,000
Other
          TOTAL                                   130,306 240,875 357,893 417,918 431,011
       SALARIES

Instructional Supplies                              3,500    6,500    9,400   12,500   13,300
Travel                                              3,000    5,000    5,000    5,000    5,000
Professional Development                            5,000   10,000   15,000   10,000    5,000
Learning Resource Centre                            5,000   10,000    8,000    2,000    1,000
Marketing                                           5,000    5,000    5,000    2,000    2,000
Computer                                            3,000    3,000    6,000    6,000    3,000
Hardware
Telephone                                           1,000    1,000    1,000    1,000    1,000
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                         Page 98


Curriculum Development (e-learning)                10,000   10,000    5,000     2,000    2,000
TOTAL OTHER COSTS                                  35,500   50,500   54,400    40,500   32,300

TOTAL PROGRAM DELIVERY COSTS                      165,806 291,375 412,293 458,418 463,311

NET OPERATING SURPLUS (LOSS)                      (61,681) (95,452) (94,417)   16,377 124,406
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 99




9.0    STANDARD FIVE - ECONOMIC NEED

In order to establish economic need and student demand for the program, Negahneewin
College of Indigenous Studies conducted community-based research in the form of focus
groups, key informant interviews, questionnaires, and an analysis of employment
advertisements found in local and regional newspapers. In addition, Negahneewin has
referenced a body of statistical data relating to Indigenous and Northwestern Ontario
communities, derived primarily from Statistics Canada and the Department of Indian and
Northern Affairs, but also from reports produced by Tribal Councils and Training Boards. The
latter are housed by Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies. All original job clippings,
questionnaires, interview notes and focus group results are on file and can be produced as
needed. Negahneewin College can provide additional secondary resources which support the
conclusions drawn below.

9.1    Economic Need

In a survey of the economic landscape of Northwestern Ontario, it is clear that community
development is at the forefront of social, environmental, economic and political activity in the
region. Many communities are engaged in partnership agreements related to the sharing of
resources. Full-time employees are needed who have the ability to combine skills related to
economic development, administration, resource management and negotiation with a profound
sense of tradition that is rooted in an understanding of Indigenous principles. A survey of the
extant information regarding employment in the area of community development in the region of
Northwestern Ontario reveals that the essential qualities required of potential employees include
mediation skills, research and proposal writing skills, knowledge of cultural values,
communication skills, advocacy skills as well as extensive knowledge of the economic and
political systems that underlie effective policy-making and implementation. The labour market in
the region of Northwestern Ontario also reveals a trend toward the need for skilled managers,
analysts and researchers who will lead the way to environmental, socio-political and economic
empowerment for Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities.

Employers among community organizations and leadership are expecting their prospective
employees to display a comprehensive understanding of the socio-demographic profile of
Northwestern Ontario. The region is the centre of a movement of people and industry that is
unprecedented in the history of Indigenous - Canadian political, social and economic relations.
This is in part due to the growth rate of Indigenous peoples relative to the general population.
Data produced by Statistics Canada and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs have
identified a population boom in the national Aboriginal population. Recent demographic and
economic trends demonstrate that a further increase in these numbers is certain. This will have
a demonstrable impact in Northwestern Ontario, where Indigenous people comprise a larger
sector of the total population than in other parts of Ontario. At the same time the expansion of
private sector resource-extractive industries into Indigenous communities’ treaty territories,
along with the growing awareness and capacity of Indigenous peoples, has meant that a
pronounced void has been created between the dated governance models driven by the Indian
Act and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and the need for managed community
development among Indigenous communities. Based upon these factors, academics in the field
of Canadian political relations have argued that Indigenous communities along with the
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 100


Canadian population must be educated to respond to the changes in relations that are occurring
at the grass roots level.

The message received concurrently and consistently from Indigenous communities is that this
scenario indicates above all a gap in leadership. The results of the community consultation
undertaken by Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies suggest a consensus around the
relevance and immediate need for a program to foster community-based and comprehensive
leadership responsibilities. Those individuals currently performing in leadership positions are
drawing upon their extensive work experience to respond to the factors outlined above, but are
keenly aware of the insufficiency of their current resources, human and otherwise. They
observe an absence of properly trained and educated workers in their organizations, and a
corresponding demand for the type of community advocates who can respond proactively to the
emerging trends in and among communities. Connecting the communities of Northwestern
Ontario to the global economy has found many Indigenous communities entering into
agreements with resource extractive industries without a full appreciation of the multi-
generational impacts of this type of economic development. This again points to the acute need
for a program in community leadership. In particular, a degree-level program is required to
ensure that leaders have the necessary theoretical and analytical framework to understand the
international political economy and to apply a bioregional perspective for realistic, sustainable
and appropriate development.

This same group of respondents, speaking as prospective students and as individuals
committed to the principle of lifelong learning, express a desire to pursue the type of
comprehensive education represented by the Indigenous Leadership and Community
Development program. The majority possess a College diploma or certificate and in some
cases may have taken some degree-level courses; however, it was apparent that an integrated
degree program that addresses on-the-ground skills and provides a foundation of theory and
knowledge is needed to fill the gaps in their own training.

Many of the factors outlined above point to a need not only of Indigenous communities but of
the region. While Indigenous communities continue to grow, by contrast the general population
of Northwestern Ontario is diminishing. The correspondent strategy of the communities of
Northwestern Ontario is and will be to undertake planning and development; the prevailing
demographic trends suggest that any forward-looking community development initiative must
encompass Indigenous communities, peoples and perspectives. Furthermore, such an
approach is within the mainstream of international development, in which Indigenous
communities increasingly are entering into partnerships in relation to resource-sharing and
capacity-building, and there is a growing recognition of the significant contribution of Indigenous
knowledge and perspectives to sustainable development.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 101


9.3    Student Interest/Potential Pool of Candidates

The primary research conducted by Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies has illustrated
a rising concern among communities with respect to leadership. The focus groups, surveys and
interviews conducted among community agencies, workers and students at the secondary and
post-secondary level confirm that there is a demand for quality training in this area. Students
and community workers expressed the desire for education in leadership and management
skills, media and cultural analysis, local and international development, business and computer
skills, as well as for skills in research and proposal writing and financial management. It is also
clear that this training must be accomplished in an environment that celebrates and respects
differences in style and approach to problem-solving, mediation and economic development.

In addition to focus groups and key informant interviews, a total of 71 surveys were completed.
A majority of the surveys solicited support and input from individuals in urban-based community
organizations and Confederation College’s existing students. An overwhelming majority of all
those surveyed (85%) agreed that there was a need for the program and expressed an interest
in enrolling in such a program which echoed the results of the focus groups and surveys.

Do you think there is a need for this program?


                      Post-Secondary           Secondary Students             Professional
                         Students

      YES                    25                          17                         18


Assuming you were financially able and not already in a program, would you be
interested in enrolling in this program?


                      Post-Secondary           Secondary Students             Professional
                         Students

      YES                    22                          17                         16

Of the 71 surveys, 21 were completed by Grade 11 and 12 students from Dennis Franklin
Cromarty High School, established by Northern Nishnawbe Education Council in Thunder Bay
for First Nations students. Of these 21, 17 stated there is a need for the program and were
interested in enrolling in it. Complementary to these results, the same statistical sources
previously referred to in Appendix 9.1 show that from 1991-2016, the Aboriginal population aged
15-24 will grow from 142,200 to 175,500, and that the largest segment of the Aboriginal
population will be aged 20-24. As the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples stated in 1996,
"The challenge over the next 20 years will be to find adequate support for the large number of
youth who will require post-secondary education in order to become productive in the labour
force."
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                        Page 102



This expected population growth is a very positive indicator of potential student demand when
placed in the context of factors affecting Indigenous secondary level students in the region.
Throughout Northwestern Ontario growing numbers of high school-aged students are
graduating either from private high schools operated by a local education authority, or from one
of the three schools operated by the Northern Nishnawbe Education Council i.e. Northern Eagle
in Ear Falls, Pelican Falls in Sioux Lookout and Dennis Franklin Cromarty in Thunder Bay.
These graduates in many cases have already had the opportunity to be exposed to some topics
(at the high school level) found in the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development
program, as many of the First Nation high schools are using the new (as of 1999) Ontario
curriculum in Native Studies.

The regular input receive by Negahneewin from student representatives on the applied degree
program advisory committee and at Negahneewin Council, in addition to Negahneewin’s survey
of students at Dennis Franklin Cromarty High School, suggest that there is a burgeoning
interest among Indigenous youth in leadership and development issues. This support, in
addition to the support of NNEC itself (see letter in Appendix 9.2) as the sponsor of many
students currently at both Confederation College, suggests that there is a significant pool of
potential candidates for the program.

Further to this, the interest of current post-secondary students should not be viewed as being
without predictive value. Of those post-secondary students who expressed interest in the
program, many stated that they considered the proposed applied degree complementary to their
current studies and would enrol in it after completing a diploma. These statements are borne
out by our own experience, which has shown that our students often choose to ladder their
education by following a diploma with a degree. As well, several alumni expressed an interest
in returning to the College for this program. Many of those who were approached as
prospective employers also expressed an interest in becoming students, and requested
consideration of prior learning experience upon admission.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development   Page 103
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Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 107




10.0   STANDARD SIX - NON-DUPLICATION OF PROGRAMS

10.1.1 Similar/Related DIPLOMA Programs


 1.    Institution: George Brown College

 Program Name and Credential: Community Development Worker Diploma

 Program Description: A two-year diploma program with field placements in semesters two
 and three. The curriculum provides basic courses in community development, and
 establishes applied skills in strategic planning and proposal writing. Its objective is to train
 people with a commitment to community work and social justice for efforts in community
 service organizations and community groups which need help in identifying and taking action
 on community issues.

 Similarities and Differences: The Community Development Worker diploma (CDWD) and
 the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development (ILCD) program share an approach
 to community development which is focused on empowerment and advocacy. The CDWD
 program does include a theoretical component, but cannot provide the depth of theory or the
 breadth of courses available in a four-year applied degree program. Also, the CDWD
 diploma does not specifically address the leadership theme and does not speak in a
 substantive way to an Indigenous, rural and remote or international context.



 2.    Institution: Georgian College

 Program Name and Credential: Native Education - Community and Social Development

 Program Description: A two-year co-op diploma (four semesters plus two work terms of 16
 weeks), this community development program is focused on the planning, development,
 evaluation and administration of social/health care services in Native communities. It is a
 broad-based program that is intended to prepare students for entry-level employment in the
 health and social service delivery.

 Similarities and Differences: Both the Community and Social Development (CSD) diploma
 and the ILCD program are concerned with community development in Indigenous
 communities. However, the applied degree format provides an opportunity to expand on the
 skills of this type of college program by incorporating more theoretical and conceptual depth.
 Also, the ILCD applied degree program is not restricted to the health or social service
 environment. Rather, the ILCD applied degree emphasizes leadership skills and abilities in a
 wide range of contexts including the social, economic and political.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                     Page 108




 3.    Institution: Cambrian College

 Program Name and Credential: First Nations Financial Management Diploma

 Program Description: A three-year, eight semester diploma with an eight-week field
 placement in the sixth semester, the First Nations Financial Management (FNFM) diploma is
 designed to educate students in the theory and practice of accounting, management and
 financial procedures necessary to manage a variety of First Nations organizations.

 Similarities and Differences: The FNFM diploma emphasizes the practical background to
 work on the financial management side of First Nations community development. Similar to
 the ILCD applied degree, the program does discuss Indigenous issues and project
 management as part of the curriculum, although its focus is more on reserve-based (First
 Nation) communities. By contrast, the ILCD applied degree program addresses financial
 accountability and economic planning, but not as the core professional competencies of the
 program. The applied degree provides more depth and breadth in the range of subjects and
 courses, and focuses on leadership, community advocacy along with human services-related
 topics. It also provides for a more extensive paid coop placement.



 4.    Institution: Sheridan College

 Program Name and Credential: Community Worker - Outreach and Development

 Program Description: A two-year diploma with two successive field placements in the third
 and fourth semester, this program prepares community development workers, including
 volunteer management, community consultation, conflict mediation, fundraising and advocacy
 as specific areas of competency.

 Similarities and Differences: The Community Worker – Outreach and Development
 (CWOD) program has many similar themes to the ILCD program including a focus on
 empowerment. The programs share content in the areas of primary research, economic
 development, advocacy, building consensus and partnerships within communities. The use of
 technology is emphasized also. The ILCD applied degree has a similar skill base in its
 courses, but also addresses the larger theoretical context of community work. It deals more
 specifically with the issues and context of Indigenous, rural and remote and international
 communities. The ILCD applied degree has a much broader interdisciplinary curriculum, and
 provides for a more extensive co-op work experience.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                        Page 109




 5.    Institution: Sault College

 Program Name and Credential: Native Community Worker B Child and Family

 Program Description: The Native Community Worker – Child and Family (NCW) program is
 a two-year diploma with one field placement in the 4th semester. This is a two year program
 that contains courses on community development, Indigenous culture and family dynamics. It
 is a human services diploma focused on training workers to contribute to individual, family
 and community healing. Courses from this program are transferable to Algoma University
 College and Lake Superior State College in Sault Ste Marie, Michigan.

 Similarities and Differences: This type of diploma has a well-established presence in the
 CAAT system, including Confederation College. Its competencies aim very specifically at
 training for employment as front line family and community workers. There is a limited scope
 of leadership skills in this type of program. The courses are very introductory in nature and
 have neither the depth nor breadth of the ILCD applied degree program.




Confederation College has, on file and available upon request, the research undertaken to
complete Appendix 10.1.1
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 110




10.1.2 Similar/Related UNIVERSITY Programs



 1.    Institution: Trent University


 Program Name and Credential: Native Management and Economic Development (NMED)

 Options: Two-Year Diploma; Three-Year Bachelor of Administrative Studies with NMED
 emphasis; Three-Year Bachelor of Arts in Native Studies with NMED emphasis; Four-Year
 Honours Bachelor of Arts with a NMED emphasis


 Program Description: Native Management and Economic Development (NMED) offers
 three options: Diploma, Bachelor of Arts or Honours Bachelor of Arts. The diploma level
 program requires students to complete seven undergraduate courses, four of which must be
 drawn from Native Studies. Courses taken at the diploma level can then be applied to the
 degree programs. If the student wishes to continue, they will finish their degree by choosing
 from the interdisciplinary Native Studies courses. A practicum credit is an option for any
 Native Studies student. The Trent Native Studies Management and Economic Development
 Program is a member of the Council for the Advancement of Native Development Officers
 (CANDO).


 Similarities and Differences: The NMED program is a part of a recognized tradition of
 Native Studies at Trent University. They offer courses that have some noticeable similarity to
 the key themes of the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development (ILCD) program
 i.e. community development, Indigenous knowledge, governance, economic development.
 The particular focus of the NMED program is governance, business and economic
 development. Hence while there is significant overlap between the programs in terms of their
 objectives, the ILCD applied degree diverges from NMED in its approach. Theoretical and
 applied courses are included to address the issues of leadership, both formal and informal.
 The themes of leadership and community development span the entire four years of the
 program. At the same time the ILCD applied degree program relies on the college tradition of
 practical skill and applied learning to differentiate itself from the more theoretical basis for
 university learning. Theoretical courses within the ILCD applied degree program are
 interdisciplinary, but are designed specifically to complement the applied part of the program.
  In addition, the ILCD applied degree contains two paid co-op placements which are integral
 to the demonstration and development of the learning outcomes.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 111




 2.    Institution: Algoma University College (affiliated with Laurentian University)


 Program Name and Credential: Community Economic and Social Development - Four-Year
 Bachelor of Arts (CESD). Options: After second year students choose between an economic
 development and a social development stream.

 Program Description: The Community Economic and Social Development (CESD) program
 is an Honours Bachelor of Arts that combines academic studies with selective applied studies
 in community development. The academic courses are selected from existing
 interdisciplinary studies from across the university. There is provision for some Indigenous
 and northern-specific curriculum in the course material. After two years students choose
 between Economic or Social Development. There is a required field practicum. The CESD
 program provides certification recognized by the Council for the Advancement of Native
 Development Officers (CANDO) and Economic Development Association of Canada (EDAC).


 Similarities and Differences: The CESD program is explicitly intended to prepare
 graduates for certification (CANDO and EDAC). Its many strengths include an
 interdisciplinary approach, relevance to Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities, and a
 rich tradition of Indigenous-specific programming at Algoma University College. Arguably,
 many of these strengths are shared by the ILCD program. The ILCD applied degree program
 draws upon multiple academic disciplines in order to address community development
 concerns in a wide variety of community development environments. It also emerges from an
 extensive tradition of community development and Indigenous-specific programming at
 Confederation College. These commonalities suggest that a positive and complementary
 relationship between the two programs would be beneficial.

 There are some differences in style and emphasis between the two programs which speak
 above all to the complementarity of the programs. While the ILCD applied degree program
 includes many topics and objectives which will contribute to CANDO certification, this is not
 its primary focus. Graduates of the ILCD program may wish to pursue the opportunity to
 obtain this certification, building an Honours Bachelor Degree onto their applied degree.
 Likewise, graduates of CESD may be interested in a concentration on both formal and
 informal leadership skills as is offered by the ILCD program. The ILCD applied degree
 program is not exclusively a social or economic development program, but will leave
 Indigenous and non-Indigenous graduates with the ability to engage in cross cultural dialogue
 and partnerships that reflect the growing needs of all communities. In addition, the courses in
 the ILCD applied degree program are linked together by the themes of reflection,
 responsibility, relationship, reciprocity and realization, which intertwine in a holistic fashion
 throughout the four years. Extensive use of problem-based learning and the expectation of a
 solid demonstration of theory, skills and knowledge will provide graduates with a level of
 practical expertise that is unique to a college applied degree program. The applied courses in
 the program are based on the College’s extensive history and experience in delivering skill
 based courses.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                             Page 112



 2.    Institution: Algoma University College (affiliated with Laurentian University)




 3.    Institution: Ryerson University/First Nations Technical Institute

 Program Name and Credential: Bachelor of Applied Arts (Public Administration) Degree

 Program Description: The public administration degree is a comprehensive laddered
 program that offers a certificate after one year, an advanced certificate after two years and
 the possibility of a Bachelor of Applied Arts at the end of three years (if the student is eligible
 for the practicum, with two-years public sector experience). A practicum component allows
 individuals who have worked in the public sector for a minimum of two years to apply that
 experience towards the completion of their degree, recognizing the skills and knowledge of
 many community leaders who have not necessarily had formal training or education. For
 students without this work experience, there is a requirement that they complete an additional
 nine courses consisting of professionally related competencies.

 Similarities and Differences: First Nations Technical Institute, along with Ryerson
 University, demonstrates leadership in the field of Indigenous-specific education, offering a
 program which is designed to meet the needs of First Nations administrators and executives.
  The Ryerson-FNTI program speaks to a distinct area of employment, preparing graduates for
 a career in the public sector. Accordingly, the emphasis of the program competencies is
 public administration and governance skills; some of the relevant skill-based courses have
 parallels to the ILCD applied degree but explore the topics in greater depth than the ILCD
 program does. At the same time there is not the same breadth of interdisciplinary or
 theoretical background as is found in the ILCD program. Because of its objective to prepare
 graduates for a particular type of leadership, the Ryerson-FNTI program does not
 comprehensively address the community development context. By contrast the ILCD
 program discusses leadership at all formal and informal levels in community environments.
 As such, a base for the program is the journey of the self in the context of leadership and
 community, while the two paid coop opportunities will facilitate a direct link between reflection,
 classroom learning and community action.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 113




 4.    Institution: Laurentian University

 Program Name and Credential: Two - Year Aboriginal Legal Education Certificate; General
 Bachelor of Arts with a concentration in Native Studies; Honours Bachelor of Arts -
 Specialized Programme in Native Studies


 Program Description: The Bachelor degrees and certificate program offered by Laurentian
 represent an academic multidisciplinary approach to Native Studies. Language, history,
 social policy, politics and law represent the focus of most of the courses which are taken as
 part of a General Bachelor of Arts program. There is a requirement for a concentration of at
 least 36 hours (six courses) of Native Studies courses for the General Bachelor of Arts, and a
 total of 66 credits (eleven courses) in Native Studies for the Honours Specialization. The
 Aboriginal Legal Education Certificate requires the specific completion of seven law-related
 courses taken from the Native Studies curriculum

 Similarities and Differences: Notwithstanding Laurentian’s recognized excellence in the
 field of Native Studies, the programs currently available there are not very similar to the ILCD
 program apart from their focus on Indigenous-specific issues. Laurentian’s two year
 certificate explores the legal framework as it might related to aspects of leadership in much
 greater depth than is available in ILCD. At the same time the courses offered by Laurentian
 do not provide a specific emphasis on community leadership and development. There are no
 professional applied courses offered through the Native Studies program and there is also no
 co-op or field placement available. The differences between the ILCD and the Native Studies
 curriculum in this instance reflect their contrasting but complementary objectives; graduates
 of ILCD may choose further studies at Laurentian (for example, the certificate in legal studies)
 to enhance their learning further.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                         Page 114




 5.    Institution: York University (Shulich School of Business)

 Program Name and Credential: Bachelor of Business Administration; Shulich School of
 Business Management Seminars

 Program Description: The Shulich School of Business offers degree level courses in
 management, combined with a broad liberal arts education based on the offerings in York’s
 other faculties in areas such as humanities, social science, natural science and fine arts. In
 the third and fourth year, students can specialize in accounting, marketing, finance,
 organizational behavior or policy and strategic management. In addition to the university
 credit courses, Shulich also offers management or executive seminars in applied
 management skills such as facilitative leadership, negotiations, strategic planning and project
 management.

 Similarities and Differences: The Bachelor of Business Administration program has some
 similar content in its early theoretical courses in economics, ethics and management to the
 ILCD applied degree program. Its approach of combining liberal, professional and skills
 training in the development of management skills is also similar to the ILCD applied degree.
 The skill-based seminars offered by Shulich demonstrate the need for addressing leadership
 issues, collaboration, negotiations, and project management in a practical setting. However,
 the ILCD program addresses these topics in a more substantive way than would be possible
 in seminars and expects a demonstration of the skill level courses in the co-op placement.
 The Bachelor of Business Administration does not have any Indigenous-specific or
 Community Development courses.

 The ILCD applied degree program is distinguishable in its focus on leadership in a broader
 political, social or economic context, in Canada and among international Indigenous
 communities. It contemplates leadership skills in terms of formal and informal settings and is
 intended to develop the personal leadership qualities of all individuals. The Indigenous
 community provides the underlying context and resource for the development of leadership
 skills and the theoretical application of economic and political theory. Confederation College,
 through Negahneewin College, is uniquely qualified to deliver programs specific to community
 development, given our history and expertise with this type of program. Our location both
 geographically and politically has contributed to a collaborative style of program development
 which is reflected in the content, structure and research supporting this program.




Confederation College has on file and available upon request the research undertaken to
complete Appendix 10.1.2. The college found that there are not more than five similar or related
existing programs offered at Ontario universities that could have been listed.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 115




10.2   Innovative Programs


The Indigenous Leadership and Community Development program is demonstrably unique
among program offerings across Ontario. Its particular style of infusing Indigenous, Canadian
and world perspectives is intended to appeal to all individuals who seek timeliness, innovation
and creativity. The cross-cultural dimension of the program encompasses something more than
the standard cultural comparisons; the organization of topics within the courses places diverse
content side by side for the purpose of establishing breadth in the student rather than creating
an apprehension of difference. The emphasis is on balancing conflicting factors and alternative
views to find common ground, a process which is framed by a critical learning model.

Leadership and the development of community leadership to achieve self-reliance are
fundamental to the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development program. The
information provided in Appendix 10.1.1 demonstrates that while there are programs in the
Ontario CAAT system which focus on community development in the Indigenous context, there
are none which share the particular combination of objectives of this program. Of course, the
program is unique also for its applied degree format, which allows both a greater theoretical
depth and a more expansive applied skills component than any existing diploma available to
future community leaders.

In the survey of University programs in Ontario (Appendix 10.1.2.), there appear to be five other
degree programs whose educational goals overlap with the Negahneewin College applied
degree in many respects. However, the proposed applied degree program is innovative in its
alignment and its approach to the same or similar objectives. Similar to these other institutions,
the design of this program is based upon the integration of multiple disciplines--business,
economics, political science, native studies, philosophy, and psychology—yet it is in the nature
of this integration that innovation can be found. The tradition of Indigenous-specific
programming and community development at Negahneewin College enables the conception
and delivery of an education opportunity that is distinct from the university degree programs
referred to in Appendix 10.1.2.

A major contributor to this distinctiveness is the grassroots origin of the program; in the process
of researching and outlining the initial stages of program development, Negahneewin relied
upon informal conversations, community visits, key informant interviews, surveys and focus
groups with many community representatives. The role of Negahneewin Council, a community-
based circle of representatives from a variety of Indigenous agencies and organizations, is
likewise integral to this proposal. The leadership that Negahneewin Council provides—in
identifying priorities in Indigenous education and training evidenced by their fifteen year
commitment to working with Confederation College. The applied degree program responds to
the expressed interests and needs of community leaders, both formal and informal. The
subsequent curriculum development process combined this grassroots support with the
contribution of our faculty, who have an extensive theoretical and practical background in
community development. The end product reflects Negahneewin’s shared commitment to
advocacy, activism and to changing the dynamic of dependency. The program’s critical
consciousness encompasses the internal and external, requiring that learners engage in
discussion about taboo or uncomfortable subjects as an essential part of becoming community
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                                 Page 116


leaders. It reflects the fact that we are ourselves engaged in community development, which is
further evidenced in our programs, in the strength of community representation at Negahneewin
Council, Oshki-Anishnawbeg Student Association, the Applied Degree Advisory Committee and
our other program advisory committees; and in the collaborative model we have created inside
Confederation College.

The need for leadership is a given in the face of the historical experience of Indigenous
communities and the marginalization of the rural and remote communities within Canadian
society. This is a program where all people committed to development can search for a holistic
approach to facilitating collaborative processes to share resources, build capacity and foster
economic growth. It can be argued that only an applied degree developed within a College
framework could fully realize this vision; one of the strengths of the College model in this regard
is the possibility of mapping a learning journey generated from core competencies in a practical
learning environment.

By contrast, the University model creates programs based on a choice of credits from among
departments or disciplines; the choice of courses makes the program of the individual student to
some extent “personal”. The conclusion to be drawn is that a College applied degree in
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development is indeed distinct from any University
degree in a closely-related field, and that the two can exist in a fashion which is to be viewed as
complementary rather than competitive.4 Where transferability between institutions is clearly
established, students can maximize their learning opportunities. At the same time Colleges and
Universities maximize their ability to foster the mobility of students in a lifelong learning process.
The depth of programming available across Ontario and specifically in similar degree programs
will be a certain benefit to all our students.




        4
         This is the basis of the relationship Confederation College is seeking with Lakehead University
and Algoma University College. See Appendix 11.1 for letters of support.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                       Page 117


11.0   STANDARD SEVEN - CREDENTIAL RECOGNITION

11.1   Articulation/Credential Recognition

Confederation College has always supported the transferability and the equivalence of credits
between our College and universities around North America and the world.

ARTICULATION/TRANSFER AGREEMENTS


ATHABASCA UNIVERSITY                              CONFEDERATION COLLEGE
  Bachelor of Professional Arts –                   Broadcasting – Television
  Communication
  Studies                                            Film Production
                                                     Multimedia Production

  Bachelor of Administration                         Business
                                                     Business - Accounting
                                                     Business Administration – Accounting
                                                     Business – Marketing
                                                     Human Resources
                                                     International Business

  Bachelor of Science in Computing and               Computer Programmer Analyst
  Information Systems

  Bachelor of Professional Arts (Human               Law & Security Administration
  Services)
                                                     Police Foundations
                                                     Social Services Worker

  Bachelor of Nursing (Post RN)                      Nursing
                                                     Diabetes Education

  Bachelor of Science                )               Dental Hygiene
  Bachelor of Science (Post Diploma) )               Medical Radiation Technology
  Bachelor of Science – Human Science
         )
  (Post Diploma)
         )

  Bachelor of Science                                Aviation (Mfg) Engineering Technology
                                                     Architectural Technology
                                                     Civil Engineering Technology
                                                     Electrical Engineering Technology –
                                                     Computer Control
                                                     Environmental Engineering Technology
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                         Page 118


ARTICULATION/TRANSFER AGREEMENTS



LAKEHEAD UNIVERSITY
  Concurrent Bachelor of Arts (Sociology)/           Early Childhood Education
  Bachelor of Education (Primary-Junior)

  Honours Bachelor of Science in Forestry            Forestry Technician

  Honours Bachelor of Social Work                   Child and Youth Worker
                                                    Community Gerontology
                                                    Developmental Services Worker
                                                    Social Service Worker
LAKEHEAD UNIVERSITY                               CONFEDERATION COLLEGE
  Bachelor of Engineering                           Civil Engineering Technology
                                                    Electrical Technology – Computer Control
                                                    Environmental Engineering Technology

  Political Science                                  Aboriginal Law & Advocacy

  Bachelor of Science in Nursing (for RNs)           Post diploma Nursing Certificate

RAINY RIVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE
  Associate in Science Degree                        International Business

ROYAL ROADS UNIVERSITY
  Bachelor of Science (Environmental                 Environmental Engineering Technology
  Science)

UNIVERSITY OF LETHBRIDGE
  Bachelor of Management                             Business
                                                     Business Accounting
                                                     Business – Human Resources
                                                     Business Marketing
                                                     International Business
                                                     Computer Programmer Analyst
                                                     Culinary Management
                                                     Hotel Management
                                                     Tourism and Travel

NORTHWOOD UNIVERSITY
  Bachelor of Business Administration                Business Administration – Accounting
                                                     Computer Programmer Analyst
                                                     Human Resource Management
                                                     International Business
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                         Page 119


ARTICULATION/TRANSFER AGREEMENTS



UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY
  Offers articulation into all of its courses        Umbrella Agreement
  provided completion of a diploma in a
  relevant degree area.


In addition to the above we are looking to expand further agreements with the local university as
well as pursuing more international agreements.

As the Indigenous Leadership and Community Development Program is a completely new
program without a diploma predecessor, there are no existing articulation agreements relating to
it. However, the College has initiated discussion with Lakehead University and Algoma
University College (affiliated with Laurentian University) regarding potential linkage, in the
former case, to the political science program, and in the latter case, to the Honours Bachelor
Degree in Community Economic and Social Development.


Letters of support are attached.



11.2   Existing Articulation Agreements - Not Applicable
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development   Page 120
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development   Page 121
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development   Page 122
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 123


11.3   Student Notification of Articulation

Pursuant to current policy, students are notified of credit recognition options through the
Confederation College calendar. The calendar is published in print bi-annually and on the web,
the latter being updated regularly. The calendar outlines the articulation agreements currently
available for students and the requirements for credit recognition, itemized according the
institution name. Contact information for each institution is provided.

In addition, Confederation College will adopt the practice of using a student protection form. A
draft of the form to be used is attached, and will be presented to the Student Services and
Academic Management Team at the College for approval in May 2002.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                         Page 124




(Date)

(Applicant address)

Dear (applicant name):

Confederation College is pleased to inform you of the opportunities which are available to you
for credit transfer and credential recognition by other institutions of the Bachelor of Applied
Human Services in Indigenous Leadership and Community Development. Please sign below
and return this form to acknowledge that you are aware of these arrangements.

Confederation will inform you of additions and changes to these arrangements through the
Confederation College Calendar, postings to the Confederation College website, and college-
wide email as needed.

CREDIT TRANSFER

Institution:   XXXXXX University
Details        Upon completion of Year ____, students may transfer into Year ___ of the XXXX
               University B.A. (Honours) program and receive ____ credits.



CREDIT TRANSFER

Institution:   XXXXXX University
Details        Upon completion of Year ____, students may transfer into Year ___ of the XXXX
               University B.A. (Honours) program and receive ____ credits.


I, __________________, hereby acknowledge that I have read and understood the credit
transfer and credential recognition arrangements in place for the Indigenous Leadership and
Community Development Program.


Signature: __________________                               Date: ______________

Return this form in the envelope provided to the Registrar, Confederation College, P.O. Box
398, Thunder Bay, ON P7C 4W1.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 125


12.0    STANDARD EIGHT - EVALUATION

Confederation College has an established a program review framework specific to post-
secondary diplomas and certificates. The existing framework provides for input from students,
faculty, employers (including co-op placements), graduates, key informants and community
representatives. This combination of internal and external input has been important to ensuring
a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of programs.

These principles have been adapted to create a program review and renewal framework for the
applied degree program, consisting of an annual or formative component, and a summative
component which would be implemented once every five years.

Annual/Formative

As discussed in Appendix 7, student evaluation of faculty will be sought on a semester basis
based on the policies and instruments therein provided.

The following will also be evaluated annually by students, faculty and the Dean responsible for
the applied degree:

$       courses
$       student support resources
$       library resources/holdings
$       overall student satisfaction
$       co-op placements (once implemented)
$       graduate satisfaction (when applicable)


Summative Review

Every four years Confederation College will undertake a formal and comprehensive program
review and renewal. The process would consist of the following stages:

    •   Constitution of a Program Renewal Team to be chaired by a Confederation College
        faculty member external to the applied degree delivery. The team will consist of: A
        program resource to assemble currently available program information, i.e. terminal
        program outcomes, course outlines, co-op placement evaluations; a student
        representative; an external community representative; a member of the program
        advisory committee; and the Vice President (Academic and Student Services)

    •   Program Self-Appraisal: Based upon surveys, focus groups and interviews with
        students, graduates, faculty, employers and program advisory committee members, the
        Program Renewal Team will compile a report assessing the achievements, strengths
        and weaknesses of the program, including an evaluation of application, retention and
        graduation rates, costs/efficiency issues, resources, and the quality of program content.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                         Page 126




   •   This Self Appraisal, along with the assembled program data and the current curriculum
       vitae of faculty teaching in the program, will be provided to a Renewal Panel. The Panel
       must consist of at least two external consultants whose academic credentials are
       appropriately related to the field(s) covered by the program content. The external
       consultants must have an arms-length relationship to Confederation College. The
       Renewal Panel will also consist of one internal reviewer who is a Confederation College
       faculty member and has not taught in the program.

   •   The Renewal Panel, in addition to receiving the reports and program information, will
       conduct a site visit while delivery of the program is in progress, whereby they will meet
       with faculty, students and staff involved in the delivery and support of the program. This
       may include observation of classroom teaching sessions. The Renewal Panel will write
       a report assessing the program outcomes, courses and instructors, delivery
       mechanisms, methods of student evaluation, the applied component of the program, and
       the resources supporting the program. (Explicit review guidelines are to be established
       prior to graduation of the first intake of students)

   •   The Renewal Panel Report will be presented with recommendations to the Dean,
       Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies and Vice President, Academic and Student
       Services. The contents of the report will remain confidential to the Dean and Vice
       President.

   •   The Dean and Vice President will jointly prepare a response indicating which
       recommendations might or might not be implementing, including their rationale in each
       instance.

   •   In consultation with the Dean of Negahneewin College, the Vice President, Academic
       and Student Services, will prepare a report identifying strengths and weaknesses, and
       actions to be taken on the recommendations arising from the review. The report will be
       presented to Negahneewin Council, the Student Services and Academic Management
       Team, and the Board of Governors.

   •   Confederation College and Negahneewin College will jointly establish an action plan to
       respond to the recommendations made by the Vice President
Appendix 13.0 Optional
Appendix 13.1 Minutes and Motions of Internal College Bodies
                                           Student Services & Academic               Date:           April 23, 2002
                                            Management Team (SSAMT)                  Meeting #:      12


Present: P. Bain, D. Bernosky, L. Brigham, D. DeKnock, B. Griffiths, D.              Next            May 7, 2002
         Halonen, G. Higginson, H. Hunt, C. Kaukinen, M. Lindsay, D. Lovisa,         Meeting:
         R. Moore, D. Piccinin, L. Savela, B. Small, K. Stevens, V. Stilla, L.
         Thornburg, L. Vezina
Regrets: C. Gray, L. Mayes, G. Murdock, D. Sargent, L. Tapak                         Recorder:       E. Skrzypek
Guests: P. McGuire, L. Schmidt, R. Somppi, B. Walberg

               Item                                  Description                                    Action By         Time Line
1.0   Review of Agenda        The agenda was reviewed.

2.0   Business Arising From   There was no business arising from the minutes.
      the Minutes
3.0   Approval Required:      The committee was provided a detailed program overview by
      Applied Degree          Brenda Small where the composite on the graduate profile was
                              explained, the program abstract and structure reviewed, and the
                              learning outcomes and course descriptions examined.

                              It was moved by Marlene Lindsay and seconded by Dorothy
                              Piccinin, that the Student Success & Academic Management
                              Team fully supports and approves the proposal for the Bachelor
                              of Applied Human Services in Indigenous Leadership &
                              Community Development program as complementary to the
                              strengths and mandate of Confederation College. It also
                              demonstrates the appropriate academic rigour for a degree
                              program.

                              ALL IN FAVOUR                                                     Carried
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Indigenous Leadership and Community Development   Page 129
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development   Page 130
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                       Page 131




                                   NEGAHNEEWIN COUNCIL

                                          MINUTES

Date:            April 18, 2002
Time:            11:00 am – 2:00 pm
Place:           Shuniah Board Room (A219) 2nd Floor
Next Meeting:    May 16, 2002 (11:00 – 2:00 p.m. – Shuniah Board Room)


Present:        Lynda Banning, Oshki-Pimache-O-Win Institute
                Patricia McGuire, Faculty Representative
                Brian Nahwegezhic, Canada Customs & Revenue Agency
                Georgette O’Nabigon, Matawa Tribal Council
                Jerry Perrault, Member at Large (Chair)
                Leona Scanlon, Northern Nishnawbe Education Council
                Anne LeSage, Thunder Bay Indian Friendship Centre
                S. Brenda Small, Dean, Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies (NCIS)
                Frances Trowsse, Faculty Representative

Regrets:        Coral Chisel, Oshki Anishnawbeg Student Association
                Cindy Fisher, Pic River First Nation
                Andrea Hajt, Alumni Rep. Confederation College
                Thomas Logan, Board of Governors Representative
                Jeordi Pierre, Oshki Anishnawbeg Student Association
                Corey Wesley, Oshki Anishnawbeg Student Association

Guests:         Pat Lang, President
                Bonnie Vermette, Oshki
                Stephanie Burns, Oshki
                Carey Calder, the Métis Nation of Ontario

College Resources Present: Dave laPoínte, NCIS
                           Lisa Schmidt, NCIS
                           Marga Bond, NCIS
                           Rick Moore, Manager-Kenora (conference call)
                           Linda Bedore, Liaison Officer – Kenora (conference call)



1. Welcome/Introductions

   J. Perrault welcomed everyone and asked for round table introductions.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 132


2.   Approval of the Agenda

     J. Perrault informed Council of an April 15/02 letter from the Métis Nation of Ontario requesting
     consideration be given to have Carey Calder replace Andrea Cahill as the MNO representative
     on Council. The letter was added as Item 4 on the Agenda.

     Moved by A. LeSage and seconded by Pat Lang, “that the agenda be approved as amended.”
     Carried by consensus.

3. Approval of Minutes of March 26, 2002

     Moved by B. Nahwegezhic and seconded by L. Scanlon "that the minutes of March 26/02be
     approved.” Carried by consensus.

Business Arising

4.   J. Perrault introduced C. Calder, Acting CDO at the Métis Nation of Ontario to Council. He
     referred to MNO’s request to have her act as their representative on Council.

     Moved by P. McGuire and seconded by A. LeSage “that Carey Calder be accepted as a
     member of Council.” Carried by consensus.

5.   Aboriginal Strategy Fund
     J. Perrault informed Council of an April 4/02 communication from the Ministry indicating funding
     from the Fixed-Share Fund of the Aboriginal Education and Training Strategy for fiscal 2002-03
     was approved for $360,000. The Ministry also approved the joint application of Negahneewin
     and Oshki to the Start-Up and Development Fund in the amount of $70,000. The project related
     to the Aboriginal Community Services Worker Program and the development of the partnership
     between Negahneewin and Oshki. Council congratulated S.B. Small in light of this news.

6.   Applied Degree
     S.B. Small stated that a draft of the proposed Applied Degree was brought to Council the
     previous month. The item was before Council again to provide an update of the process, and to
     request approval of the proposal. The final documentation is due to the Ministry by May 6/02. It
     is the intention of the Applied Degree Committee to have it arrive prior to the deadline date.

     S.B. Small acknowledged the members of the Applied Degree Committee present – F. Trowsse,
     P. McGuire, E. Howard, D. laPoínte, L. Schmidt. She advised that letters of support were still
     being sought, and that details of the course outlines, bibliographies, and maximizing faculty
     across the college (not just Negahneewin faculty) were being addressed. She informed Council
      that support from academic institutions i.e. Algoma and Lakehead was being sought. She
     advised that 5 or 6 professors were being approached recruited to act as Quality Assessors,
     and the Postsecondary Education Quality Assessment Board would contact them directly to
     evaluate the submission.

     S.B. Small expressed her appreciation of the support received from the VP Academic & Student
     Services and her staff, and departments including the resource centre, human resources, facility
     services. The President, P. Lang and Vice-President G. Higginson will assist in the final editing.


     L. Schmidt provided Council with an overview of the graduate profile and program charts that
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                          Page 133


     were distributed. The program name had been changed to Indigenous Leadership and
     Community Development to provide more clarification of the type of courses offered.

     S.B. Small informed Council of her meeting at Algoma University to discuss the similarities and
     differences of our submission to their 4-year honours program - Community Economic and
     Social Development. In discussion with President Celia Ross and program faculty, it was
     agreed that Algoma’s program is multi-disciplinary with emphasis on the economic side, while
     the Applied Degree submission was more focused on Aboriginal content. S.B. Small circulated
     a program flyer from Algoma University on the CESD Spring Institute 2002 program. S.B. Small
     requested a letter of support and was assured it was forthcoming.

     S.B. Small informed Council of the April 19/02 meeting at Hazelwood Lake to finalize the
     process, and invited members to attend. B. Nahwegezhic expressed interest. The Kenora
     participants were asked for their input. R. Moore questioned the duplication issue, stating that
     the geographic location of a program should be a relevant factor.

     P. McGuire informed Council that there would likely be 36 letters of support, and between 29 to
     34 placements for students. She advised P. Lang that Greenstone’s Mayor and Council wished
     to speak to her.

     Council congratulated the Applied Degree team.

     Motioned by A. LeSage and seconded by B. Vermette “that Council approves and supports the
     proposed Applied Degree in Indigenous Leadership and Development to be pursued by
     Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies and Confederation College.” Carried by
     consensus.

7.   Diversity Thunder Bay Report
     A. LeSage distributed “A Community of Acceptance: Respect for Thunder Bay’ Diversity”
     Report Highlights. The project, funded by the Department of Canadian Heritage, developed
     from a committee that had originally focused on March 21st Day activities. The report included
     an overview of racism/racialization which gave it an objective approach. The project’s approach
     differed from others in that actual questions were posed and in-depth interviews held. She
     indicated the response rate was good (36%). She directed Council’s attention to the graph on
     page 3, showing retail stores were most problematic, with schools being second. A press
     conference was held March 21/02 to release the report, and thanked S.B. Small for her
     attendance. A. LeSage had been invited to City Hall and to address the College Planning
     Committee. She referred to the Chief of Police Advisory Committee and their response that
     racism did not exist in this Thunder Bay. She indicated the Chamber of Commerce would also
     require a presentation. It was suggested that T. Logan bring this report to the Board of
     Governors on behalf of Council. A. LeSage stated that the report was available on the web, and
     funds were exhausted for printing. She cautioned Council that there is a great deal of work to
     be done in response to these finding.

     Motioned by G. O’Nabigon and seconded by P. McGuire “that Council accepts the report, and
     copies should be made available for Council’s use.” Carried by consensus.




8.   Oshki-Anishnawbeg Student Association
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     D. laPoínte spoke to Council in the absence of Oshki representation. SUCCI invited Oshki to
     attend a meeting to discuss ways of working together - Oshki presence at the annual student

     orientation , cross- college student attendance at Pow-wows. He indicated 9 student
     applications were in for work with Oshki for the summer. External agencies such Shooniiyaa
     Biidoong and Mamo–Wichi-Hetiwin are being approached for funding.

     Stephanie Burns was introduced as the new Treasurer for Oshki, replacing B. Vermette.

     The Canadian Student Alliance (CCSPA) is seeking representation from Aboriginal students.
     The cost of travel to the meeting was discussed and it was indicated that funds would have to
     be raised. B. Nahwegezhic asked if SUCCI had Aboriginal student representation on their
     Board, as was past practice, and was advised that the Oshki President was a member. J.
     Perrault indicated there are seats on both Oshki and SUCCI for representation. It was
     suggested that bulletin boards be located in other college buildings to allow Negahneewin
     students to access information. Members were informed of a video Oshki is developing as an
     information tool.

     Council discussed extending D. laPoínte’s contract to help Oshki in its development, and
     encouraged him to seek funding to this end. A small surplus could be used as well.

9.   Graduation Ceremony/Events

      S.B. Small informed Council that Negahneewin graduates will be part of the morning
     ceremonies at the June 1/02 Convocation. She expressed interest marking the occasion for
     graduates and their families. A. LeSage mentioned Council members were not known to
     students. Members will bring their ideas to the May meeting of .

10. Meeting Adjournment

      The meeting adjourned at 1:05 p.m.
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13.2   Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies

Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies is community development in practice. The
current economic and social conditions affecting communities in Northwestern Ontario indicate
that there is a need to focus on the development of educational and training opportunities for
both Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples to ensure that the long term growth and stability of
these communities can be achieved. While learning institutions across Ontario have made
significant efforts to address the unique educational and training needs of Indigenous and
remote and rural communities, the challenges of a global economy have given rise to new
demands in the provision of educational opportunities. Through its commitment to dialogue and
collaboration, Negahneewin College is fostering a web of partnerships between Indigenous
communities and Confederation College. The vision of a college within Confederation College
will ensure that learners across Northwestern Ontario are supported in their educational and
training goals across the spectrum of post-secondary education -- including academic
programs, economic development and employment training.

Negahneewin College is well known in the academic community for its ability to identify gaps in
the learning environments of its students. The staff and faculty of Negahneewin are committed
to the principles of life-long learning related to the values of Indigenous peoples (See attached
Terms of Reference for Negahneewin Council). At the same time, Negahneewin welcomes
contributions from learners and educators who represent the broad spectrum of multi-cultural
and cross-cultural experiences in Canada.

Negahneewin is committed to the education of community leaders. Many Negahneewin
graduates have found their way through the ever-changing markets for employment and have
emerged in positions of responsibility and leadership in a wide variety of communities.
Negahneewin is leading the way in the development of academic programs and educational
experiences which are commensurate with community needs, driven by the emphasis that
communities place on economic and political development, and guided by the principles that are
at the heart of Indigenous perspectives.

Negahneewin has developed a capacity to expand the delivery of programs to the various
campuses of Confederation College throughout the region of Northwestern Ontario. Moreover,
by connecting with the entire region, Negahneewin has been able to identify gaps in labour
force skills that can be addressed through creating new and innovative approaches to
curriculum development and learning skills. Through the nurturing of qualified instructors,
Negahneewin continues to offer programming that anticipates community growth and offers
learners the opportunity to combine their personal pedagogy with community values.

Negahneewin stands at the forefront of Indigenous education because of its commitment to
matching the needs of students with the objectives of innovative learning. The staff, faculty and
students of Negahneewin constitute a vibrant and expanding community of learners who are
dedicated to maintaining a high quality of education that focuses on the needs of communities.
 Negahneewin remains committed to expanding this focus to include local, regional, and global
perspectives on Indigenous leadership and community development.
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                                    TERMS OF REFERENCE

               Negahneewin Council, Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies
                       Confederation College, Thunder Bay, Ontario
                              November 11, 1999

Prayer

Creator, you have given us many gifts and responsibilities. As human beings we are
responsible for taking care of the earth and all living things that are found upon her. This earth,
the skies above, and the water that sustains all life are part of creation and provide to us the
nourishment for our continued existence. As human beings we are entrusted with the many
responsibilities for respecting and nurturing this earth. In our humility we recognize that we are
part of all living things and that we take our place in the circle, in this way.

Declaration:

Indigenous Peoples have individually and collectively expressed their commitment to the
healing, empowerment and integrity of their communities through a process of restoration and
nation-building.

In asserting our world views and accepting the responsibilities of nation-building, we are
exercising our traditional forms of governance and are connected with those who came before
us, and our future.

In accordance with these traditions, the Anishnabe values of wisdom, love, respect, bravery,
honesty, humility, and truth provide us with the imperatives for our work.

To this end, the Negahneewin Council which represents Indigenous communities in
northwestern Ontario is committed to providing educational and training opportunities for
Indigenous Peoples that restore and empower our nations.

The Council engages in decision-making processes which include those Indigenous
communities who demonstrate a commitment to the creation and implementation of culturally-
relevant, meaningful educational initiatives. The Council seeks to restore dialogue among
Indigenous Peoples to ensure that educational and training priorities are jointly addressed and
realized.

In establishing the Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies at Confederation College in
Thunder Bay, Ontario, the Council has assumed responsibility for promoting educational
opportunities that are made by, and for Indigenous Peoples.

Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies, Confederation College:

The Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies reflects the aspirations of Indigenous Peoples
to be self-determining, and to put into practice the elements of Indigenous governance as
reflected in these Terms of Reference. Negahneewin College promotes the cultural
perspectives and intellectual traditions of Indigenous Peoples in a contemporary learning
environment.
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The vision of the Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies at Confederation College is
premised on an equal and respectful partnership with Confederation College. This partnership
is reflective of on-going dialogue, and an established practice of negotiated agreement on the
creation of a bi-cultural framework which will enable Indigenous communities to contribute to
post-secondary education in Ontario. This framework assures that the partnership is
substantive, and mutually beneficial, resulting in a unique educational environment that reflects
a process of reconciliation and peaceful coexistence between Indigenous Peoples and
Canadians.

Background:

The Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies is the culmination of efforts by Indigenous
Peoples and Confederation College, over many years to create a postsecondary Centre of
Excellence that addresses the educational and training needs of Indigenous Peoples in
northwestern Ontario. This vision is to create a place of learning that is developed and
governed by Indigenous Peoples.

In 1989, a number of Indigenous community representatives committed themselves to the
establishment of “The Negahneewin Institute” at Confederation College. Along with the Board
of Governors and senior management at the College, these community representatives sought
the establishment of an Institute that would provide academic, residential and daycare facilities
for Indigenous Peoples at Confederation College. Their efforts were extensive and included the
completion of a proposal for the infrastructure and legal framework for this institute.
Unfortunately, this vision was not realized, although many of the community representatives
who were a part of this initiative continued to participate in the development of an Aboriginal
Studies Division at Confederation College.

In 1991, the Ontario Ministry of Colleges and Universities established the Aboriginal Education
and Training Strategy Fund which was to provide specific grants to colleges and universities to
assist in the development of programs and services for Aboriginal students. This new funding
arrangement required colleges and universities to work with Aboriginal community
representatives in a joint process to ensure that the Strategy Fund would meet the specific
priorities of Aboriginal communities. At Confederation College, those who were committed to
the Negahneewin Institute continued with their efforts to ensure that there would be
opportunities provided to Aboriginal students, through membership on the Aboriginal Post-
secondary Education and Training Council, and conformed to the requirements of the Strategy
Fund. Since 1991, the Council has been working to ensure that the educational and training
needs of Indigenous Peoples are supported.

Terms of Reference:

The Terms of Reference as outlined reflect the goal of the Council to ensure that efforts
undertaken evidence a strong commitment to the ethics and world views of Indigenous Peoples.
 Further, the asserted mandate of the Council is to articulate and advance Indigenous-specific
education to assist communities in the restoration of balance and harmony.
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Purpose

       The purpose of the Negahneewin Council is to assume the responsibility for ensuring
       that the empowerment of Indigenous Peoples is achieved through culturally-relevant,
       academic opportunities at the Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies, at
       Confederation College. These responsibilities flow from a spiritual understanding of a
       relationship with the Creator, and the acceptance of these obligations for future
       generations.

Representation and Advocacy:

       The Council represents the views of Indigenous peoples and communities in the
       provision of excellent educational and training opportunities, including comprehensive
       student support services. The Council assumes the role of advocating on behalf of
       Indigenous communities to ensure that the goals of self-determination, and governance
       are reflected in educational initiatives. Further, the Council is responsible for directing
       the development and delivery of education and training programs, and related services,
       that are provided to Indigenous Peoples.

Consensus:

       The decision-making process used by the Council is based on consensus, which
       encourages all representatives to be heard in the review of matters before the Council.
       Customary practices and values that originate with the Anishnabe are integral to this
       decision-making, including the full participation of men and women as equal partners in
       community leadership. The guidance of elders, and the teachings reflected in customary
       practices are central to the work of this Council. Further, participation by youth is
       fundamental to continued consensus and nation-building and the restoration of
       traditional governance.

Participatory Process:

       The Council recognizes the efforts of Indigenous Peoples who are committed to the
       educational aspirations of their communities, and seeks to include them in the work of
       Negahneewin College. This inclusiveness is reflected in the membership of the Council,
       as the membership is comprised of specific communities, and organizations with a direct
       interest in the provision of Indigenous educational programs and services. The Council
       recognizes the autonomy of Indigenous communities, and encourages this form of self-
       directed participation to enable communities to come forward and declare their interest
       in working with Negahneewin College.

Meetings of the Council:

       The Council assumes a leadership role in the advancement of Indigenous education
       including but not limited to Indigenous-specific initiatives, programs, and services at
       Negahneewin College. The Council meets monthly and sets priorities in the on-going
       development of Negahneewin College. The Council also monitors the effectiveness of
       existing Indigenous programs and services, directing changes as necessary.
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Strategic Planning:

       The Council undertakes Strategic Planning efforts throughout the academic year to set
       priorities and address emerging issues that arise in the provision of Indigenous-specific
       programs. This planning process is conducted by the Council on at least two formal
       occasions during the academic year, and includes the adoption of strategic directions
       which the Council provides to the Board of Governors of Confederation College. A joint
       planning meeting is held between the Council and the Board of Governors to discuss
       these identified priorities with a view to implementation. The Council seeks this
       opportunity to engage in substantive discussions with the Board of Governors about
       Strategic Planning efforts at Confederation College.

The Partnership between Council and the Board of Governors:

The relationship between the Aboriginal Post Secondary Education and Training Council, and
the Board of Governors of Confederation College is premised on mutual respect and dialogue.
The Council views its relationship with the Board of Governors as the basis for joint decision-
making and reciprocity in matters dealing with Indigenous education and training.

The Council shall directly advise the Board of Governors and seek implementation of their
recommendations in the operations of Confederation College through its dialogue with the
Board.

The President, senior management, and faculty of Confederation College shall be advised of
the distinct status of Indigenous Peoples in Canada, and the need for cross-cultural dialogue at
Confederation College on all issues affecting Indigenous students.

The Council, through its established practice of negotiated agreement with Confederation
College, shall undertake a parallel process whereby the Council and the Board of Governors of
the College will seek to establish a formalized structure that endorses a full and equal
partnership. This partnership must be responsive to the changing needs of Indigenous
communities, and the increased demands of a growing Indigenous population with specific
educational and training needs.

Further, this partnership requires the Council and the Board to ensure that all funds allocated to
the Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies, including academic programs and support
services, are monitored, and reported in a manner consistent with accounting requirements at
Confederation College. The Council will assume decision-making responsibilities in the
establishment of priorities for the Aboriginal Education and Training Strategy Fund and shall act
as a full partner in the matters relating to the allocation of resources. Moreover, the Council’s
responsibility in this regard shall not be limited to monies received from the Strategy Fund, but
shall evolve as the Negahneewin College and its sources of revenue evolve.
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Mandate of the Council:

The Council shall have the authority to approve or veto the design, development and
implementation of Indigenous-specific education and training programs, including support
services for Indigenous students as articulated for delivery by Confederation College.

The Council shall provide a forum for Indigenous leadership, and shall serve as the primary
decision-making body on all matters relating to education, training, and services to all students
at Confederation College, both in Indigenous-specific and general programming.

The Council shall assume a leadership role in the articulation of Strategic Planning efforts
undertaken at Confederation College relating to the development of the Negahneewin College
of Indigenous Studies. The development of the Indigenous-specific “college within a college”
must remain within the purview of the Council to ensure that it is reflective of the principles,
values, ethics and world views of Indigenous communities.

The Council shall undertake responsibilities relating to the development of Negahneewin
College, including its proposed infrastructure, organizational framework, and responsiveness to
requests by Indigenous communities.

The Council shall engage in fund-raising and development strategies, including partnerships
and formal agreements with Indigenous communities, and Confederation College, to ensure that
Negahneewin College is a vital partner in the future of Confederation College.

The Council shall review and provide final recommendations on proposals that address general
and specific initiatives relating to Indigenous education and training priorities, including
enhancement of existing programs and services.

The Council shall promote, through specific strategies, increased student enrolment and
participation at Confederation College, particularly at Negahneewin College, to facilitate
increased retention and graduation.

The Council shall ensure that Indigenous-specific education and training programs, and support
services provided to communities, agencies and organizations are designed to reflect academic
standards, and cultural needs.

The Council shall ensure that partnerships, formal agreements, and liaison with Indigenous
communities reflect Indigenous values, ethics and world views. Principles of joint process and
related protocols will be required in such initiatives.

The Council shall seek to establish process and opportunities that empower Indigenous
communities within the framework of Negahneewin College at Confederation College.
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Membership and Accountability to the Council:

The Council recognizes the autonomy of each Indigenous community and organization to
determine its interest in pursuing education and training for its constituencies. Further, the
Council considers development of educational and training objectives by Indigenous
communities to be reflective of local priorities, and concerns. Therefore, the Council relies upon
the self-directed participation of communities and organizations in the Negahneewin College of
Indigenous Studies, specifically through affirmed membership to the Aboriginal Post Secondary
Education and Training Council.

Membership to this Council requires participants to share in the vision of the Negahneewin
College of Indigenous Studies at Confederation College in Thunder Bay, Ontario. Indigenous
community participants must share the commitment to provide educational opportunities at
Negahneewin College consistent with the vision of empowerment through education by, and for
Indigenous Peoples.

Decision-making and Accountability:

Members to this Council shall adopt a method of decision-making that is based on the consent
of each participant. In the event of a dispute, or disagreement among members of the Council,
the matter shall be set aside until such time as all participants are prepared to give their
consent. In the tradition of Indigenous decision-making there will be a full and considered
discussion of all issues that arise.

If members of Council cannot proceed to closure on any given matter, Council shall seek the
intervention of a mediator to facilitate the process of resolution. All members of Council must be
committed to alternative dispute resolution methods to resolve conflict.

The membership of this Council is required to attend all monthly meetings, and to demonstrate
through attendance and participation their continued interest in the work of Negahneewin
College. It is the responsibility of each representative to reflect the interests of their
constituencies and to seek a complementary purpose at Negahneewin College. The Council
places emphasis on the oral tradition and oracy of Indigenous Peoples and encourages
participants to speak openly.

Membership Criteria:

Historically, the Council comprised membership among the provincial organizations
representing Indigenous communities such as: Ontario Federation of Indian Friendship Centres,
Nishnawbe Aski Nation, Grand Council Treaty # 3, Ontario Native Women’s Association,
Association of Iroquois and Allied Indians, Union of Ontario Indians, Ontario Metis and
Aboriginal Association, and the Metis Nation of Ontario. While these organizations are
recognized entities, membership to this Council is not limited by this framework. Since the
launch of the Strategy Fund, the government of Ontario has required this membership criteria;
however, this Council has further adopted a broad-based community participation framework
reflective of Northwestern Ontario.

Currently, membership to this Council is comprised of community representatives who are
engaged in the delivery of educational initiatives as above, including but not limited to, regional
communities, educational authorities, and tribal councils.
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Council recognizes the contributions of individuals who are committed to the vision of
Negahneewin College, particularly community-based representatives including members-at-
large, Ad Hoc Advisory members, alumni, and students currently attending at Negahneewin
College and Confederation College.

Membership is demonstrated by the following:

   •   Indian Friendship Centre, Thunder Bay
   •   Metis Nation of Ontario, Thunder Bay
   •   Matawa Tribal Council, Thunder Bay
   •   Alumni of Negahneewin College, and Confederation College
   •   Oshki Anishnawbeg Student Association, Thunder Bay
   •   Board of Governors, Confederation College, Thunder Bay
   •   Members-at-large, Thunder Bay
   •   Ad Hoc Advisory Group, Thunder Bay

Protocols of Membership:

Membership to this Council shall be requested by each participating community seeking an
opportunity to contribute to the Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies. This must be a
formal request in written form, accompanied by a declaration or motion from the originating
community or organization. Alternates shall be designated by each participating community or
organization in this same manner.

Membership to this Council shall be conferred at a meeting of Council declared by consensus.

Members-at-large are recognized by the Council on the basis of their demonstrated commitment
to the aspirations of this Council through previous, and on-going participation. This recognition
is based on the customary practice of showing respect towards those who have demonstrated
determination and perserverence.

The Ad Hoc Advisory Group to the Council is comprised of advisors who possess a keen
interest in business and economic affairs affecting Indigenous communities in Northwestern
Ontario. This group is considered to be a resource to the Council and is currently in
development. Negahneewin College shall develop a specific set of objectives and policies
relating to Ad Hoc committees. This policy shall be flexible and appropriate to the purpose of
such committees.


Confederation College Resources to Council:


Confederation College is represented by the following:

   •   President
   •   Dean, Business and Ventures
   •   Associate Dean, Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies
   •   Administrative Assistant, Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies
   •   Program Development Advisor, Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies
   •   Faculty and counselling staff, Negahneewin College of Indigenous Studies
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   •   Registrar
   •   Director, Regional Programming and Distance Education
   •   Dean, Student and Human Services
   •   Director, Community Programs, Regional Campuses
   •   Executive Director, Finance and Administration
   •   Manager, Human Resources
   •   Manager, Physical Resources

and any other resource as identified by the Council

Quorum:

Quorum shall constitute at least four(4) of the Council members.

Attendance:

All members of Council are obliged to represent their constituencies through consistent
attendance. This requires each member to demonstrate their commitment through regular
attendance. If a member chooses not to attend, this will effectively demonstrate their withdrawal
from the Council.

Council will address the issue of non-participation on four occasions through direct contact and
written correspondence. In the event that participation continues to be withheld, Council will
recognize that the member has withdrawn their consent.

Meetings:

Council shall meet monthly and more frequently, if necessary.

Council shall meet a minimum of once a year for planning and priority-setting.

Council shall consult with the Ad Hoc Advisory Group as priorities emerge.

Council shall establish committees and consultations as required.

Council shall review and approve at their discretion financial reimbursement for the cost of
travel, accommodation, and meals for Council members consistent with Confederation College
policies on travel.

Further,

All Council meetings shall be open to the Indigenous community and the public at large, except
on those occasions when matters of a private and confidential nature arise.

Amendments:

The Council recognizes that this is a living, working document reflecting established consensus
at the time of its adoption. Therefore, amendments may be made to this document at any time,
provided there is consensus in the Council as to the nature and wording of such amendments.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                             Page 144

13.3   Problem-Based Learning Method

Problem Based Learning (PBL) is an instructional methodology characterized by the use of real
world problems as a context for student’s learning which results from the process of “working
toward” the understanding of a problem or case. The actual development of PBL predates most
of the body of modern research on teaching and learning, dating back to the time of Socrates,
but has found increasing support in many institutions worldwide. As a method of teaching and
learning, PBL began to replace traditional didactic modes of teaching for a variety of courses in
business as early as the 1970's and at health care institutions as early as 1974 and in social
work education as early as 1990. The evolution of PBL or Inquiry Based Learning, and its
forerunner, the Case-Study Method, has been outlined by Birch (1986). The best known
examples are the Harvard Business School, the engineering course at Herriot-Watt University,
and the McMaster Medical School.

Essentially, Problem Based Learning is a method of curriculum organization in which subject or
discipline-based courses are replaced by a series of problems, situations or cases that might be
encountered in the relevant profession or subject.

Educational objectives of PBL are two-pronged. For the student, the objective is to acquire
knowledge that is better retained, useable in a real-life setting and integrated from many
relevant disciplines. For the institution, it is to provide a learning method that is student-centred,
motivating for students, relevant to the field, and adaptable to students’ needs.

To accomplish these goals and be authentic, PBL should have the following essential
characteristics:

   •   student-centred where students assume responsibility for their own learning and become
       active participants in the learning;
   •   problem-based where problems reflect real life situations and support application of
       problem-solving skills;
   •   student-directed where the learning process is lead by students and they learn to dig out
       the information they need from a variety of sources and resources, the teacher being just
       one of them;
   •   collaborative in that students are organized into small groups;
   •   integrative where students are allowed to pursue information they need from any
       subject;
   •   authentic, reflective;
   •   peer & self assessed;
   •   motivating.

(Burrows, 1998; Finucane, Johnson & Prideau, 1998; Luthra & Das, 1998, & Pringle, 1998).

While students play an active role in the learning process, faculty play a faciliatory role, by
posing metacognitive questions which serve to assist in organizing, generalizing, and evaluating
knowledge; to probe for supporting evidence; to explore faulty reasoning; to stimulate
discussion of attitudes; and to develop self-directed learning and self-assessment skills.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                              Page 145

Generally students and faculty find the learning experience productive and enjoyable (Kanter,
1998; Edwards, Hugo, Cragg & Peterson, 1999; Doucet, Purdy, Kaufman & Langille, 1998).
However, it is clear that whereas PBL may be more effective as an educational method with
respect to the skills of self-directed learning and the retention of knowledge, there is little doubt
that it is also more labour intensive than traditional lecture-based education.

Self-directed learning, which has seen a growing wave of support in other areas of education
particularly non-formal has many things to offer both students and teachers alike. As Malcolm
Knowles (1975), the guru of self-directed learning, points out, it is a tragic fact that “most of us
only know how to be taught; we haven’t yet learned how to learn” (p. 14). Even though there is
convincing evidence that proactive people who take the initiative in learning learn more things
and actually learn better than do reactive people who sit at the feet of the teacher passively
waiting to be taught, we continue to engage in teacher-directed learning.

In formal education institutions, there is growing support for Problem-Based Learning, which is
grounded in the principles of self-directed learning. PBL often generates justifiable enthusiasm
among faculty who have become frustrated with the limitations of the traditional lecture-based
education and is currently being used in various institutions, in various different areas of study
or faculties and with a variety of delivery approaches including Virtual Classroom
(audioconferenced), Virtual Video Classroom (videoconferenced, and On-Line (web based).

Derived from the theory that learning is a process in which the learner actively constructs
knowledge, Problem Based Learning employs different instructional conditions to ensure
effective learning. Studies of metacognition, or self-monitoring skills have shown that expert
students constantly judge the difficulty of problems and assess their progress towards solving
them (Glaser, 1991). If our goal is to teach students to use their knowledge to solve real-world
problems, instruction will have to be placed in the context of complex and meaningful problem-
solving situations. Instruction will have to focus on teaching metacognitive skills and when to
use them. In the small group work characteristic of PBL, the exposure to alternative points of
view evokes students’ problem-solving methods and conceptual knowledge.

Pedagogic Characteristics of PBL

   •   active learning - Students participate through interaction, dialogue, discussion, and the
       sharing of relevant knowledge and experience.

   •   assessment - There is constant feedback on strengths and areas for improvement of
       performance as well as feedback on the quality of the learning and problem-solution

   •   consistency - The aims of PBL are reflected in all aspects of teaching and learning,
       including the learning environment in the classroom and assessment practices.

   •   emphasis on meaning, not facts - Most students retain and use little of what they simply
       memorize, a common expectation in traditional programs. PBL focuses on meaning by
       requiring students to solve real-life, relevant, contextualized problems. By replacing
       lectures with discussions, faculty consultation, and collaborative research, students
       become engaged in meaningful learning.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                           Page 146

   •   enjoyment - Students generally favor problem-based learning classes and therefore
       demonstrate increased attendance and improved attitudes compared to traditional
       classes.

   •   information resources - Students learn by using resources they have accessed
       themselves. Librarians regularly comment on the sharp increase in library activity when
       a PBL program starts. Students become more competent in information-seeking and
       processing skills than traditional students.

   •   integration - Subjects are introduced as they relate to a problem rather than separately
       and several disciplines may be used concurrently to solve the problem. Contextual
       knowledge is more easily remembered.

   •   interpersonal skills - Because social interaction is such an important aspect of
       professional life, PBL normally incorporates collaborative teams or tutorial groups.
       Students learn to work with group dynamics, teamwork, self- and peer assessment,
       listening and other dialogue skills.

   •   novelty - PBL works best if the students get the problem cold (fundamental information
       may be given prior to assigning the case however). Any communication that identifies
       the problem in advance appears to detract from the PBL process. Some faculty think
       the whole process would be much more effective if given preliminary lectures in all
       disciplines and then use PBL as capstone. This truly dilutes the benefits of PBL. The
       best approach appears to be to give preliminary lectures that provide an overview of the
       discipline, important terminology, important references and resources. This will facilitate
       information retrieval students will not be overwhelmed at first.

   •   practical experience - Ideally, PBL can be used in actual practice environments with
       current problems. For example, hiring an employee.

   •   progression - What and how students learn changes as students acquire maturity, skills
       and knowledge.

   •   relevance - Relevant material is considered to be essential in the constructivist approach
       to education because it provides motivation, improves learning by making it more
       profound and durable, and increase the transferability of skills and knowledge from
       school to work

   •   repetition - No subject is learned in depth at any one time. It is introduced repeatedly at
       increasing levels of complexity as students progress from one case to the next. New
       information is only sought after prior knowledge has been activated.

   •   self-direction - Students assume responsibility for their own learning. They are also
       responsible for identifying what they already know in relation to each new case study
       (problem) and what it is that they still need to know in order to solve the problem.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                        Page 147

   •   student ownership - PBL instructors focus on the continual use of socratic questioning to
       keep the student in charge of the thinking, learning and problem-solving. At first the
       student may be driven by the habit of trying to figure out “what the teacher wants”, but
       this disappears quickly as the instructor does not offer answers. This process quickly
       transfers ownership of the learning to the students.
Indigenous Leadership and Community Development                                      Page 148

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