278 JEWISH CHARITIES JEWISH CHARITIES 279
A classification of the 1729 cases, with English 1.1 per cent, F r e n c h 0.5 per cent, c o m p r i s i n g 14 per cent of the total n u m b e r the unemployment problem. It was the
reference to their period of idleness, shows R u s s i a n 0.6 per cent, A u s t r i a n 1.7 per cent, of openings, the positions were not filled belief of many that unemployment would
that: Asiatic Turkey 1.1 per cent, Switzerland due to a misunderstanding on the part of have no footing, in Louisville at least, if
No. P e r Cent 0.6 per cent, and Italian 6.6 per cent. the employer w h o failed to m a k e a r r a n g e the m a s s e s would turn to the soil. Accord
L e s s than 1 month 345 23.7 The large percentage of the native-born ments with the foreman in charge of a ingly, about 500 "help wanted" cards were
L e s s than 2 m o n t h s 458 31.4 is interpreted by the constituency of L o u i s gang. In still another instance, comprising mailed t o f a r m e r s and land o w n e r s within
L e s s than 3 m o n t h s 254 17. ville's population, which consists of but a 3 per cent of the total number of openings, a radius of fifty miles, asking them t o fill
L e s s than 4 m o n t h s 129 9. small percentage of foreigners. the call for help was canceled; thus 8 per out same and return to the Bureau, the
L e s s than 5 months 97 6.6 T h o u g h f r o m the v e r y beginning the pre cent of the positions unfilled were due to result of which was one reply.
L e s s than 6 m o n t h s 54 3.7 sumption was that the Bureau would be the fact that the Bureau failed "to find On the other hand, the requests for
L e s s than 7 m o n t h s 27 1.8 purely relief, and of t e m p o r a r y nature, its the right m a n for the right j o b . " labor received f r o m the f a r m e r s with w h o m
L e s s than 8 months 16 1.1 activities c a m e to an end with that of the the 28 cases of f a r m help w e r e placed, bore
Painstaking care was exercised by the
Afore than 8 months 16 5.2 Unemployment Fund. An attempt' was witness of the difficulties they underwent
Bureau in placing farm help. If an em
Unknown 273 made to find employment with firms and in getting the right kind of help.
ployment bureau justifies its existence by
individuals. An appeal to employers
bringing together the city man with the The Bureau in its short-lived period e m
Two hundred and seventy, or about 18 through the press, personal letters and calls
city j o b , its value is emphasized when it phasized the fact, for Louisville at least,
per cent, were unemployed for a period of resulted in placing 187 m e n and 46 w o m e n .
succeeds in bringing together the farm hand that a well-trained, disinterested municipal
idleness of four m o n t h s and m o r e . These A tabulation of positions filled shows:
with the farm. The Bureau succeeded in e m p l o y m e n t bureau would be of inestimable
were not of the "won't w o r k " class. In the Male—apprentices and boys 4, clerks 2, car
placing 28 farm and dairy hands, 70 per value both to the city and its u n e m p l o y e d ;
majority of cases idleness was due t o a d riage woodworker 1, carpenters 4, cement
cent, with fully 10 per cent pending, not but the none too satisfactory placement of
vanced age. workers 3, c o o k s 2, day w o r k e r s 52, dish
heard f r o m , at the Bureau's close as a re farm labor d e m o n s t r a t e d that the problem
A s to the length of residence in Louisville washers 2, drivers 3, elevator operator 1,
lief station. of the unemployed, particularly of the un
factory workers 3, farm and dairy hands
the 1729 cases classify as f o l l o w s : It is probably opportune to mention here skilled, cannot be solved by the so-often
28, fireman 1, gardeners 2, handy men 7,
that the farm w a s looked upon as a test of prescribed m o v e m e n t "back t o the soil."
janitor 1, laborers 50, painters, paper-
No. P e r Cent
hangers and plasterers 10, solicitors 2, tin
Born in Louisville 348 23.
ner 1, tobacco stemmers 4, all others' 3.
L e s s than one year 65 4.3 R E L A T I O N OF I N D U S T R I A L CONDITIONS TO CHARITABLE
Female—cooks 2, day workers 9, factory
One year 37 2.6
Two years 88 5.8
w o r k e r s 9, general h o u s e w o r k e r s 9, house ORGANIZATIONS
keepers s, housemaid 1, laundress 1, sales
T h r e e years 88 5.8
ladies 2, seamstresses 6, stenographer I , all By Charles Strull
P o u r years 45 3.
others 1. In addition to the above, 75
F i v e years 66 4.35 r
Certain as it is that this country, al effect it has had upon the budgets and ac
w omen were given temporary employment
Six years 37 2.6 though at peace, has felt the effects of in tivities of these organizations. The follow
at the "Bundle D a y " shop under the au
Seven years 35 2.3 dustrial depression in the past year, it is ing questions were propounded :
spices of the Salvation Army.
E i g h t years 29 2. equally certain that there has been an o v e r (1) Lias y o u r organization suffered a r e
N i n e years 8 .05 These various placements comprise 60 indulgence in "calamity talk." T h e psychic duction in receipts during the past year?
Ten years' 47 3.2 per cent of the total requisitions for m a l e effect upon some people of "hard times" If so, h o w much?
Longer 620 41. help and 34 per cent female help placed scares, frequently, results in increasing busi (2) H a v e y o u met with a deficit? How
Not known 216 with the Bureau. No excuse could be ness stagnation to an extent not justified much ?
offered for the low percentage of place by the true e c o n o m i c conditions. It is un (3) Is y o u r deficit due to a decrease in
1729 100. ments of female help, excepting the state doubtedly true that part of the industrial i n c o m e or an increase in expenditures, or
ment that of the non-filled positions 36 per crisis which is generally prevailing t h r o u g h both?
O n l y 4.3 per cent of the applicants bad cent fall in the "domestic service" classifi out the country has been caused in this (4) W h a t has y o u r organization done, or
n o t acquired a legal residence in Louisville, cation and 15 per cent were in canvassing way. what does it contemplate doing, to r e m e d y
wdiich indicates that the o v e r w h e l m i n g mass and soliciting lines. A large number of The most palpable effect of this crisis the situation, such as soliciting increased
•of the unemployed was not composed of those placed in domestic service w e r e placed wdiich has c o m e to the attention of social subscriptions or n e w subscriptions, or rais
the hobo or migratory worker, and that out of t o w n . workers has been the unusual extent of ing m o n e y in any other way ?
the c o m m u n i t y was justified in m a k i n g an Of the 40 per cent of the positions for unemployment, with its concomitant re (5) Please state what success you have
effort to offer a helping hand to those wdio males left unfilled the B u r e a u accounts for sults, poverty and suffering, resulting in a had in meeting your deficit, and in what
in their daily pursuits had contributed to them in the f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : In one in drain upon the resources of charitable o r m a n n e r y o u r extra funds were raised?
its welfare. ganizations to their fullest limit. (6) H a s the industrial depression affect
stance, where the requisition comprised 15
A classification of cases with full records per cent of the total number of openings, A t the suggestion of the editor of J E W I S H ed your subscriptions to any considerable
according to nativity and birthplaces s h o w s : the Bureau made no attempt to fill the CHARITIES the writer sent out a question extent ?
Native white 70 per cent, colored 14 per vacancies w h e n it learned the w a g e offered naire to about fifty Jewish charity o r g a n i (7) H a v e the solicitations for funds by
cent, G e r m a n 8 per cent, Irish 1.7 per cent, was below standard. In another instance, zations with a view of ascertaining the the A m e r i c a n Jewish Relief C o m m i t t e e or
280 JEWISH CHARITIES JEWISH CHARITIES 281
by other organizations for the relief of the incurred for the year 1914 amounting to activities. The subscribers of the Louis
tion with this it is also noteworthy that
Jewish w a r sufferers in any w a y affected about $8000 w a s raised in one week. Most ville Federation at its last annual meeting in
solicitations by the A m e r i c a n Jewish Re
collections of funds' for your local p u r p o s e s ? of the other cities had not done anything January adopted a resolution instructing
lief C o m m i t t e e and other organizations for
(8) H a s your organization discontinued to meet the deficit, but w e r e contemplating the Board of Directors not to curtail a
the relief of Jewish w'ar sufferers has had
any regular activities or reduced the budget general solicitations for n e w and increased single activity of the Federation, and ex
no appreciable effect upon the funds of the
of expenditures of your present activities subscriptions. pressed its confidence in the Jewish citizens
regular organizations. But the most en
on account of the present industrial crisis? Tn reply to question N o . 6, Indianapolis, to support the Federation liberally through
couraging sign of all is the fact that not a
Replies were received from twenty or Mobile, Milwaukee, Memphis, N e w Haven, its present crisis.
single city reported a curtailment of its
ganizations in both small and large cities Cincinnati, D e n v e r , D e t r o i t and Louisville
located in different sections of the country. reported "no." C o l u m b u s stated that the
O n e fact stands out v e r y prominently in all industrial depression had affected their sub
A D D R E S S OF D A V I D M . BRESSLER A T SABSOVICH MEMORIAL
these answers, namely, that the Jewish citi scription to a small extent. T h e same reply
zens in all of these cities are heroically was given by St. L o u i s and Chicago. O t h e r To Jewish Social Workers of New York City
standing by their respective organizations cities reported that the effect upon smaller
T h i s service in c o m m e m o r a t i o n of a m a n compassion, sustained by faith, with insight
and are liberally contributing to the chari subscribers w a s offset by increases of larger
w h o was loved of all w h o k n e w him, lays- as well as sight. Such a man could not
ties to enable them t o meet the increased subscribers.
stress on the m o r e abiding and significant rest content without expressing this fine
needs of their dependents.
In answer to question N o . 7 , Indianapolis, nature in a m o s t emphatic and m o s t con
things of h u m a n life. N o t that the thought
The following is a s u m m a r y of the re M o b i l e , C o l u m b u s , N e w H a v e n , Cincinnati,
of death t h r o w s a g l o o m over the living, but crete manner, and emphatically and con
plies of various cities: In answer to ques- St. L o u i s , Detroit, Chicago, N e w Y o r k and
that it makes us see clearer the differences cretely he expressed it. A l t h o u g h his ac
N o . I : Indianapolis, M e m p h i s , N e w H a v e n , Louisville said "no." Milwaukee, Memphis,
between what is transitory and what is en tivities took certain specific directions, there
Cincinnati, Denver, Syracuse, Cleveland, New Orleans, Denver, Cleveland and
during. T h e career of H i r s h Sabsovich is re was not a movement for the increase of
Detroit, C h i c a g o and Louisville answered B r o o k l y n said that collections for the regu
plete with results which will endure; not h u m a n happiness' wdiich escaped him. He
"no." The only cities wdiich reported a lar charities were affected only to a slight
only those definite achievements in social was not only a pioneer a m o n g Jewish social
decrease were Milwaukee, with $2000; degree.
work by which he will be professionally w o r k e r s ; he was not only the professional
C o l u m b u s , $500; N e w Orleans, with an e x In reply to question N o . 8, Indianapolis, remembered, but by the influence he has social w o r k e r ; he w a s not only the immi
pected reduction for 1915 of $5000; B r o o k Mobile, Milwaukee, Columbus, Memphis, had on those who knew him through an gration or agricultural expert; or the
lyn, about $25,000, and N e w Y o r k , a little New Orleans, Cincinnati, D e n v e r , Detroit, unswerving love of and a p r o f o u n d devotion founder of Woodbine; or the proponent
over $8000. Detroit and Cleveland reported Louisville, Chicago, and Brooklyn replied to all things high and g o o d . The memory for a school of Jewish philanthropy—he
increases in their receipts for the past year. "no." Cleveland reported that n e w activi of him will live unto future generations, for w a s all these, but m o r e ; for his vision led
In reply to question N o . 2 : Indianapolis, ties had been added. I believe that true love of f e l l o w m a n sets him to see that the social w o r k e r m u s t be
Mobile, Columbus, Memphis, New Haven, into motion spiritual forces which are not a social force, giving the impulse to in
T o emphasize the salient facts deducible
Cincinnati, D e n v e r , Syracuse and Louisville futile and by which other men may live creased measures of social r e f o r m and help
from those replies are these: With the
answered "no." M i l w a u k e e reported a defi better. ing to awaken a larger social conscience
exception of a few cities, there has been
cit of $2000; N e w Orleans, $8000; St. L o u i s , not only a m o n g individuals, but on the part
no reduction in receipts of charity organiza
less than $2000; Detroit, $5000; B r o o k l y n , A s I r e m e m b e r him, his quiet charm, the
tions thus far. Practically all organiza of city and state.
$6300, and N e w Y o r k , $33,500. depth of his character, the balance of his
tions have had to increase their expendi He was avid of learning; witness his
excellent nature—as I think over the m a n i
In reply to question N o . 3 very f e w of tures due to the enlarged needs of the poor.
fold activities of his life, the variety of his academic career. He was a constructive
the cities stated that the deficit was caused The m o s t general w a y of meeting deficits
interests, the range of his m i n d — o n e thing pioneer; witness his Woodbine achieve
by a decrease in income or whether due to or increasing funds with which to meet in
stands out ineffaceable—his great and lov ment. He was a statesman; witness his
an increase in expenditures. creased demands' was by direct solicitation
ing soul. A l l else sinks into the b a c k g r o u n d activities in behalf of the m a n y m o v e m e n t s
Question N o . 4 : In reply to this Indian in preference to the giving of entertain
—career, achievement, results—and the m a n , for the welfare of the Jewish immigrant.
apolis reported that their subscriptions were ments, bazars, etc., which seem to have
the soul of the man, is revealed. His whole life was replete with whole
double last year, due to a visit by Judge been abandoned by all progressive com
The thought has often occurred to me s o m e thinking and feeling. Goodness, sym
M a c k and M r . R o s e n w a l d . A l l other cities munities. It is also important to point out
that earnestly as one labors in his chosen pathy, were things innate in him, not ac
reported that efforts are being made by that m o s t cities have been able to increase
w o r k , certain practical necessities and c o m quired. He was quiet and simple, never
direct solicitation of increased subscriptions their receipts if sufficient and persistent
promises prevent the w o r l d f r o m seeing a obtruding. H e had no use for cynics or a
to a u g m e n t their income. effort is m a d e to g o after it. While the
man as he truly is. Death erases these cynical philosophy of life. F r o m the v e r y
Question No. 5 was answered by Mil industrial depression seems to have cut into
limitations. It illumines the soul. As depths he hated cant and pretense. H e did
waukee, Syracuse and Chicago, w h o stated the receipts of s o m e of the larger cities it
though the fragments of the personality, not need to preach idealism; he inclined one
that they had fair success by direct solici had practically no effect upon the income
so wonderfully organized for the needs of to it by the e x a m p l e he set in thought and
tation, and by letter appeals sent out by of the organizations in the cities of the
life, had at one stroke been bound together deed.
the president. Louisville conducted a c a m second and third c l a s s e s ; the losses result
by the transfiguration w r o u g h by death. A n d all who k n e w him reverenced h i m —
paign during which various committees ing f r o m the discontinuance of small sub
T h u s enabled to see him m o r e clearly, he not with that qualifying respect given t o age
solicited increased subscriptions and new scriptions' were more than offset by in
n o w stands before us as a man w h o had an or achievement—they loved him because he
subscriptions with the result that the deficit creases and n e w subscriptions. I n connec-
irresistible love of humanity; a soul of had a great heart and a noble soul. True,