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GSM to UMTS

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					                           Mobile Communication
                   GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS and beyond




                                 Ralf Keller
                      Ericsson Research, Corporate Unit
                     Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland GmbH

                                Ralf.Keller@ericsson.com



Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland    1             Mobility Applications Laboratory
Overview

l Services

l GSM

l GPRS & EDGE

l UMTS

l Beyond




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   2   Mobility Applications Laboratory
                                            Services




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland         3    Mobility Applications Laboratory
    Personal and Secure Services




                                                      Mobile -WWW                Mobile Commerce
        Mobile Messaging                           (Browsing/streaming)           (Transactions)
•   e-mail                                 • Information                  •   Banking
•   Voice-mail                                  (news, sport, etc)        •   Trading
•   SMS/EMS + MMS                          • Entertainment                •   Ticketing
•   Instant Message                             (Music, Games…)           •   Shopping
                                           • Location Services


                                                           UMTS
                                      GSM / EDGE / GPRS / HSCSD

    Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                        4            Mobility Applications Laboratory
                                       GSM
   Global System for Mobile communication




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland    5   Mobility Applications Laboratory
GSM Evolution



1989                 1995           1997           1998           2000           2001         2002


       GSM P1             GSM P2             G2+        GPRS          EDGE P1         EDGE P2


   Basic                 Suppl              Interw.       PS domain   8PSK              Voice over
   CS domain:            Services:          with          data        data              PS-domain
   voice                 call waiting       GSM 1800      160 kbps    384 kbps          all-IP
   fax                   conf call          GSM 1900                  EGPRS
   SMS                                      14.4 kbps                 ECSD
   data (9.6 kbps)                          HSCSD
                                            57.6 kbps




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                  6                     Mobility Applications Laboratory
 Key Terms
         LA-6                                                                 • Location Area
                                                                              • Roaming
                                                                              • International
                                                        BSC-3
                                                                                Roaming
                                                                MSC           • Location Updating
                             LA-5
                                                                              • Paging
                                                                              • Handover

                          LA-2              BSC-1               BSC-2
    LA-1


                                                        LA-3




                                                                                     LA-4

Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland           7                 Mobility Applications Laboratory
      GSM900 Air Interface (TDMA)


                 890
                                                                                              Time
uplink           MHz
frequencies              F1-u                    TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7




                 915     F124-u                  TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7
                 MHz



                 935
                 MHz F1-d        TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7

downlink
frequencies      960
                 MHz
                     F124-d
                                  TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7

              Frequency
     Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                 8                     Mobility Applications Laboratory
GSM Frequency Bands




             GSM 900                eGSM          GSM 1800        GSM 1900
Uplink       890-915 MHz            880-890 MHz   1710-1785 MHz    1850-1910 MHz

Downlink     935-960                925-935       1805-1880        1930-1990

carrier    200 kHz
separation

carrier pairs 124                    +50           374              299




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland          9              Mobility Applications Laboratory
Frequency Planning in GSM Cells



 Multiple Reuse Pattern

 Frequency Hopping

 Micro cell usage for further capacity increase

 Half rate calls for further capacity increase

Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   10   Mobility Applications Laboratory
  GSM Network
                                                                          OSS



          BTS                     BSS          SC                    MAP    FNR
                                                                                                                          SS
                                                    MAP      HLR                          ILR
                          BTAP                                              MAP
                                         SMS-IWMSC
                    BSC           TRC                      MAP
                          A-ter          SMS-GMSC                   MAP      AUC                                                  PSTN
           A-bis
                             BSSAP                   MAP
                                         A-IF                                                                   GMSC
                                                                     EIR         CCN          ISUP

                                                                 MAP        CAP
                                                                                                                                 PLMN
          BTS                     BSS                                                                            Tigris
                                        BSSAP              MSC/VLR                              MSC/VLR
                                                                                 ISUP
                    BSC                 A-IF
                                                                   ISUP

            A-bis
                                                                           CAP                                       MIN
                                                             SSP                        SCP               SDP
                                                                                                                               IP network




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                            11                                     Mobility Applications Laboratory
Most Important Traffic Cases


  l Location Update with or without registration in HLR
  l SMS-Mobile Terminating call
  l SMS-Mobile Originating call
  l Mobile Originating call
  l Mobile Terminating call
  l Handover (intra BSC, inter BSC, intra MSC, inter MSC)




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   12          Mobility Applications Laboratory
   SMS MT (Forw MT SM)

                            SC                   SMS-GMSC                  HLR         MSC


                                 Forward MT SM
                                                    Send routing info for SM
  Forward MT SM
                                                        Result
 RR connection est

  Service request

  Authentication                                      Forward SM

 Ciphering mode set

  Data link est.

Short message transfer

 RR connection rel




   Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                 13                  Mobility Applications Laboratory
   SMS MT (RR conn est)

                                MS                      BTS                    BSC                   MSC              HLR
                                                                                     Paging
                                                          Paging Command
                                     Paging Request
                         PCH

  Forward MT SM

 RR connection est       RACH        Channel Request
                                                          Channel Request        cause, ref number

  Service request                                         Channel Activation     SDCCH #, MS-power
  Authentication
                                                          Channel Act Ack
 Ciphering mode set
                                                          Imm Assignment Cmd
  Data link est.         AGCH    Immediate Assignment

Short message transfer           SDCCH #

 RR connection rel




   Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                     14                           Mobility Applications Laboratory
   SMS MT (Data link est)

                               MS                   BTS                   BSC                  MSC             HLR


                                                                            CP-Data(RP-Data)
                                                      Est Req (SAPI=3)
  Forward MT SM                     SABM (SAPI=3)
                         xyx
 RR connection est
                                    UA (SAPI=3)
                                                      Est Conf (SAPI=3)
  Service request

  Authentication

 Ciphering mode set

  Data link est.

Short message transfer

 RR connection rel




   Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                15                         Mobility Applications Laboratory
   SMS MT (SM transfer)

                               MS                      BTS                  BSC                  MSC

                                                                                                          SMS-
                                                                                                          GMSC           SC
                                                        CP-Data (RP-Data)
  Forward MT SM                     CP-Data(RP-Data)                                DTAP
                         xyx
 RR connection est
                                    CP-Ack
  Service request                                            CP-Ack
                                                                                  CP-Ack
  Authentication
                                    CP-Ack(RP-Ack)
 Ciphering mode set                                     CP-Ack(RP-Ack)
                                                                              CP-Ack(RP-Ack)
  Data link est.                                                                                     RP-Ack

Short message transfer                                                                                          RP-Ack

 RR connection rel




   Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                     16                        Mobility Applications Laboratory
 GSM Enhancements: GPRS and EDGE




              GPRS = General Packet Radio System



EDGE = Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution




 Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   17   Mobility Applications Laboratory
Why GPRS??

l Packet-oriented services over circuit-switched bearers is often
  not resource-efficient

l New Services become possible …

l Always Connected, Always On-line




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   18      Mobility Applications Laboratory
GSM Enhancements
GPRS




                                             SC                         MAP    FNR
                                                                                                      PS-domain
                                                  MAP       HLR                       ILR
                                                                               MAP
                                       SMS-IWMSC                         MAP
                                       SMS-GMSC
                                                                               AUC
                                                          MAP
                                                    MAP
                                                                        EIR     CCN         MAP
          BTS               BSS                                  MAP          CAP                                       IP-network
                                       BSSGP
                                                                                GTP
                    BSC                                    SGSN                              GGSN
                                       Gb -If
            A-bis
                                                                Gs-If
                                            BSSAP
                                                                                                       CS-domain
                                         A-If                                  ISUP
                                                          MSC/VLR                           MSC/VLR                        BSS




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                               19                             Mobility Applications Laboratory
     GSM Enhancements
     EDGE


                                  A’’             A
                       BTS               BSC            MSC/VLR                             HLR              SOG
                                                                             Gr (MAP)

                                                 Gb
                                                             Gs

                                                                                                            IP
                                                                                        Gi (IP)
                                                                                                         Network
                                                      SGSN                   GGSN
MS
                                                                  Gn          Gn


                                        BGW                            Backbone
                                                                                                   Same core network
                                                                        Network                   and external interfaces
                                                                           IP
                                                                                         Dimensioning and upgrades
     New HW                  New SW                                                          might be required




     Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                     20                         Mobility Applications Laboratory
GSM Bit Rates



                                                                                384
                                                                                kb/s
l Channel coding
   (error detection and correction)                                            EDGE
l Interleaving
l Burst formation
l Modulation
  GMSK and 8PSK
                                                                    115 kb/s
                                                                    GPRS
                                                   9.6 -57.6 kb/s
                                                 14.4 kb/s HSCSD
                                                   CS



Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   21                 Mobility Applications Laboratory
                                                                            SMS-GMSC
   Network Overview                                                Gd       SMS-IWMSC
                        Abis                A                     (MAP)
                                                                          (MAP)
             BTS                BSC                 MSC/VLR
                                                                                    HLR

                                         Gb           Gs                                          IP
                                                                                                  IP
                                                           Gr (MAP) Gc
                                                                             Gi (IP)           Network
                                                                                               Network
 MS
                                                SGSN              GGSN

                                                       Gn         Gn
 Gb Interface between SGSN and BSC (Frame
Gb - - Interface between SGSN and BSC (Frame                                                  Other
                                                                                              Other
Relay)
 Relay)
Gi - - Reference point between GPRS and external                                              PLMN
                                                                                              PLMN
 Gi     Reference point between GPRS and external
packet data network
                                                           Backbone
                                                           Backbone
 packet data network
Gs - - Interface between SGSN and MSC
 Gs      Interface between SGSN and MSC
                                                            Network
                                                            Network
Gr - - Home Location Register
 Gr Home Location Register                                                        Gp (IP)
Gn - - Interface between two GSN within
 Gn Interface between two GSN within
the same PLMN
 the same PLMN
Gp - - Interface between two GSN in
 Gp Interface between two GSN in
different PLMN
 different PLMN                                                             PTM-SC

    Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                22                     Mobility Applications Laboratory
 Gb Interface (BSS-SGSN)

                                                                   BTS           BSC


                                                           MS                 Gb

                                                                               SGSN

BSS GPRS Protocol                       BSSGP             BSSGP
BSS GPRS Protocol

Network Service                               NS           NS
Network Service

Frame Relay
 Frame Relay
                                              FR           FR

                                             E1/T1        E1/T1

                                             BSC          SGSN

 Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland           23           Mobility Applications Laboratory
Gs Interface (SGSN to MSC)

                                                      BTS   BSC            MSC/VLR


                                            MS                               Gs


                                                                  SGSN
l SS7/BSSAP+ based
l SS7/BSSAP+ based
l Carries all paging of class A and B terminals
l Carries all paging of class A and B terminals
l Combined attach/detach for class A and B
l Combined attach/detach for class A and B
  terminals
   terminals
l Combined routing/location area update
l Combined routing/location area update



Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland        24         Mobility Applications Laboratory
Gn and Gp Interfaces (SGSN to GGSN and SGSN to
SGSN)
                                                             SGSN                 GGSN
                                                                         Gn
                                                 SGSN   Gn
                                                                                       Gp

                                                             SGSN       Other GGSN
                                                                        PLMN


l GTP protocol carries payload as well as signalling
l GTP protocol carries payload as well as signalling
  (PDP context activation)
   (PDP context activation)
l SGSN to SGSN transfer buffers in case of inter-
l SGSN to SGSN transfer buffers in case of inter-
  SGSN routeing area update
   SGSN routeing area update
l Gp is the same as Gn, but inter-PLMN
l Gp is the same as Gn, but inter-PLMN



Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   25               Mobility Applications Laboratory
Gi Interface (GGSN to ISP/corporate network)

                                                                                IP
                                                                                IP
                                                                             Network
                                                                             Network

                                                         GGSN
                                                                            Gi
l Interfaces to ISPs (and corporates) using standard
l Interfaces to ISPs (and corporates) using standard
  IP-based protocols.
   IP-based protocols.
l Security functions
l Security functions
      – Firewall (packet filtering)
       – Firewall (packet filtering)
      – Authentication, integrity and confidentiality (IPSEC,
       – Authentication, integrity and confidentiality (IPSEC,
        tunneling, key exchange)
         tunneling, key exchange)
l Routing functions
l Routing functions
      – Static/dynamic routing supported
       – Static/dynamic routing supported

Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   26                   Mobility Applications Laboratory
PDP Context Activation
How to Locate Correct GGSN



             BTS                 BSC

                                                                                 ISP A
                                                                                 ISP A
                                                         GGSN (A)                        ISP B
                                                                                         ISP B
MS                                             DNS
                                            DNS



                               SGSN                      GGSN (B)
                                            Backbone
                                            Backbone                                  Corp.
                                                                                      Corp.
                                   DNS                                               Network
                                                                                     Network


                   SGSN resolves an Access Point Name (APN) into the IP
                   SGSN resolves an Access Point Name (APN) into the IP
                   address for the GGSN connected to the target network
                    address for the GGSN connected to the target network
Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland      27               Mobility Applications Laboratory
Fixed or Dynamic IP Address Allocation

                                                                                     ISP
                                                                                     ISP
                                                      HLR
                                                                                    RADIUS


             BTS                 BSC
                                            SGSN                    GGSN
                                                      Backbone
                                                      Backbone



MS
              lFixed: IP address stored in the HLR
               lFixed: IP address stored in the HLR
              lDynamic: A set of IP addresses                                       Corp.
                                                                                    Corp.
               lDynamic: A set of IP addresses
                                                                                   Network
                                                                                   Network
               are allocated to the GGSN domain
                are allocated to the GGSN domain
              lDynamic: IP address can be allocated
               lDynamic: IP address can be allocated
               by external RADIUS
                by external RADIUS

Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland      28                Mobility Applications Laboratory
Authentication in GPRS – Remote Authentication Dial In
User Service (RADIUS)
                                                                                      ISP
                                                                                      ISP
                                                        HLR                          RADIUS
                                                                                     server

             BTS                 BSC                                GGSN
                                            SGSN
                                                       Backbone
                                                       Backbone        RADIUS
                                                                       client
                                                                                          Accept
                                                                                          / Reject
       PAP/CHAP
MS

                    lRADIUS server is used primarily for authentication
                     lRADIUS server is used primarily for authentication
                    lIP address allocation is optional
                     lIP address allocation is optional
                    lRADIUS server validates PAP/CHAP sent from MS and
                     lRADIUS server validates PAP/CHAP sent from MS and
                     returns Access -Accept/-Reject
                      returns Access -Accept/-Reject

Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland      29                 Mobility Applications Laboratory
Transmission Plane in GPRS


 Application


  IP / X.25                                                                        IP / X.25

  SNDCP                                             SNDCP         GTP                GTP
                                                                  UDP/               UDP/
    LLC                                                  LLC                         TCP
                                                                  TCP
    RLC                    RLC        BSSGP          BSSGP            IP               IP
                                       Frame             Frame
    MAC                    MAC                                        L2              L2
                                       Relay             Relay

  GSM RF                 GSM RF        L1bis             L1bis        L1              L1

     MS                          BSS                           SGSN                 GGSN        Gi
                Um                             Gb                          Gn




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland           30                     Mobility Applications Laboratory
Interaction of GPRS services with CS connections


      •• Class A:
         Class A:
         Simultaneous usage of Circuit- and Packet switched
         Simultaneous usage of Circuit- and Packet switched
         services (two TRX).
         services (two TRX).
      •• Class B:
          Class B:
         Automatic choice of service, Circuit- or Packet switched,
          Automatic choice of service, Circuit- or Packet switched,
         but only one at a time (one TRX). Suspension/resumption
         but only one at a time (one TRX). Suspension/resumption
         of GPRS services at setup/release of CS connection.
         of GPRS services at setup/release of CS connection.
      •• Class C:
          Class C:
         Manually selected use of either Circuit- or Packet switched
         Manually selected use of either Circuit- or Packet switched
         service. Special case is a packet only MS (one TRX).
         service. Special case is a packet only MS (one TRX).



Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   31      Mobility Applications Laboratory
   GPRS High-Level Functions


                  • Network Access Control Functions

                  • Packet Routing and Transfer

                  • Mobility Management

                  • Logical Link Management

                  • Radio Resource Management

                  • Network Management




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   32         Mobility Applications Laboratory
  Packet Routing and Transfer


                  • Routing

                  • Address Translation

                  • Encapsulation and Tunneling

                  • Compression

                  • Ciphering




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   33    Mobility Applications Laboratory
  Mobility Management


                  • Attach

                  • Detach

                  • Location Management procedures
                        • Cell Update
                        • Routing Area Update

                  • Security functions




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   34       Mobility Applications Laboratory
                 Mobility Management “State Diagram”


                                                    IDLE

                                            GPRS Attach              GPRS Detach
                                                                     or
                                                                     Cancel Location

              Periodic Supervision
                Timer Expiration
                                                   READY
                       or
                Cancel Location             READY Timer Expiration
                                                      or
                                              Force to STANDBY       PDU Reception
                                                      or
                                            Abnormal RLC condition


                                                 STANDBY




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                  35                  Mobility Applications Laboratory
EDGE

- Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution -




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   36   Mobility Applications Laboratory
EDGE Modulation Principle
            Currently:                                    EDGE:
          GMSK Modulation                             8PSK Modulation
                              Q                                  (0,1,0)   Q
                                                       (0,0,0)                     (0,1,1)
                      “1”
                                            I                                          I
                                                     (0,0,1)                          (1,1,1)
                                “0”
                                                       (1,0,1)                     (1,1,0)

                                                                 (1,0,0)




          “1 bit per symbol”                          “3 bits per symbol”

Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland       37                         Mobility Applications Laboratory
 Comparison of Data Rates

       GPRS                                            EGPRS

                                                    MCS9 = 59.2 kbps
                                                    MCS8 = 54.4 kbps
                              8PSK modulated        MCS7 = 44.8 kbps
                                                    MCS6 = 29.6 kbps
                                                    MCS5 = 22.4 kbps

CS4 = 20.0 kbps                         Note:       MCS4 = 16.8 kbps
CS3 = 14.4 kbps                     Both GMSK       MCS3 = 14.8 kbps
CS2 = 12.0 kbps                    modulated but    MCS2 = 11.2 kbps
CS1 = 8.0 kbps                     not the same !   MCS1 = 8.4 kbps

 Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland     38           Mobility Applications Laboratory
      EDGE Link Adaptation

      Data rates

                                                  With EDGE
                                                  Standard GSM




                                                         Signal
                  Good                           Bad     quality


Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   39         Mobility Applications Laboratory
  Universal Mobile Telecommunication
                System


                                            UMTS


Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland     40   Mobility Applications Laboratory
Standardization Bodies




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   41   Mobility Applications Laboratory
3G Systems

                                                   CDMA technique
                                                   Two modes: FDD or TDD
                                            UMTS
                                                   Europe - 3GPP
                                        (WCDMA)
                                                   (South Korea, Japan, USA)

IMT-2000                                                CDMA technique
                                            Cdma2000    USA, South Korea
                                                        3GPP2

                                                   TDMA technique
                                            EDGE   USA (Europe)
                                                   TIA (ETSI)


Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland          42                 Mobility Applications Laboratory
UMTS Spectrum Division Europe

                  Frequency Division Duplex; 2x60 MHz
                  UTRA Paired Band: WCDMA
                  Uplink:     1920-1980 MHz
                  Downlink:   2110-2170 MHz



TDD
                  FDD             MSS TDD                         FDD         MSS
                                                                                           f
                                                                                           MHz
 1900             1950             2000     2050        2100       2150            2200

Time Division Duplex                               Mobile Satellite Service; 2x30 MHz
UTRA Unpaired Band: TD-CDMA                        Uplink:   1980-2010 MHz
1900-1920 MHz and 2010-2025 MHZ                    Downlink: 2170-2200 MHz

Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland          43                Mobility Applications Laboratory
UMTS/GSM Reference model
        UE                       AN                              CN
                                                         MSC
                                                         MSC     SCF
                                                                  SCF                          External
                                                                                               Networks
                                                                               GMSC
                                                                                GMSC
                                  BSS
SIM       MT              BTS                      A
 SIM      MT                                BSC          MSC
                                                         MSC                                   ISDN
                                                                        HLR
                                                                         HLR        AUC
                                                                                     AUC       PSTN
                                                    Iu
                                                                                               PSPDN
                                                                        SMS-
                                                                         SMS-                  CSPDN
                                                         EIR
                                                          EIR           GMSC                   PDN:
                                                                         GMSC
                                  RNS                                                          -Intranet
                                                    Gb                   SMS-
                                                                          SMS-                 -Extranet
USIM
 USIM     ME
          ME              BS                                            IWMSC                  -Internet
                                            RNC                          IWMSC
                                                   Iu    SGSN
                                                          SGSN
                                             Iur                               GGSN
                                                                                GGSN
                                  RNS
USIM
 USIM      ME
           ME             BS                RNC
                                                         SGSN            Note:
                                                          SGSN           Not all interfaces
                       UTRAN                                             shown and named
Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland               44                     Mobility Applications Laboratory
  WCDMA
  Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

lHigh data rates in 5 MHz
     – 384 kbps with wide-area coverage
     – 2 Mbps with local coverage

lHigh service flexibility
     – support for services with variable rate
     – support for simultaneous services
     – support of multiple parallel variable-rate
         services on one connection
     – packet and circuit switched services


lFast and efficient packet access

lHigher capacity
  Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland         45   Mobility Applications Laboratory
       WCDMA
       Technical characteristics

  l   5 MHz carriers                            lOptimised packet access on common or
  l   Frequency Division Duplex, FDD             dedicated channel
  l   3.84 Mcps chip rate                       lHigh spectrum effiency
  l   Variable spreading codes




                                                                                          P
         f




4.4-5.0 MHz
                                                                                           t
                                                                  10 ms frame


    Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland      46                 Mobility Applications Laboratory
                       Why Spread Spectrum ?
        Frequency selective fading - Frequency Diversity

        Interference Averaging




           Channel                          Channel
           Quality                          Quality




                                            f                               f



Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland       47         Mobility Applications Laboratory
           Bit-rate Flexibility
WCDMA variability principle:




                                                                         Spreading factor
Power is the common
shared physical resource




                                                                         Power level
Bit rate




                        Varying                        Translates into           w Varying power level
                      user bit rate                                              w Varying spreading factor

           Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland             48                         Mobility Applications Laboratory
              Power Control


  l What?
         – The Transmitter adapts the output power according to Path Loss
  l Why?
         – Mainly to solve the “Near-Far” problem
         – Goal is that all users should experience the same SIR
  l How?
         – Open Loop Power control (Initially, No signaling)
         – Inner Loop Power control (Signaling channel, continuously: 1500
           times/s, relative changes: up or down)
         – Outer loop Power control (Between BTS and RNC)




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   49                Mobility Applications Laboratory
Uplink Power Control in Soft Handover

BS1                                                                                                            BS2
                                                      PMS



              UP/DOWN                                                                 UP/DOWN
              Command                                                                 Command

                                                     Outer loop:
                                                      FER/”BER”
Down + Down
                                                                                        Decrease power
Down + Up                          Ul Eb/No target                    QoS target

Up + Up                                                                                 Increase power
                                                      Adjust target

 Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                     50                  Mobility Applications Laboratory
                                                       Technical Vision
                                Vertical vs Horizontal Integration
             Today’s Solutions                                              Future Solutions
                       Services

                                                                             Services/Applications
                                    Data/IP Networks
                    PSTN/ISDN




                                                                                PSTN/ISDN




                                                                                                  Networks
                                                                                                   Data/IP
      PLMN




                                                                     PLMN
                                                         CATV




                                                                                                                 CATV
                                                                                     Connectivity



Access Transport & Switching Networks

    Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                   51                          Mobility Applications Laboratory
  Connectivity Layer

Services/                                     Service Capability Servers                   Application
application            Application                                                          Servers
layer                   Servers


                     MSC SGSN                                   HLR/AuC/FNR   GMSC/Transit
                    Server Server                                              Server
                                                                                      SGW
                                                     Control

                                                                                                     PSTN/
                                                                                                     ISDN
               MGW
                                                   Connectivity
                                                                                                   Internet
                                                                                      MGW
  GSM                                                                                              Intranets
     EDGE
                WCDMA

                                                                                                Control
                                                                                                User data
  Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                52                   Mobility Applications Laboratory
                                            And beyond?




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland         53      Mobility Applications Laboratory
The future Telecommunication Environment is Multi-Access




                          Mobile
  Always Best    Nomadic
   Connected
                 Digital
       to
                 Broadcasting
    Common
  Personal and
     Secure     Fixed Wireless
    Services                                       PAN
               Fixed




  Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland   54   Mobility Applications Laboratory
Capabilities of IMT-2000 and Systems Beyond
                                       Systems Beyond IMT-2000 will
                                       encompass the capabilities of
                                       previous systems
                Mobility
                                                                                                       New Capabilities
                                                                                                       Of Systems Beyond
                                                                                                       IMT-2000


          High                                                                 New
                                                                               Mobile                                          Dashed line indicates
                                                Enhanced                                                                       that the exact data
                           IMT-2000                                            Access                                          rates associated      with
                                                 IMT-2000
                                                                                                                               Systems Beyond are
                                                                                                                               not yet determined.
                                     Enhancement




                                                                                   New Nomadic / Local
           Low
                                                                                    Area Wireless Access


                              1                                 10                           100                                1000
                                                              Peak Useful Data Rate (Mb/s)


         KEY:                denotes interconnection between systems via networks or the like, which allows
                             flexible use in any environments without making users aware of constituent systems.

                                  Nomadic / Local Area Access Systems                              Digital Broadcast Systems




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland                                          55                                          Mobility Applications Laboratory
                                            Questions?




Ralf Keller, Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland         56     Mobility Applications Laboratory

				
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posted:3/12/2012
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Description: this papaer explain about GSM to UMTS, phone generation