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HIS 112 Chapter 23

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					HIS 112
Chapter 23

    From Roosevelt to Wilson in
     the Age of Progressivism
Progressivism

 Reform movement that politically tried
 to find solutions to problems of the
 cities, states, and the nation
 Used experts
 Some examined a person’s
 environment and tried to explain how
 the environment influenced human
 development
Culturally, artists were inspired to take a
fresh look at their world as well
Progressives wanted to humanize and
regulate the work place
Wanted businesses to change their ways
voluntarily; if not, then laws could be
passed
Progressives had their own pet projects --
ridding U.S. of prostitution and
drunkeness
Rise of Professional Associations
and Societies
 400 formed between 1890 and 1920
 These associations tried to set
 standards for individual professions
 and have them accepted by law
 Examples:
   American Medical Association (AMA)
     Set up educational requirements and
     minimum standards
Bar Association created examining
boards for lawyers
National Education Association, 1905,
created a teacher certification program
National Association of Settlements
begun by social workers in 1911
National Association of Manufacturers,
1895
U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 1912
By working as individuals and as part
of a group, these educated
professionals had an impact on
society
Social-Justice Movement
 Social-Justice movement begun by
 social workers and lawyers
 They wanted
   Child labor laws
   Better working conditions for women
   Improved housing
   Better parks
   More playgrounds
   Nursery schools
They pressured government agencies
to get things done
Had conferences and put out the
magazine Survey to present a
comprehensive program of reform
Purity Crusade

 Those wishing to remove the evils of
 drink from American society
   Women’s Christian Temperance Union,
   WTCU formed in the 1870s joined
   The Anti-Saloon League in 1893 to
   abolish alcohol
  By 1916, 19 states were dry; however,
   these groups worked for a national law
They got it finally with the 18th
Amendment or the Volstead Act that
took effect in January of 1920
  It prohibited the manufacture, sale, and
  transportation of intoxicating liquors
  It was known as Prohibition
  It did not work
Those who worked to get rid of
prostitution had limited success
  1910 – The Mann Act stated that one
  could not take a girl over state lines for
  illicit purposes
  1915 – most states banned brothels
Women’s Suffrage

 Women were active in society
 Women were getting college
 educations ; 5,000/year after 1900
 Many worked to help women and
 children
 Many became involved with women’s
 suffrage because they wished to
 influence elected officials
To portray a united front, 2 women’s
suffrage groups joined together
  The National Woman Suffrage
  Association
  And the American Woman Suffrage
  Association

By 1910, women could vote only in
 Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, & Idaho
19th Amendment
 Women get the right to vote
 Passed by Congress in 1919
 Ratified in 1920
 How?
   Through the efforts of Susan B. Anthony,
   Carrie Chapman Catt, Anna Howard
   Shaw, Alice Paul, and Lucy Burns
   Plus women’s active participation in war
   effort during World War I
Other Achievements of
Progressives
 They were successful on state level
 getting laws passed that limit the
 number of hours women could work
 Laws passed regulating child labor
 John Dewey re-shaped the way
 children were taught
   He emphasized personal growth, free
   inquiry, and creativity
Some judges, like Judge Ben Lindsey,
believed a child’s environment could him
into crime, so he sentenced child offenders
to education and good care
Socialists following the teachings of Karl
Marx influenced the formation of the
American Socialist Party in 1877
  1901, Eugene Debs, its leader, ran for
  president in 1900, 1904, & 1908 and got many
  votes but not enough
Progressives pressed for more
education, mental institutions, and
jails
Maryland passed the first workers’
compensation law in 1902
By 1916, 2/3 of all states insisted on
insurance for victims of factory
accidents
Cities worked to eliminate corruption
Robert M. La Follette

 Reform governor of Wisconsin
 Served 3 terms in Congress in 1880s
 1901 became governor of Wisconsin
 Created the “Wisconsin Idea”
   Asked academics to come up with new
   solutions to old problems
   Set up an industrial commission to
   regulate factory safety and sanitation
Improved education
Adopted workmen’s compensation
Practiced resource conservation
Lowered railroad rates and raised
railroad taxes
Started a state income tax
Theodore Roosevelt (g. 1901-1908)

 Became president after the
 assassination of Robert McKinley
 Had been vice president
 Was a progressive
 Rich
 Spent time in west when young to
 regain his health
Was a N.Y. State Assemblyman, N.Y. City
Police Commissioner, U.S. Civil Service
Commissioner, N.Y. Governor, Vice
President of U.S.
Fought in Spanish-American War in Cuba,
Rough Riders
Brought new energy to the White House
Enlarged the office of Presidency that
affected the balance of power
Settled strikes and defended worker’s
right to organize
Felt corporate behavior should be
regulated
Broke trusts and monopolies but
didn’t wish to destroy corporations
Won the presidential election of 1904
Got Hepburn Act passed in1906 that
gave ICC more authority
Got Elkins Act passed in 1903 that
stiffened penalties against railroad
rebates to favorite shippers
Read The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
and got the Pure Food and Drug Act
and the Meat Inspection Act passed
in 1906
Backed some opportunities for black
Americans
Denounced lynching
Had Booker T. Washington visit the
White House
Conservation
 Teddy Roosevelt appointed Gifford Pinchot
 as the nation’s first professional forester
 1905, Pinchot was named head of the new
 U.S. Forest Service
 Pinchot was for conservation, the wise use
 of natural resources
 Although Roosevelt was more of a
 preservationist, he went along with Pinchot
 Preservation – let it alone, don’t touch
 nature
Pinchot and Roosevelt were for the
planned , regulated use of the
nation’s forests for public and
commercial purposes
T. Roosevelt supported the National
Reclamation Act of 1902
  This earmarked money from the sale of
  public lands for water management in
  the southwest; set up The Reclamation
  Service to plan irrigation projects
T. Roosevelt set aside 200 million
acres of public land as national
forests, mineral reserves, and
potential water power sites
Roosevelt created 53 wildlife
reserves, 16 national monuments,
and 5 new national parks
This helped the public to think about
the environment
Election of 1908

 Roosevelt refused to run
 It was William Howard Taft (R) vs.
 William Jennings Bryan (D)
 Taft won
 As President Taft:
   Approved a conservative tariff bill
   Abandoned reformers in the House
   Fires Gifford Pinchot
Taft lost the support of the
progressives
Roosevelt was sorry he’d
recommended Taft as a presidential
candidate
Roosevelt was so disappointed that
he challenged Taft in the 1912
election as the candidate of the
newly- formed Bull Moose Party
Election of 1912

 William Howard Taft (R)
 Woodrow Wilson (D)
 Theodore Roosevelt (Bull Moose)
 Eugene Debs (Socialist)

 Woodrow Wilson was the winner
Woodrow Wilson

 An academic who taught history at
 Princeton
 President of Princeton
 Governor of New Jersey
 Son of a minister
 Felt monopolies should be broken
 and there should be an open
 marketplace
Wished to protect and regulate
business
Supported
  Clayton Anti-Trust Act that outlawed
  quasi-monopolistic practices such as
  price discrimination
  Federal Trade Commission investigated
  corporations and issued cease and
  desist orders against unfair trade
  practices
Federal Reserve Act of 1913 established
a centralized banking system with
control over the amount of money in
circulation
Underwood Tariff of 1913 promoted free
competition by drastically reducing or
eliminating tariff duties; it also introduced
the graduated income tax
Wilson also won the election of 1916
His slogan was he kept out of war
meaning World War I that began in
Europe in 1914; however, we entered
the war in 1917
Progressive Era in Perspective
 The material comforts enjoyed by the large
 majority of Americans meant that reform
 couldn’t be sustained indefinitely
 Opposition to reform weakened the impact
 of many progressive initiatives
 Progressives did refashion the American
 way of thing and it challenged the old ways
 of approaching problems to the nation

				
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