MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER MANAGEMENT

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MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER MANAGEMENT Powered By Docstoc
					                       Republic of the Sudan
      Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR)
          Wildlife Conservation General Administration (WCGA)




           UNDP/GEF Project SUD/98/G41
                 and SUD 00/014


  MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER
        NATIONAL PARK
            SUDAN




Khartoum
Khartoum                               Sudan    2004
   MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER NATIONAL PARK SUDAN                                     2004




Sudanese task team members:

Prof. Gelal Eldin Eltayeb                      University of Khartoum
Prof. Asim El Moghraby                                SECS
Dr. Salwa Mansour Abdelhameed                  Director of Wildlife Research Centre
Col. Abdel Hafiz Osman Eljack                  DNP, HCENR / WCGA
Dr. Mutasim Bashir Nimir                       DNP, HCENR
Mr. Fraser Tong Knotwel                        University of Juba
Col. Khamis Adieng Ding                        Wildlife Force (WCGA)
Adil Mohammed Ali                              DNP, HCENR



UNDP consultant:
Prof. W. van Hoven
Center for Wildlife Management,
University of Pretoria, South Africa
vanhoven@ecolife.co.za


Acknowledgements:
The consultant of the project wishes to extend sincere thanks to all the members of the
taskteam , the UNDP, HCENR, WCGA, The Center for Wildlife Management,
University of Pretoria and the Tropical Game Commission of the CIC.



HCENR                                                 WCGA
Khartoum                                              Khartoum
P.O.Box10488                                          P O Box 336 Khartoum
Sudan                                                 Sudan
Telephone: 781479-784279                              Telephone: 281171-281174
Fax:787-617                                           E-mail:sudan/wildlife@yahoo.com
E-mail hcenr@sudanmail.net




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   MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER NATIONAL PARK SUDAN                     2004



                                 Table of Contents

Introduction                                                     1
A. Sudan Overview                                                2
      A.1.Population                                             2
      A.2 Economy                                                2
      A.3 National Strategy and Policy                           4
      A.4 Climate                                                5
      A.5 Geomorphology                                          9
        A.6: Soils                                               13
        A.6.1. Desert Soils                                      15
        A.6.2 Semi-Arid Soils                                    15
        A.6.3 Lateritic Soils                                    15
        A.6.4 Alluvial Soils                                     16
        A.6.5 Aeolian Soils                                      16
A.7 Natural Vegetation                                           17
A.8 Sudan Wildlife                                               18
      A.8.1 Resources and Laws                                   18
      A.8.2 Conservation Status in the Protected Areas           18
B. Dinder National Park                                          24
B.1 Introduction                                                 24
        B.1.1 Location                                           25
        B.1.2 Topography                                         25
        B.1.3 Climate                                            27
        B.1.4. History and Archaeology                           27
B.1.5 Soils                                                      29
        B.1.6 Water Resources                                    29
        B.1.7 Habitats and Ecosystems                            34
B.2 The Importance of the Park                                   39
B.3 Human Settlements                                            46
        B.3.1 Indigenous Community                               46
        B.3.2 Socio-Cultural and Demographic Setting             47
        B.3.3 Kujur (Myth)                                       47
        B.3.4 Land Use and Systems of Production                 49
        B.3.5 Livestock                                          49
        B.3.6 Impact on Natural Resources by Magano Population   50
        B.3.6.1 Hunting Activities                               50
        B.3.6.2 Energy                                           50
        B.3.6.3 Grazing of Livestock                             50
        B.3.6.4 Fire and Trees Felling                           50
        B.3.6.5 Dom Palm Leaves                                  51
B.4 Human Settlement Around the Park                             51
        B.4.1 Pastoralists – Nomadic Groups                      52
        B.4.2 Land-use (Agriculture-Livestock)                   52
B.5 Problems and Threats to the Ecosystems and Biodiversity      54


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   MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER NATIONAL PARK SUDAN                          2004


       B.5.1 Mechanized and Traditional Rain-fed Farming              54
       B.5.2 Hunting and Poaching                                     54
       B.5.3 Fishing                                                  58
       B.5.4 Honey Collection                                         58
       B.5.5 Tree-felling and Wood Collection                         58
       B.5.6 Non – Wood Products                                      59
       B.5.7 Livestock Trespassing                                    59
       B.5.8 Fires                                                    60
B.6 MANAGEMENT STATUS                                                 60
       B.6.1 Administration and Other Related Governmental Issues     61
       B.6.2 Personnel                                                61
       B.6.3 The Existing Infrastructure and Facilities               61
       B.6.4 The Finance                                              61
  B.7 The Legislative Framework (Law enforcement)                     62
  B.8 Dinder National Park GEF Project Achievements and Limitations   64
C. The Management Plan                                                67
 C.1. Planning Philosophy and Approach                                67
 C.2 The Plan Objectives                                              68
 C.3 Planning method                                                  69
 C.4 The plan endorsement                                             69
 C.5 Zonation                                                         69
       C.5.1 The Core Zone (A)                                        69
       C.5.2 The Buffer Zone (B)                                      70
       C.5.3 The Transitional Zone (C)                                71
       C.5.4 The Transfrontier or Peace Park Zone (D)                 72
C.6 Management Programs and Actions                                   72
       C.6.1. Protection and Conservation                             72
       C.6.2 The Headquarters Buildings and Facilities                75
       C.6.3 Patrolling System and Camel Patrols                      77
       C.6.4 Law Enforcement Anti-Poaching Unit                       77
       C.6.5 Communication System                                     77
C.7 Habitat and Wildlife Management                                   78
C.7.1 Management of Natural Ecosystems                                78
       C.7.2 Management of over-abundant population                   79
       C.7.3 Meteorological and hydrological Records                  80
       C.7.4 Mayas and Pools Management                               80
       C.7.5 Removal of Invaders                                      82
       C.7.6 Fire Management                                          83
       C.7.7 Range Improvement                                        84
       C.7.8 Re-seeding and Reforestation Programs                    85
       C.7.9 Watershed Management                                     85
       C.7.10 Wild Animals Inventory and Monitoring                   86
       C.7.11 Bird Monitoring                                         87
       C.7.12 Management of Rare and Endangered Animals               87
       C.7.13 Wildlife ranching and utilization                       88
       C.7.14 Sites of Special Consideration                          88


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   MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER NATIONAL PARK SUDAN                        2004


C.8 Administration                                                 88
C.9 The Proposed Park Administrative Structure                     89
C.10 Vehicles and Equipment                                        90
C.11 Training                                                      91
C.12 Camp Sites and Signposts                                      92
C.13 Public Relations, Education and Interpretation                92
      C.13.1 Public Relations                                      92
       C.13.2 Honesty and Truth in Deed and Statement              93
       C.13.3 Good Public Relations is a Prerequisite of Success   93
       C.13.4 Public Opinion is based on Culture and Environment   93
       C.13.5 Adequate Communication                               93
C.13.6 Tools in Public Relations                                   94
       C.13.7 Education                                            95
C.14 Socio-Economic Development                                    96
       C.14.1. Awareness and Community Development Activities      96
       C.14.2. Sustainable Use Natural Resources                   97
C.15 Research and Monitoring                                       98
       C.15.1 Institutional Linkages and coordination              99
C.15.2 Monitoring Programmes                                       99
       C.15.3 Basic studies programmes                             101
       C.15.4 Post – graduate studies                              102
       C.15.5 Documentation and dissemination activities           102
D. Five-Years Management Work Plan                                 102
D.1 Specific Activities in Specific Zones                          102
       D.1.1 Habitat Management                                    102
       D.1.2. Firebreaks                                           103
       D.1.3. Improvement of Wetlands Management                   103
D.2. Adaptive management and Evaluation                            104
D.3. Consultation and coordination                                 104
       D.3.1 Public Relations Unit                                 104
       D.3.2 Council of Park Stakeholders                          104
       D.3.3 National Body                                         104
D.4. Community-Based activities                                    105
       D.4.1 The activities and projects may include               105
       D.4.2 Proposed Community-based Programmes                   105
Bibliography                                                       116
Appendix 1                                                         126
Appendix 2                                                         130
Appendix 3                                                         131
Appendix 4                                                         136
Appendix 5                                                         138
Appendix 6                                                         144
Appendix 7                                                         148




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   MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER NATIONAL PARK SUDAN                          2004


                                      List of figures

Fig. 1a. Mean annual rainfall(mm) in Sudan                            7
Fig. 1b. Precipitation and evapotranspiration figures for Sudan       6
Fig. 2The geology of Sudan a                                          10
Fig. 2a Relief forms of Sudan                                         12
Fig. 3. The Soils of Sudan                                            14
Fig. 4. The Natural vegetation in Sudan                               17
Fig. 5. The game reserves and national parks in Sudan                 20
Fig. 6. Location map of Dinder National Park                          24
Fig. 7. The drainage system of the DNP                                32
Fig. 8. Migratory patterns of wildlife in DNP during the wet season   38
Fig. 9. Management zoning in DNP                                      70
Fig. 10. Map indicating proposal of four blocks                       76
Fig. 11. Schematic presentation of revitalizing Mayat Abdel Ghani     82




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   MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DINDER NATIONAL PARK SUDAN                    2004




                                      List of Tables

Table 1. Export of animals and animal products                  3
Table 2. Climatic zones in Sudan                                8
Table 3. Distribution of Protected Areas over Ecological Zone   19
Table 4. List of Sudan National Parks                           21
Table 5. List of Sudan Game Sanctuaries                         21
Table 6. List of Sudan Game Reserves                            21
Table 7. Proposed protected areas in the Sudan                  21
Table 8. Mean annual rainfall in Damazine, Gedaref and Dinder   26
Table 9. Summary of climatic characteristics in DNP             27
Table 10. Flow data of the Dinder and Rahad Rivers              30
Table 11. Road counts of wild animals in DNP, June 2002         42
Table 12. Counts of wild animals at pools in DNP, June 2002     43
Table 13. Estimated wildlife numbers in DNP                     44
Table 14. Road counts of wild animals in DNP, May 2001          45
Table 15 Livestock ownership among the Magano population        49
Table 16. Crop statistics of the 2000 season                    53
Table 17. Agricultural land and household owners 2001           53
Table 18a. Number of law violations committed by Rahad
           villagers in DNP                                     55
Table 18b.Illigal activities since 1990                         65
Table 19. Wild plants and fruits used as medication             59
Table 20. The training status of the officers                   61
Table 21. Wildlife personnel training                           66
Table 22. Local people training                                 66
Table 23. Five year action plan, US$ budget                     112




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